فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:19 Issue: 12, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/09/06
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Abbas Rezaianzadeh, Hamid Reza Tabatabaei, Zahra Amiri *, Mehdi Sharafi Page 1
    Background

    Constipation is a common problem among children. This study aimed to identify the factors related to the duration of chronic functional constipation.

    Methods

    The study was conducted on 826 children with chronic functional constipation referring to a pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) clinic in Fars province. The inclusion criteria of the study were suffering from constipation not due to anatomical (Hirschsprung’s disease and spinal disease) and organic reasons (non-functional constipation), not suffering from other systemic disorders (hypothyroidism and psychomotor retardation), not having the history of prior anal surgery, and not using drugs inducing constipation. The data were analyzed using a linear regression analysis.

    Results

    This study was performed on 826 children with chronic functional constipation with the mean age of 4.98 + 2.74 years. Among the study children, 418 (50.6%) were boys. Based on the results of multivariate linear regression analysis, the duration of chronic constipation was related to children’s age (B = 0.695 [P < 0.001]), intervals between defecations (B = 0.158 [P = 0.036]), age at the onset of defecation control (B = 0.15 [P = 0.050]), intervals of cereals consumption (B = 0.345 [P < 0.001]), and mother’s education level (B = 0.283 [P = 0.001]). Accordingly, every year increase in children’s age was accompanied by 8.5 months of constipation. In addition, every unit increase in the consumption of cereals during the week (every day, three days a week, once a week, and rarely) caused a four-month increase in chronic constipation.

    Conclusions

    With increasing age, children need parental care to prevent the occurrence of chronic constipation. Moreover, increasing interest in video games has been accompanied by a decrease in physical activity, which requires more attention from parents

    Keywords: Functional Constipation, Children, Regression Analysis
  • Shahla Asiri , Fatemeh Mahmoudi , * , Afsaneh Pasha , Ehsan Kazemnezhad Leyli Page 2
    Background
    Elderly people are more susceptible to common chronic diseases based on their age-related physiological changes and also use drugs more commonly, than younger people.
    Objectives
    The aim of the present study was to determine the pattern of drug use and related factors in elderly people who referred to the retirement centers covered by the national retirement fund in Rasht.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 381 consecutive randomly selected elderly people in Rasht during 2017. Data was collected using a questionnaire that included demographic characteristics, common chronic diseases, pattern of drug use, and medication adherence by face-to-face interviewing at the centers covered by the retirement fund. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests.
    Results
    Of 381 people, 88.5% took drugs. The average number of drugs used and the self-medication frequency were 3.95 per day, and 35.7%, respectively. The most common causes of self-medication included previous use of the same drug and symptom recovery. The most commonly used drug group among the research groups included lipid-lowering agents (48.8%). Atorvastatin, Aspirin, and Losartan were the most commonly used drugs in the elderly that most of subjects (53.4%) had medium medication adherence.
    Conclusions
    Since the elderly suffer from multiple diseases simultaneously, they often use several drugs. Therefore, self-medication and also medication adherence are the most important issues in this period. Educational interventions on the proper pattern of drug use among older people seem to be necessary
    Keywords: Drug Utilization, Elderly, Self-Medication, Medication Adherence
  • Masoomeh Darvishvand, Seyedeh Marzieh Rahebi, Zahra Bostani Khalesi * Page 3
    Objectives

    The present study aimed at identifying factors associated with MIA.

    Methods

    This systematic review has been developed based on the PRISMA checklist. The researchers conducted this study using English databases (Web of Science, HSRProj, CINAHL, MEDLINE, HMIC, NCJRS, Child Data, IBSS) for English related documents and Persian databases (SID, Magiran, Iran Medex, Google Scholar and Iran Doc) for Persian related documents, from August 1990 to May 2018.

    Results

    Out of 137 published documents, 27 studies met the inclusion criteria. Factors influencing MIA were divided to two categories: Maternal factors (age, education level, job, income, place of residence, psychosocial support, marital satisfaction, psychological disorders, single parenting, number of children, number of pregnancies, unplanned pregnancy, high risk pregnancy, level of attachment to the fetus during pregnancy, type of delivery, educational attainment, rooming‐in, skin-to-skin contact, effective communication, mother’s perceptions of her infant, involvement in caring for the newborn, early initiation of breastfeeding, and oxytocin concentration) and infancy factors (health problems, prematurity, infant gender, and infancy moods).

    Conclusions

    Guided by the study results it could be elaborated that MIA is significantly associated with several maternal and infant-related factors. In light of the study results, it is recommended that health care providers should assess mothers and their infants for their attachment behaviors and allocate more time to educate them about the attachment process and how to accomplish it

    Keywords: Mother, Infant, Attachment
  • Mehdi Jahangiri, Sanaz Ghaedi, Sedigheh Dianatkhah, Samira Khademi, Soheil Hassanipour, Mojtaba Kamalinia, Mahdi Malakoutikhah * Page 4
    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to assess the risk of safety and health in mosques in Shiraz, Iran.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 131 mosques in Shiraz. The safety status was assessed using a self-made audit checklist consisting of 48 items in 6 safety dimensions including housekeeping, heating and cooling systems, environmental health, building safety, electrical safety, and fire safety and emergency response. Each item the checklist was assigned, one of the correct, incorrect, and unobserved responses, and finally the overall score of the mosque safety index (MSI) was calculated as the percentage of correct items per total observed cases.

    Results

    The average of mosques safety index was calculated to be 66 ± 9.59% in all mosques. The highest and lowest safety indexes were 91.7 ± 11.33% for building safety and 28.9 ± 12.4% for fire safety as well as emergency response, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference among the studied mosques in the four urban regions, in terms of mosques safety index.

    Conclusions

    The results of this study indicated the need to inform the authorities about the safety priorities of safety promotions in mosques

    Keywords: Mosque, Safety, Mosque Safety Index, Urban Safety
  • Mohammad Mahdi Parvizi , * , Majid Nimrouzi , * , Mehdi Pasalar , Alireza Salehi , Mahdie Hajimonfarednejad , Fatemeh Amini , Reza Mousavi Shirazi , Pyruz Rezaie Page 5
     
    Background
    Personality and personality disorders are important in psychology. In addition, mizaj is a key concept of Persian medicine, according to which, it can affect the personality of the staff of an organizations.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to find the relationship between personality types based on NEO-FFI questionnaire, and mizaj, based on the knowledge of Persian medicine.
    Methods
    This is a cross-sectional descriptive analytical study. The participants were selected from 20 - 40-year-old staff of the medical school of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences through 2016. Mojahadi’s questionnaire, including 10 questions based on three-point Likert scale for the assessment of the mizaj as well as the NEO-FFI questionnaire, which includes 60 questions based on five-point Likert scale for the assessment of personality type were used in this study. SPSS 18 was performed for analyzing the data.
    Results
    Overall, 112 staff members, including 20 men (17.9%) and 92 women (82.1%) enrolled in the study. The mean age of the participants was 32.29 ± 5.10 years. In this study, neuroticism was positively related with hot temperament (P = 0.02). However, there was no statistically significant relationship between other aspects of temperament and personality (P > 0.05).
    Conclusions
    The correlation of hot temperament and neuroticism is in line with the concept of Persian medicine. However, more research is needed to reveal more aspects of the relationship between temperament and personality.
    Keywords: Personality, Persian Medicine, Temperament
  • Fatemeh Ekrami, Mojghan Mirghafourvand *, Shahla Farzipour Page 6

     

    Background

    Today, genital cosmetic surgery (GCS) is rapidly expanding and applicants for this kind of surgery are increasing. The objective of this study was to compare mental disorder and self-esteem among female applicants and non-applicants for GCS.

    Methods

    This is a case-control study and participants included 163 women of reproductive age, 83 of whom applied for GCS (case group) and 80 did not (control group). The participants were selected from the specialized obstetrics and gynecology clinic of Alavi Hospital in Ardabil, Iran using a convenient sampling method. Women were examined for pelvic prolapse in both groups. Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used for measuring self-esteem and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) was used as a screening tool for mental health.

    Results

    There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the mean mental health score (P = 0.23). There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of the physical symptoms (P = 0.01) and depression (P = 0.003) subdomains of mental disorder. In addition, the women in the case group had significantly lower self-esteem than those in the control group (P = 0.001).

    Conclusions

    There is a significant difference in terms of physical symptoms and depression between the two groups. GCS applicant women have lower self-esteem compared to non-applicant women

    Keywords: Plastic Surgery, Esthetic Surgery, Female Genitalia, Self-Esteem, General Health
  • Zeinab Akbari , Mehdi Birjandi , Soheila Hasanvand , Shadi Abdi , Heshmatollah Asadi , Mohammad Hasan Imani, Nasab * Page 7
    Background
    Iran is in transition from tradition to modernity, and women employees are doubly laden with this transition. The assessment of lifestyle and its relationship with the general health of women working for universities (as the progressive organizations) can pave the way for designing and applying the ideas of health-promoting organizations.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to measure the relationship between health-promoting lifestyle and general health among women working in the public universities of Lorestan province, Iran.
    Methods
    This is a cross-sectional study. The statistical population consists of all the women working for Lorestan University and Lorestan University of Medical Sciences in 2016. The sampling method was stratified random. The instruments were the valid and reliable Health-Promoting Lifestyle and General Health questionnaires. The data were analyzed by means of the SPSS-20 software and tests such as Pearson’s Coefficient of Correlation, the Independent t-test, and regression models.
    Results
    The mean scores of women’s health-promoting lifestyle in Lorestan University of Medical Sciences and those of Lorestan University were respectively 51.92 ± 14.4 and 53.43 ± 12.7. The mean scores of women’s general health in above-mentioned universities were respectively 27.98 ± 13.51 and 26.42 ± 11.76. There was a significant correlation between the health-promoting lifestyle and the general health scores among the above-mentioned women (r = 0.45, P < 0.001).
    Conclusions
    Health-promoting lifestyle is a good predictor of general health among working women. Therefore, in order to promote general health among working women, it is recommended that their recruiting organizations provide the necessary regulations, facilities, and processes for their adoption of a health promoting lifestyle.
    Keywords: Health-Promoting Lifestyle, General Health, Self-Rated Health, Women, Iran