فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue: 4, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/09/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 16
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  • Maryam Vakil , Asadollahy , Mojtaba Keikha , Parinaz Poursafa , Roya Kelishadi , * Page 1
    Objective
    Height is a multifactorial characteristic affected by genetics, hormonal and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to systematically review the effects of environmental pollutants, chemical factors, and climate changes on children and adolescents’ height.
    Methods
    This study searched scientific databases including PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Scopus using key words such as “Environmental Pollution”, “Climate Change”, “Growth”, “Body Height”, “Child and adolescent development”, and their combination. By removing duplicates, relevant papers were selected in three phases. This review included studies that were conducted among children and adolescents up to the age of 18. After the quality assessment, data was extracted by a reviewer and rechecked by another one. The authors summarized information of 52 articles about the possible effects of environmental factors and climate change on height. Articles were divided to four categories, including air, soil, water pollutants, and climate changes.
    Results
    The evidence indicates that exposure to environmental pollutants have different effects on height growth; some of them, such as air pollution with lead, arsenic, fossil fuels and smoking, as well as exposure to nuclear radiation among children is associated with shorter stature, while exposure to some soil pollutants and airport noise did not have any effect on children’s height growth.
    Conclusions
    The current study proposes that exposure to some environmental pollutants and chemicals during childhood and puberty might have negative effects on height growth. Therefore, various interventions are necessary for reducing the production of these pollutants and the exposure of growing children to these environmental factors.
    Keywords: Environment, Height, Chemicals
  • Marzieh Honarbakhsh , Mehdi Jahangiri , * , Haleh Ghaem , Mohammad Ghorbani , Fatemeh Omidvari , Maryam Amiri Khorasani , Fatemeh Shabani Page 2
    Background
    How tight fitting respirators fit on the users face is an important factor in their effectiveness.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to investigate the qualitative fitting of N95/FFP2 respirators among Health Care Workers (HCWs) in six educational hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
    Methods
    This cross - sectional study was carried out on 284 HCWs. They were using medium size respirators of flat - fold FFP2 (3M - model; 8222 and SPC - model; 8226) and cup - shaped N95 respirators (3M - model; 8210). At first, a medical evaluation questionnaire was completed by all employees. Qualitative fit testing was performed by JSP kit (Oxford, England). Critical face anthropometric dimensions in fitting of respirators were measured using sliding caliper. All data analysis was performed with SPSS version 21 and STATA 13.
    Results
    In this study, only 10.6% of the participants passed the qualitative fit test. Cup - shaped respirators had better fitting compared to flat - fold respirators. A total of 10.2% of the individuals who were using N95 respirators were not medically competent to wear a respirator. Most individuals who passed the fit test were placed in the medium cell (10%) of fit testing NIOSH Bivariate panel.
    Conclusions
    Studied medium size of N95/FFP2 respirators could not provide proper fitting on the face of Iranian HCWs. More studies with different sizes and models of available respirators in the Iran market is required to find the most appropriate respirators to provide proper fit on Iranian HCWs
    Keywords: Respirator, Anthropometry, Medical Evaluation
  • Nooshin Salimi , Akram Karimi, Shahanjarini , * , Seyed Mohammad Mahdi Hazavehei , Ghodratollah Roshanaei Page 3
    Objectives
    Breakfast is the most important meal of the day and plays an important role in the physical and mental health of students. Young people, especially girls, frequently skip breakfast. One of the best theories that have been used successfully in various nutritional behaviors, such as breakfast consumption, is the social cognitive theory (SCT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of training intervention based on (SCT) increase breakfast consumption among female students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences.
    Methods
    In this quasi-experimental study, 100 female students living in two dormitories of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences allocated into two groups by using cluster sampling (control = 50 / intervention = 50) in 2014. The intervention group received 3 sessions, booklet, poster, and 3 cell phone SMS reminders. Measures included the constructs of SCT and consumption of breakfast during the past week. All participants completed questionnaires before, 10 days, and 4 months after the last session. Data was analyzed using the 16 SPSS software and based on independent t-test, paired t-test, Chi-square test, and repeated measures analysis. The significance level was considered (0.05).
    Results
    At first, there were no significant differences between groups for demographic data and outcome variables (i.e.; constructs of SCT and behavior). The results showed that interventions led to increase breakfast consumption and improve scores of social cognitive theory structures in the intervention group. Also, in both follow up assessments, the level of knowledge, outcome expectancies, social support, self-efficacy, and frequency of breakfast consumption in the intervention group significantly increased (P < 0.001) compared with the control group. However, there were no differences between the two groups in terms of outcome expectations (P = 0.750) and observational learning (P = 0.427).
    Conclusions
    This study supports the assumption that SCT-based interventions create a significant increase in breakfast consumption. Due to the effectiveness and low cost of this intervention, it seems that the extension of this program can lead to the increase in the frequency of breakfast consumption among students.
    Keywords: Breakfast, Social Cognitive Theory, Female Students
  • Seyed Ali Sajjadi, Damon Ketabi, Fatemeh Joulaei * Page 4
    Background

    Fungi are ubiquitous in indoor environments and are responsible for a wide range of infections in immunocompromised patients.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to determine the type and amount of fungal contamination in an organ transplantation hospital in Mashhad.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, 96 samples were taken from three operating theatres, hemodialysis wards for women and men, kidney and liver transplant wards, and intensive care unit (ICU) of an organ transplant hospital of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Air samples were taken according to the NIOSH standard instructions and Anderson procedure with a flow rate of 28.3 L per two minutes on sabarose dextrose agar media.

    Results

    Among the five wards, liver transplantation was the least contaminated of fungal concentration in indoor air (5.53 ± 4.08 CFU/m3). Indoor fungal were observed, women’s hemodialysis (9.01 ± 5.57 CFU/m3), kidney transplantation (9.70 ± 5.99 CFU/m3), ICU (11.09 ± 4.12 CFU/m3), and men’s hemodialysis (11.78 ± 8.31 CFU/m3), respectively. The most important fungal contaminations in operating theatres respectively was related to Aspergillus and Penicillium.

    Conclusions

    The mean of fungal contamination in operating theatres and wards was compared with the European union good manufacturing practices guideline (EU GMP). Concentration of fungal in the hospital was in class B (clean state). However, due to the high sensitivity of transplantation recipients and immunocompromised patients to nosocomial fungal infections, the periodic surveys of the hospitals, environmental controls, and using an efficient ventilation system are necessary

    Keywords: Aspergillus, Organ Transplantation, Nosocomial Infections, Bioaerosol
  • Laleh Soleimani , Farkhondeh Amin Shokravi , * , Sedigheh Sadat Tavafian , Mohammad Gholami Fesharaki Page 5
    Background
    Situational temptations are important key points for smoking cessation. However, temptation to engage in smoking across different situations is yet challenging. In Iran, there is no measurement to assess situational temptations among workers.
    Objectives
    The current study aimed at psychometrically evaluating the short form of situational temptations scale for smoking cessation based on transtheoretical model.
    Methods
    By stratified random sampling method, 218 male current smoking automobile factory workers were selected and assessed through the short form of situational temptation scale. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and Cronbach’s alpha were applied.
    Results
    The mean age of the workers was 30.52 ± 6.66 years. CVI and CVR of each question were > 0.71. The result of EFA with principal component approach showed 1 factor with 45% cumulative variance and KMO was 91%, which were the good fit index in CFA. In the area of CFA, the result showed REMSEA = 0.006, GFI = 0.973, AGFI = 0.955; P value = 0.452, which were the good fit index in CFA. The reliability was also confirmed with Cronbach’s alpha (α = 80.1%).
    Conclusions
    The current study approved the short form of situational temptation scale for smoke cessation. However, to ensure a reliable/valid instrument to realize smoking behaviors, doing more researches are recommended
    Keywords: Reliability, Validity, Smoking Cessation, Cigarette Smoking
  • Abooalfazl Azhdarpoor , * , Rabieh Hoseini , Mansooreh Dehghani Page 6
    Background
    Physical and chemical processes involved in wastewater treatment cause heavy metals that are present in raw sewage to accumulate in sludge, which limits utilization of sludge as a fertilizer. Large quantities of these metals negatively affect ecosystems and human health.
    Objectives
    The present study aimed to investigate the possibility of leaching heavy metals from wastewater sludge by bioleaching (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans), Fenton/bioleaching, and bioleaching/Fenton-like processes.
    Methods
    Bioleaching tests with iron concentrations of 1 - 4 g/L were carried out for 9 days. Combined Fenton/bioleaching and Bio-acidification/Fenton-like methods were also conducted with Fe2+ concentrations of 0.5 - 2 g/L and H2O2 concentrations of 0.25 - 1 g/L.
    Results
    The results showed that the bioleaching method with Fe2+ concentration of 2 g/L led to removal of 87.1% of zinc, 9% of cadmium, 69.9% of lead, and 69.9% of copper from sludge in 5 days. In the combined methods, the highest amount of removal was related to Fe2+ 2 g/L and H2O2 1 g/L in 2 days. Under these circumstances, 93% of Zn, 97.06% of Cd, 87% of Pb, and 94.5% of Cu in the bio-acidification/Fenton-like were removed.
    Conclusions
    The results suggested that in comparison to single Fenton and bioleaching methods, the combined methods consumed less hydrogen peroxide and did not require pH adjustment, thus, resulting in higher efficiency in the removal of heavy metals from sludge.
    Keywords: Sludge, Heavy Metals, Bioleaching, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Fenton
  • Seyed Ali Sajjadi , Afshin Ebrahimi , Mojtaba Kianmehr, Samira Salari , Majid Hashemi, SasanHedayati Zanganeh, Afsane Chavoshani Page 7
    Background
    Recently, increasing exposure to radiations such as ultraviolet (UV) and gamma has led to growing incidence of different types of cancer and damage to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Studies have shown that natural features such as latitude, elevation, weathering, local pollution, cloudy cover and earth surface play a remarkable role in distribution of UV and gamma radiations. In this regard, modeling and predicting UV and gamma rays distribution in each region is necessary.
    Objectives
    The purpose of this study was modeling environmental UV and gamma radiations in Gonabad city, Iran.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, for modeling environmental UV and gamma radiations, several stations in Gonabad city were selected. Distance between two stations was 5 km, and a total of 1800 samples were collected from the considered region. UV and gamma radiations were detected by radiometer and survey-meter, respectively. In the end, data were modeled by Kriging model in GIS 10.3 and MATLAB software programs and their relationships were analyzed by performing t-test and ANOVA in SPSS version 16.
    Results
    The predicted values for UV and gamma ranged from 0.03 to 1.829 Wm-2 and from 0.08 to 0.42 mSv, respectively. The highest UV and gamma doses were observed in the southwest region of Gonabad city. Minimum mean square error (MMSE) in GIS model related to UV and gamma were 0.24 and 0.02, respectively. Based on MATLAB, distribution of UV and gamma radiations showed high and low scattering, respectively, versus elevation and latitude. The most permanent weather condition for the measured UV and gamma radiations was sunny condition. Weather conditions had a significant (P < 0.001) and insignificant relationship (P > 0.001) with UV and gamma radiations, respectively.
    Conclusions
    Integration of Kriging and MATLAB models led to obtaining more valuable estimates and maps about distribution of UV and gamma radiations from solar and terrestrial resources and weather conditions in a large region. These models showed that the population residing in mountainous areas received higher doses of UV and gamma radiations.
    Keywords: Modeling, Elevation, Latitude, Weather Condition, Gonabad, Iran, Environmental Radiations
  • Ali Reza Asgari , Ramin Nabizadeh , Amir Hossein Mahvi , Simin Naseri , Mohammad Hadi Dehghani , Shahrokh Nazmara , Kamyar Yaghmaeian , * Page 8
    Background
    Oily acidic sludge (OAS) from re-refineries has a high concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), elements, and heavy metals.
    Objectives
    This research investigated the monitoring of elements during in-vessel composting of OAS with urban immature compost.
    Methods
    This experimental study was conducted as a batch mode in a plastic container (500 mL). The ratios of OAS to compost were 1:0 (as control), 1:5 to 100 (as dry basis) at a C:N:P ratio of 100:5:1, and with 45% - 65% moisture content for 70 days. The elements Zn, Cu, Fe, Mo, B, Mn, Al, Pb, Cr, Sn, Ni, Li, V, As, Cd, Co, and Hg were monitored every week.
    Results
    The highest and lowest total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removals were observed in mixing ratios of 1:5 (71.6%) and 1:100 (48.6%), respectively. The amount of Zn, Cu, Fe, Al, and B in OAS was very high. Element analyses after mixing OAS with immature compost showed that the initial concentrations of the elements had decreased. ANOVA test results showed that the changes in time were not effective on the average concentrations of elements (P = 0.99).
    Conclusions
    According to the obtained results, the mixing ratio of 10:1 can be selected as the preferred choice for removing TPH and reduce elements’ concentrations.
    Keywords: Element Changes, Oily Acidic Sludge, In-Vessel Composting, Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons
  • Fereshte Bagheri , Akram Pourbakht , * , Ahmadreza Raisi , Mohammad Kamali , Mohammad Faridan Page 9
    Background
    People might simultaneously be exposed to noise and carbon monoxide in occupational settings. The previous studies revealed that the inhalation of molecular hydrogen (H2) exerts some healing effects on multiple diseases including hearing loss.
    Objectives
    The levels of free radicals have been shown to increase due to the exposure to noise plus carbon monoxide. This study examined the possible protective effects of hydrogen inhalation following simultaneous exposure to noise and carbon monoxide in Guinea pigs.
    Methods
    Twelve Guinea pigs were randomly divided into two different groups: (1) Exposed to noise plus carbon monoxide and (2) exposed to noise plus carbon monoxide along with the inhalation of hydrogen. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) at different frequencies of 2, 4, 8, and 16 kHz were measured before and immediately after the exposure.
    Results
    The ABR thresholds measured immediately after the simultaneous exposure to noise and carbon monoxide significantly increased at all frequencies in group 1 while in group 2, the ABR thresholds measured immediately after the inhalation of hydrogen significantly reduced at 4, 8, and 16 kHz (P values < 0.05).
    Conclusions
    This finding indicates that there is a protective effect associated with the inhalation of 2% hydrogen on the development of hearing loss after the simultaneous exposure to noise and carbon monoxide and this effect was fairly significant at higher frequencies.
    Keywords: Hydrogen, Noise, Carbon Monoxide, Auditory Brainstem Response, Temporary Threshold Shift, Guinea Pig
  • Zhila Najafpour , Ali Movafegh , Arash Rashidian , Mohamadreza Jafari , Ali Akbari Sari , Mohammad Arab , * Page 10
    Background
    Patients’ fall is considered as a challenge to patient safety, which entails not only prolonged hospital stays and higher costs, however, it may also result in injuries and even death.
    Objectives
    This study aimed to identify attributed root causes and to develop preventive strategies.
    Methods
    The present study is a multiphase qualitative study in which all fall incidents were studied deploying a root cause analysis process in accordance with the modified NPSA protocol in an educational hospital within a 9-month period. The contribution and association of risk factors attributed to each fall incident were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Finally, a nominal group technique was used, with specialist and holding three separate rounds, for determining preventive strategies of falling in health care facilities.
    Results
    Out of a total of 110 fall incidents, 657 root causes were identified. Three groups of attributed causes, including patient, task, and education factors were found to have a greater share in the patient falling. Based on the identified root causes, fall prevention interventions were selected by members as specialized panels, who rated the solutions in several sessions. Ultimately, interventions agreed less than 70% were removed, and other potential preventive interventions were implemented in the form of a hospital-based trial.
    Conclusions
    We found that a fall is the result of intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. The first step in preventing falls is proper assessment of the patient in terms of clinical condition. Evaluation of the environment of the hospital is also essential to identify problems as well as developing amendment programs. Due to missing data on falls reported by nurses, it seems unwise to solely rely on the submitted reports.
    Keywords: : Patient Fall, Root Causes, Nominal Group Technique, Patient Safety
  • Samira Ansari , Ahmad Nikpay , Sakineh Varmazyar Page 11
    Background
    Proper designing of chairs based on ergonomics increases efficiency, promotes quality of education, leads to correct posture in students, and reduces risk of musculoskeletal disorders.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to design and develop an ergonomic chair, based on anthropometric data of students in educational settings.
    Methods
    Anthropometric parameters were obtained from a stratified-random sample of 207 students. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 20 software, and the results were extracted as mean, standard deviation, and percentiles. The chair was planned in the CATIA software and developed by a three-dimensional print.
    Results
    In this study, an ergonomic chair was designed based on anthropometric data from students. The seat height, depth, and width of the chair were determined as 44 cm, 42 cm, and 42.15 cm, respectively. The height of the desk was adjustable in 19 to 29 cm, and the depth and length of the desk were considered as 51 cm and 65 cm. The width and height of the backrest were also 54 cm and 44 cm, and the backrest angle was adjustable in 95° to 105°.
    Conclusions
    An ergonomic chair with adjustable parts was designed to achieve a well-match between anthropometric characteristics of students and the furniture. Such chair can reduce musculoskeletal disorders in students. Some ergonomic characteristics of this chair include adjustability of footrest, backrest, armrests, and desk. A chair with such characteristic can be used by many students with different body sizes.
    Keywords: Design, Ergonomic, Chair, Educational Setting
  • Leila Omidi , Seyed Abolfazl Zakerian , * , Jebraeil Nasl Saraji , Esmaeil Hadavandi , Mir Saeed Yekaninejad Page 12
    Background
    Human factors play an important role in process safety and can have dramatic effects on the safety performance of organizations. In addition, human factors are very important elements in safety management system and management of major accident hazards in process industries. Many variables of human factors may affect the safety in process industries, which need to be addressed in a more holistic approach.
    Objectives
    This study was designed to determine the most important variables of human factors in the management of major accident hazards in process industries through the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (fuzzy AHP) approach in 2017.
    Methods
    After specifying human factors variables including the job, the individual (personal), and the organization factors and related sub-factors, fuzzy AHP approach was proposed to determine the weights and the degree of importance of factors and related sub-factors. Factors and related sub-factors were weighted using triangular fuzzy numbers in pairwise comparisons and fuzzy linguistic variables.
    Results
    Organization factors got the highest relative weights (0.381) in comparison with other studied factors. Among organization sub-factors, safety culture had the highest importance (0.33). Among individual sub-factors, competence of personnel is recognized as the most important sub-factor (0.37). The highest relative weights for job sub-factors were obtained for ergonomic design and environmental factors (0.17).
    Conclusions
    Determining and identifying the most important variables of human factors in process safety are very important for organizations. The present study demonstrates that organization factors are the most important variables in the management of major accident hazards in process industries with the application of fuzzy AHP. Safety culture, staff competence, ergonomic design, and environmental factors are the most important sub-factors.
    Keywords: Human Factors, Safety, Accidents, Fuzzy AHP, Process Industries
  • Ali Reza Ansari, Moghadam, Hossein Adineh *, Iraj Zareban, Zeinab Almasy, MahtabMaghsudlu Page 13
    Background

    Thalassemia is a common genetic disease in Iran and is most prevalent in northern and southern parts of the country.

    Methods

    Due to vulnerable metabolic organs of thalassemia patients, the present study was conducted to examine the relationship between Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and thyroid hormones along with some other variables.

    Results

    A total of 5491 (2647 males and 2634 females) cases were studied in Tehran (the capital of Iran), Sari (in northern Iran), Bandar Abbas, Iranshahr, and Zahedan (in southern Iran). The mean age ± standard deviation of the patients was 24.22 ± 12.7 years (24.4 ± 0.23 in both male and female patients).

    Conclusions

    Based on the results, 30.6% of the patients had lumbar osteoporosis, 39.0% had lumbar osteopenia, 8.6% had femoral neck osteoporosis, and 40.4% had femoral neck osteopenia. Although thyroid hormones did not correlate with osteoporosis, greater changes were observed in these hormones in patients with thalassemia major than in other patients

    Keywords: Bone Mineral, Thalassemia, Ira
  • Parisa Asadi _Mansour R Azari _* _Athena Rafieepour _Alireza Rahmati Page 14
    Background
    Formaldehyde (FA) is a reactive carcinogenic compound and is used routinely in anatomy theatres. Recently, biological monitoring is introduced as a method of choice for monitoring of exposed workers to hazardous chemicals with systemic absorption.
    Objectives
    Considering the toxicity of formaldehyde and lack of a comprehensive method for its biological monitoring, the aim of this study was to explore a new and non-invasive method for biological monitoring of formaldehyde exposure in the staffs of anatomy theatre.
    Methods
    This study was a cross-sectional investigation and the population of this study was comprised of 20 exposed staffs in an anatomy theatre in Tehran, Iran. The personal monitoring of 20 staff was carried out during the early winter, according to a method from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health No. 2016. Biological monitoring was conducted by measuring FA in staff’s exhaled breath after termination of the work shift. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using correlation analysis.
    Results
    The mean FA personal exposure and its concentration in the exhaled breath of anatomy’s staffs were 698 ± 34 and 195 ± 17 as ppb, respectively. Correlation of staff’s personal exposures to formaldehyde with the excreted formaldehyde in their exhaled breath was statistically significant (P < 0.001).
    Conclusions
    The present study showed that the personal exposure of staffs to the FA was higher than the permissible exposure limit. Statistically significant positive correlation of staff exposure with the content of FA in their exhaled breath indicated the potential of biological monitoring of exposed group to FA through exhaled breath.
    Keywords: Formaldehyde, Inhalation Exposure, Exhaled Breath, Biological Monitoring
  • Saeid Komasi , Mozhgan Saeidi , Behzad Heydarpour , Ali Soroush , * Page 15
  • Viroj Wiwanitkit , * Page 16