فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:16 Issue:37, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/08/08
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Negar Amirian , Farhad Tabatabai Ghomsheh , Mohsen Vahedi , Nematollah Rouhbakhsh , Amir Salar Jafarpisheh Pages 219-232
    Objectives
    The result of auditory brainstem response is used worldwide for detecting hearing impairments or hearing aids. This study aimed to introduce the superiority of mathematical innovation algorithm toward subjective evaluation by an audiologist. The automatic algorithm method is encouraged for detecting the waves of Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR), because it can reduce subjective evaluation biases and visual analysis errors. This article portrays another technique for automatic detection of the peaks. Finally, by obtaining the standard pattern with this automatic algorithm for Persian speakers, we will compare it with the English speakers whose information was obtained by subjective method in Northwestern University. This article describes the effect of different factors on brainstem responses by performing a new automatic method.
    Methods
    Auditory evoked potentials of brainstem activity were recorded by Electro encephalogram (EEG) of 27 Persian speaker adults with normal hearing. Three stimulus /ga/, /da/, and /ba/ were presented. This strategy depends on the utilization of reference wave forms, time latencies, and peaks adjusted and comparison with the ABR. Brainstem response latencies of brainstem peaks were extracted by the automatic method in temporal and spectral domains. This step provides language patterns for Persian speakers. Finally, the results of Persian speakers were compared with the results of a previous study done in Northwestern University by the same recording protocol as our own study on 22 English speaker children. Intraclass correlation coefficients and paired t test were used for evaluating and comparing the results.
    Results
    According to the results, the performance of automatic method is high and reliable. Automatic and visual analysis methods had significant interaction. Latency of auditory brainstem response to the same stimulus in the two study groups was different and had a significant latency. The significance of these discoveries and clinical outcomes of this target strategy are featured in this paper.
    Discussion
    This simple innovative algorithm could find the correct location of ABR peaks. Because of different acoustic signs and symptoms in the brainstem, the time latencies for all three stimulus used in this study are completely different
    Keywords: Auditory evoked potentials, Stimulus-specific adaptation, Linguistic effect, Speech perception, Hearing loss, Auto peak detection
  • Mona Siminghalam , Karim Aubi , Ali Hajian , Hossein Alibakhshi Pages 233-238
    Objectives
    Having a disabled child can have profound effects on the living conditions and the mental health of their family. Siblings of the children with disabilities have an important role in supporting them. Their physical, mental and emotional health may be at risk, therefore, their condition and living should be concerned and improved. The current study aimed to investigate the quality of life of these siblings in comparison with the siblings of normal children.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional comparative study was carried out on 33 people who had one sibling with severe developmental disabilities aged 13 to 18 years. The control group consisted of 32 siblings of healthy children who were geographically and economically identical with the test group. The quality of life was measured by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Version 4.0 (PedsQL4). The data were analyzed by the Independent t test and Mann-Whitney test.
    Results
    The Mean±SD age of the siblings with severe developmental disabilities was 15.64±2.06 years and the same score for the normal group was 15.30±2.23 years. The results showed that the siblings of children with developmental disabilities significantly have a poorer quality of life compared to the siblings of the healthy group (P<0.05). This significant difference was also found in the academic, emotional and physical scores of the quality of life scale, but no significant differences were found between the two groups in respect with the social function (P>0.05).
    Discussion
    The current study showed that the quality of life of siblings of children with developmental disabilities is decreased. These results suggest the necessity to provide supportive and therapeutic programs for maintaining and improving the quality of life of these siblings and the whole family
    Keywords: Sibling, Developmental disability, Quality of Life
  • Zahra Saffarian , Behrouz Doulatshahi , Abbas Pourshabaz , Najmeh Rasti Kerdar Pages 239-246
    Objectives
    Patients with schizophrenia are characterized with deficiencies in various aspects of social functioning. Given the relationship between social functioning deficits and relapse in these patients, identification of underlying factors is of significant importance. Thus, in this study, the contribution of each dimension of social cognition (Emotion Perception [EP], Theory of Mind [ToM] and Attributional Style [AS]) in predicting the social function of schizophrenic patients were examined.
    Methods
    The statistical population included all patients with chronic schizophrenia hospitalized in Shiraz chronic healthcare centers. Of them, a total of 62 patients with schizophrenia disorder were selected based on purposive sampling method from three chronic care centers and were evaluated using social cognition tools (Hinting Task, Face Emotion Identification Task, and The Ambiguous Intentions and Hostility Questionnaire) and the Social Functioning Scale (SFS).
    Results
    The results showed that ToM and EP predicted social functioning in people with schizophrenia but attributional style was not associated with social functioning.
    Discussion
    On the whole, ToM and EP are general abilities contributing in explaining social functioning. However, the importance of attributional bias is significant when evaluating the performance of a person in specific areas such as aggressive behaviors
    Keywords: Social cognition, Theory of mind, Emotion perception, Attributional style, Social function
  • Omid Massah , Ali Farhoudian , Roya Noori , Salaheddin Ghaderi , Elaheh Ahounbar , Seyed Hadi Mousavi Pages 247-254
    Objectives
    High prevalence of stimulants use –especially crystalline methamphetamine (crystal meth)-, which required extensive medical and rehabilitation interventions is a major problem in Iran’s health care system. Main objective of the current study was to compare social, economic and cultural factors associated with female’s tendency toward use of two main types of drugs including opium and crystal methamphetamine.
    Methods
    The present cross-sectional and comparative study was performed on female opium and Methamphetamine (MA) dependents of Tehran in 2015. 136 women (82 crystal meth consumers and 54 opium consumers) were selected by simple random sampling method whom filled a researcher-developed questionnaire. Data was analyzed by Pearson Correlation Coefficient and Chi-square test using SPSS software V. 19.
    Results
    There were significant differences between two groups in terms of marital status (P=0.012), the believe in better fitness with drug use (P=0.011), and the believe in improved working and studying efficacy (P=0.039).
    Discussion
    It seems that misconceptions of beneficial impact of crystal methamphetamine use on fitness and improved working and studying efficacy could be recognized as a prominent factor for women’s tendency toward crystal methamphetamine use. Also, being single and avoiding a stable marital life was a strong factor associated with such tendency. This was whilst opium use was more prevalent among married women, and especially those influenced by their addicted spouse
    Keywords: Crystal meth, Opium, Methamphetamine, Tendency, Illicit drug use, Women, Iran
  • Hourieh Ahadi , Maryam Mokhlessin Pages 255-264
    Objectives
    Phonological awareness is an extensive skill for detecting, manipulating, or analyzing the components of oral language, apart from their referents. The phonological awareness consists of different levels from the simplest to the most difficult level. We considered two Persian phonological awareness tests (visual and auditory) with different subtests. This research aimed to investigate the relationship between the total score, subtests scores, and their differences.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study included 40 normal children of kindergartens in Tehran, Iran. Based on experimental research designs and cluster sampling method, the samples were selected from four preschool centers, in Tehran. We implemented the auditory and visual phonological awareness tests. The obtained data were analyzed by Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, the Pearson Correlation Coefficient, the Independent t test and the Paired t test in SPSS.
    Results
    In spite of significant differences in the total scores (P<0.05) and the scores of some tasks such as rhyme recognition (P<0.05) and final phoneme recognition (P<0.05), there was a positive correlation between the total scores (r=0.466) and the syllable segmentation tasks (r=0.339).
    Discussion
    Comparing the results of the two tests showed that variations in the response format and task demand can change complexity of the tasks, which could lead to different scores
    Keywords: Phonological awareness test, Persian, Auditory, Visual, Preschool
  • Mansooreh Aliasgharpour , Tajmohammad Arazi , Sepideh Mohammadi , Nooredin Mohammadi , Anoushirvan Kazemnejad Pages 265-270
    Objectives
    This study was aimed to determine the Effect effect of incentive spirometry on pulmonary function tests in patients undergoing hemodialysis.
    Methods
    This study was a randomized clinical trial conducted in on hemodialysis patients. The obtained Data were collected from 26 patients in the experimental and 26 patients in the control group. In The the control group, patients received their routine care and the experimental group intervention for the experimental group was demonstrate the incentive spirometry program. The patients were encouraged to use the device for 5–10 breaths per session, every hour while awake for two months. The Pulmonary pulmonary function tests including FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC evaluated was indicatedwere taken at the beginning, and then 2 months after the starting onset of the study in two both groups.
    Results
    The findings showed no significant differences between the two groups in terms of demographic characteristics and FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC before the intervention. The FVC, FEV1 increased significantly in the intervention group compared to the control group (P<0.05) after two months, while no significant improvement was observed in the FEV1/FVC ratio.
    Discussion
    This study showed significant differences in pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1) in the two groups. Therefore, incentive spirometry seems to be an effective choice for improvements in pulmonary function test in hemodialysis patients. But considering the limited studies available, further research is required in this area
    Keywords: Hemodialysis, Pulmonary disease, Respiratory function tests
  • Nushin Sayadi , Yones Lotfi , Amir Hossein Kahlaee , Parisa Jalilzadeh Afshari , Enayatollah Bakhshi Pages 271-288
    Objectives
    Undiagnosed balance disorders during childhood can negatively affect children’s functional abilities such as reading and school performance. The Pediatric Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction for Balance (P-CTSIB) reflects how children combine and use different sensory information to react to different conditions in the static balance. This study aimed to examine balance control in normal 4-6 years old children in Tehran, Iran using P-CTSIB.
    Methods
    This was a descriptive-analytical study conducted on 121, 4-6 years old preschools children in Tehran. The P-CTSIB includes 12 conditions that are a combination of visual conditions (eyes open, eyes closed wearing visual-conflict dome), support surface (stand on firm surface or foam), and feet positions (feet-together and heel-toe). Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and repeated measures and post-hoc tests were used for age and gender comparisons.
    Results
    Average standing time, anterior-posterior sway, and lateral sway in the P-CTSIB conditions were evaluated in different age groups. Different age groups had significantly different scores on the three items of the test (P<0.05), but there was no significant gender difference (P>0.05).
    Discussion
    Given that all children had a better performance on the feet together position in P-CTSIB, this position can be used to assess balance performance in all 4-6 years old children
    Keywords: Postural balance, Children, Balance test, Pediatric Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction for Balance (PCTSIB)
  • Fatemeh Hassanati , Reza Nilipour , Zahra Sadat Ghoreishi , Abbas Pourshahbaz , Mohammad Momenian Pages 289-296
    Objectives
    The lexical-level deficits are one of the hallmark limitations observed in early school-age children with specific language impairment. These problems are the predictors of reading problems and poor performance at school. Most studies in Persian-speaker children with specific language impairment have focused on syntax and morphology and the naming errors profile of these children are overlooked. This study aimed to investigate the naming accuracy, latency, and the error profile of these children.
    Methods
    This was an observational study. Twenty children with specific language impairment were selected according to the clinical judgment of two speech therapists from speech therapy clinics and 100 children with typical language development aged from 7 to 9 years were randomly selected from public schools. The Persian picture naming set was presented by DMDX for the examination of picture naming skills. Naming errors were categorized as semantic, formal, mixed, non-word, unrelated, and others errors. Then, the data were investigated in terms of descriptive statistics and analysis of differences by the Independent t test and Mann-Whitney U test.
    Results
    The Persian-speaker children with specific language impairment name significantly slower and less accurate than the children compared to children with normal language development (P≤0.05). Although semantic errors were the most frequent errors in the two groups, the score differences of formal and omission errors were significant between the groups (P≤0.05).
    Discussion
    The different naming accuracy and latency scores between the two groups may be due to language delay and the inefficiency of the semantic system in children with specific language impairment. There are a variety of word retrieval errors in Persian-speaker children. Although, there are differences between the two groups, the error type in picture naming cannot be used for differentiating between them
    Keywords: Child, Specific language impairment, Data accuracy, Reaction time, Word processing
  • Tayebeh Masoumi , Narges Shafaroodi , Zeinab Razvan Pages 297-306
    Objectives
    People with chronic mental health condition like schizophrenia experience a lot of changes in their lives, in addition to their symptoms. The present study used a thematic analysis to explore the participation of people with schizophrenia in daily life from family’s perspective. It has uncovered some of the contributing factors in the everyday life participation of this group.
    Methods
    Semi-structured interviews were held with 8 family members of patients with schizophrenia. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were then analyzed in 6 phases of thematic analysis.
    Results
    Three main themes and 10 subthemes were extracted from the interviews. The main themes included impaired function, family types, and treatment dimensions. The subthemes identified within the family circumstance theme were supportive family, pitying family, ignored family, and confused family.
    Discussion
    According to the findings, besides the effects of the disease and its treatment on the performance of people with schizophrenia, the family also has a substantial role in the participation of their ill member in daily life activities. Considering the identified effects of families on patients’ participation and their needs, designing family-based interventions and training programs can facilitate the participation of patients with schizophrenia in everyday life
    Keywords: Schizophrenia, Family, Qualitative research, Everyday life
  • Razieh Yousefi , Majid Ghayour Mobarhan , Habibollah Esmaily , Azadeh Saki , Gordon Ashley Anthony Ferns , Maryam Tayefi Pages 307-316
    Objectives
    Hypertension is a global major health challenge and mechanisms related to the risk factors associated with it are poorly understood. Therefore, we used structural modeling to test a hypothesized model to identify factors associated with hypertension.
    Methods
    A cross-sectional population based survey, was performed and the data related to a random representative sample of 9704 subjects of MASHAD study were used. Then, we determined the relationship between risk factors for hypertension using structural equation modeling technique. The data were analyzed using Amos V. 22.
    Results
    The conceptual model was validated by Goodness of Fit Indexes (CFI=0.939, TLI=0.908, NFI=0.935, RMSEA=0.04, SRMR=0.037). Obesity and lack of physical activity had the greatest impact on blood pressure.
    Discussion
    Findings show evidences to confirm the conceptual model considered in the risk factors for hypertension that can be helpful in policies for preventing hypertension and consequently, the disabilities that arise from it
    Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases, Hypertension, Blood pressure, Structural equation modeling, Latent variables
  • Mohammad Ashori , Elham Zarghami , Mohsen Ghaforian , Seyyedeh Somayyeh Jalil, Abkenar Pages 317-324
    Objectives
    Sensory integration training plays a crucial role on the attention span and motor skills of students with Down syndrome. The present research aimed to investigate the effect of sensory integration training on the attention span and motor skills of students with Down syndrome. 
    Methods
    This was a quasi-experimental research with a pretest, posttest design and control group. Participants were 28 male students with Down syndrome from two exceptional schools in Tehran. The samples were selected by convenience sampling method. Students were randomly divided into the control and experimental groups and each group consisted of 14 students. A 10-session sensory integration training was provided to the experimental group, while the control group did not receive this training. The Stroop color-word test and Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency were used for measuring the attention span and motor skills of the students. The obtained data were analyzed using MANCOVA.
    Results
    MANCOVA indicated a significant difference between the attention span and motor skills in the experimental group after the training sessions (P<0.0001).
    Discussion
    Sensory integration training led to the improvement of attention span and motor skills of students with Down syndrome. Therefore, Sensory integration training could have positive impacts on the attention span and motor skills of students with Down syndrome.
    Keywords: Attention, Motor skills, Down Syndrome
  • Ali Nikfar , Mojdeh Mansouri , Gita Fatemi Abhari Pages 325-329
    Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is an X-linked disorder, which affects hemizygous males more severely than females. It is characterized by mental retardation, short stature, head and facial abnormalities, skeletal anomalies and developmental delays. The signs and symptoms vary in different people. We report a 14-year-old male patient, diagnosed with CLS based on his clinical features. Genetic testing revealed a de novo mutation in ribosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-3 (RPS6KA3) gene (c.2185C>T; p. Arg729Trp). This is the first molecularly confirmed case report of a patient with CLS from Iran
    Keywords: Coffin-lowry Syndrome, RPS6KA3, RSK2, X-linked mental retardation, Whole exome sequencing