فهرست مطالب

فنون ادبی - سال دهم شماره 3 (پیاپی 24، پاییز 1397)
  • سال دهم شماره 3 (پیاپی 24، پاییز 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/09/14
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • الهام سیدان * صفحات 1-16
    نگارش ابزاری برای انتقال مفاهیم، اطلاعات و یافته هاست که در هر زبانی تابع قواعد و اصولی است. توجه به اصول نگارش و پرهیز از کاربست خطاهای نگارشی نیازمند تدوین دقیق و نظام مند اصول نگارش است. یکی از اصول نگارش، توجه به کوچک ترین واحد معنایی در نگارش یعنی واژه است. ن است. شناخت واژه و کاربرد صحیح آن مقدمه نگارش صحیح محسوب می شود. ارائه الگویی کارآمد برای گزینش واژگان به نگارش صحیح یاری می رساند. به نظر می رسد در علوم ادبی مباحثی مطرح است که می تواند الگویی برای گزینش واژگان باشد که ازجمله آنها بحث فصاحت و بلاغت و شرایط دست یابی به آن است. صرف نظر از کاستی های بحث و نقدهایی که بدان وارد است، با بهره گیری از این چارچوب و رفع کاستی ها و مشکلات آن می توان الگوی کارآمدی برای فرایند واژه گزینی در نگارش ارائه کرد؛ بنابراین در این پژوهش این الگو در فرایند واژه گزینی به کار برده می شود. نتایج نشان می دهد شرایطی که در کتاب های بلاغی برای فصاحت کلمه در نظر گرفته می شود، با اندکی تغییر و بسط، در حوزه نگارش مفید خواهد بود؛ ازجمله اینکه غرابت استعمال، هم نشینی نامناسب حروف در نظام نوشتاری زبان را نیز دربرمی گیرد؛ همچنین اگرچه در علم معانی غرابت استعمال برای واژه های مهجور و متروک به کار می رود، این اصطلاح می تواند با توسع معنایی برای الفاظی که روایی و کاربرد لازم را در زبان فارسی معیار ندارند نیز به کار رود.
    کلیدواژگان: فصاحت، فصاحت کلمه، علم معانی، نگارش، واژه گزینی
  • ایوب انصاری *، علیرضا شانظری، سیدعلی سراج صفحات 17-30
    هدف از این پژوهش مطالعه چارچوب فکری-صوری دیوان پروین اعتصامی با تکیه بر اصول یکی از شاخه های زبان شناسی است. زبان شناسی، مطالعه علمی و بررسی متنی و گفتمانی زبان است و همچون سایر علوم تقسیمات و انشعاباتی یافته که زبان شناسی کلان نیز یکی از این شاخه هاست. در این نوع بررسی ها، متن از لحاظ روابط فراجمله ای مطالعه می شود، و از این طریق، روابط میان بخش های تشکیل دهنده یک متن، و ساخت کلان (بافتار) متن مشخص می گردد. در تحقیق حاضر، از الگوی وودبری (1987) – خان زاده امیری (1379) استفاده شده و روش تحقیق از نوع توصیفی و تحلیل محتوای کمی است. به طور کلی، تجزیه و تحلیل حکایات در سطح ساخت کلان نشان داده است که در ساخت کلان دیوان پروین اعتصامی چارچوب ارائه شده در الگوی مذکور قابل تشخیص است که البته برای تکمیل آن، تغییرات و اصلاحاتی نیز صورت گرفته است. از نتایج به دست آمده در این بررسی مشخص شد که سازه پندواندرز در دیوان پروین اعتصامی محوریت دارد. از مجموع 6824 مصراع بررسی شده 2728 مصراع به سازه پندواندرز اختصاص دارد که 97/39 درصد از کل مصراع ها را شامل می شود. بنا براین سازه پندواندرز، سازه محوری و اصلی در ساخت کلان دیوان پروین اعتصامی تلقی می شود که این موضوع خود نشان دهنده ماهیت تعلیمی اثر مذکور است.
    کلیدواژگان: ساخت کلان، الگوی وودبری (1987، نقل شده در فب، 1997 ) -خان زاده امیری (1379 )، دیوان پروین اعتصامی، زبان شناسی صورت گرا
  • محسن ذوالفقاری *، زهرا موسوی، علی خسروی صفحات 31-48
    «ارغوان» شعری درخشان با مضمونی اجتماعی، سروده هوشنگ ابتهاج از چهره های مشهور شعر معاصر یا نیمایی است. عواطف غالب بر این شعر غم و اندوه و حسرت است که فقدان آزادی بر دل شاعر دربند مستولی گردانده است، اما اندیشه آرمان گرایانه او در انتظار دمیدن صبحی برای پرواز و رهایی است. این پژوهش با رویکردی فرمالیستی و با روشی تحلیلی سعی دربررسی شعر ارغوان در سه ساحت زبانی، موسیقایی و زیبایی شناختی دارد. بررسی های صورت گرفته در این پژوهش نشان می دهد دلایل موفقیت، جذابیت و ماندگاری این شعر در هماهنگی میان کاربرد زبان عاطفی و پراحساس، وزن متناسب با محتوا و اعتدال در به کارگیری فنون بلاغت به ویژه استفاده هنرمندانه از زبان استعاری است. این عوامل، شعر ارغوان را در ترازوی نقد ناقدان وزین کرده است. ابتهاج با به کارگیری شگردهایی در هر یک از این سطوح (زبانی، آوایی و ادبی) ، توانسته است به گونه ای موفق عاطفه و احساس خود را به مخاطب انتقال دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: فرمالیسم، هوشنگ ابتهاج، ارغوان، زبان، موسیقی، زیبایی شناسی ‏
  • محمود بشیری، رضا جمشیدی * صفحات 49-64
    برخی معتقدند روایات پیکارسک در ادبیات اروپایی براساس مقامه نویسی در ادب عربی و فارسی شکل گرفته است. مقامه نوعی مجلس گویی است که در آن قصه ها و حکایاتی با نثر مصنوع و مسجع و در موضوعات گوناگون بیان می شود. تکدی گری، دزدی و سخنوری موضوعات اصلی مقامات است. پیکارسک نیز گونه ای از داستان است که در قرن شانزدهم میلادی در اسپانیا به وجود آمده است و روایت کننده داستان فردی حیله گر، دزد و سخنور است که با انواع ناملایمات روزگار درگیر است. ازلحاظ ساختار و موضوع، شباهت های فراوانی میان مقامه و پیکارسک وجود دارد و البته تفاوت های میان آنها نیز اندک نیست. روش نگارش یافته ها در این مقاله تحلیلی-توصیفی است و در آن، تلاش بر این بوده که شباهت ها و تفاوت های میان مقامه و پیکارسک با تحلیل (بررسی تک تک اجزاء) هریک از آنها بیان شود تا بدین وسیله مشخص شود مقامه بر پیکارسک تاثیرگذار بوده است یا نه. به نظر می رسد به دلایلی همچون تاثیرناپذیری مستقیم پیکارسک از مقامه، شکل گیری این گونه داستانی همسو با پیشینه فرهنگی-ادبی اروپا و تاثیرپذیری آن از شرایط تاریخی-اجتماعی اسپانیای آن دوران، بتوان این فرضیه را مردود دانست.
    کلیدواژگان: پیش زمینه های اجتماعی، پیش زمینه های ادبی، پیکارسک، تاثیرپذیری، مقامه
  • اشرف خسروی *، فخری زارعی صفحات 65-78
    آثار ادبی دوره بیداری و بعد از مشروطه جنبه اجتماعی و سیاسی فراوانی دارند و می توان آنها را از دیدگاه جامعه شناختی نقد و بررسی کرد. سه تار جلال آل احمد ازجمله این آثار است. در این مقاله، روش نقد داستان، تلفیقی و ترکیبی و با تحلیل محتوای اجتماعی اثر و بررسی جنبه های فنی و زیبایی شناختی آن همراه بوده است تا نشان دهد نویسنده چگونه عناصر فنی داستان نویسی و شگردهای زیبایی شناختی ادبی را به کار گرفته است تا اندیشه های اجتماعی و موضوعاتی مانند افراطی گری ، تضاد طبقاتی ، باور ها و سنت های غلط و علایق انسانی را بیان کند. آل احمد از عناصری مانند شخصیت پردازی ، کشمکش و توصیف و شگردهای ادبی چون بیان طنزآمیز ، تکرار ، پارادوکس و تشبیه کمک گرفته و اندیشه های خود را با هنر آمیخته است تا داستان خود را اثرگذار و جذاب کند. امید است این نوع پژوهش ها بتوانند نقدهای تلفیقی و چندجانبه را که نسبت به نقدهای تک بعدی کامل تر و جامع ترند ، گسترش دهند و جایگاه خود را در پژوهش های ادبی بیابند.
    کلیدواژگان: نقد جامعه شناختی ، جلال آل احمد ، سه تار ، عناصر داستان ، شگردهای زیبایی شناختی
  • محمود آقاخانی بیژنی *، اسماعیل صادقی صفحات 79-95
    هدف این پژوهش، تحلیل مبانی، اشکال، اهداف و ساختار آزمون های مختلف در شاهنامه است. این پژوهش به شکل بنیادی، بر پایه مطالعات کتابخانه ای و به روش توصیفی تحلیلی انجام شده است. آزمون (ور) گذر از آتش برای اثبات بی گناهی در داستان سیاوش، آزمون فرو رفتن در خون برای رهایی از سرنوشت شوم در داستان ضحاک، آزمون انتخاب پادشاهی برای تعیین پادشاه جدید در داستان پادشاهی کیکاووس، آزمون انتخاب همسر برای زال، فرزندان فریدون و گشتاسب توسط موبدان، شاه یمن و قیصر روم، آزمون سنجش قهرمان در داستان هفت خان رستم و اسفندیار، از مهم ترین آزمون های موجود در شاهنامه فردوسی به شمار می روند که قهرمانان برای رسیدن به هدف خود، باید آنها را پشت سر بگذارند. قهرمانانی که از فر ایزدی و حمایت خداوند برخوردارند و در پی گسترش پاکی و خوبی هستند، به آسانی از این آزمون ها می گذرند و پیروز می شوند؛ اما ضحاک که نمودار بدی است، در آزمون خود شکست می خورد. تمامی آزمون ها ساختاری مشابه دارند؛ به گونه ای که در ابتدا وضعیت متعادل برقرار است، سپس با بروز حادثه ای دچار تغییر می شود و درنهایت، با اقدام قهرمان و انجام آزمون، تعادل دوباره برقرار می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: شاهنامه فردوسی، آزمون، ساختارگرایی، قهرمان
  • علی جلالی *، منوچهر فروزنده فرد صفحات 97-114
    درباره رسم الخط قدیم نسخه های خطی در بیشتر کتب تصحیحی و کتبی که درباره نسخه شناسی و تصحیح متون نوشته شده است بحث هایی به چشم می خورد؛ اما درباره استفاده هنری شعرا از ویژگی های رسم الخط کهن کمتر سخن به میان آمده است. در کتب بلاغی نیز درباره انواع ترفندهای بدیعی سخن رفته است؛ اما سخنی از ترفندهای بدیعی وابسته به رسم الخط نیست. هنرسازه ای که در این جستار بررسی می شود، در شکل ظاهری و نوشتاری یک اثر ادبی جلوه گر می شود و وابسته به رسم الخط خاص زبان فارسی است و از هر دو حیث صورت و معنا زیبایی آفرین است. در واقع، مبنای هنرسازه بدیعی مورد بحث، یکی عوامل صوری خط و زبان و دیگر مبحث تقارن و قرینه پردازی است که از کهن ترین عوامل نظم و زیبایی بخشی در اقسام هنر است. تتبع در اشعار شاعران و بسامد استفاده از این هنرسازه نشان می دهد شاعران در استفاده از آن خلاق و آگاه بوده اند. جست وجو در متون منظوم و منثور فارسی و گاه مقابله چند تصحیح از یک اثر برای یافتن مواردی از هنرسازه بدیعی مدنظر، روش این پژوهش است.
    کلیدواژگان: متون کهن، تصحیح، ویرایش، رسم الخط، تقارن، بدیع
  • محمدعلی محمدی * صفحات 115-128
    یکی از آثار مهم و اثرگذار بر کلام سعدی در گلستان و بوستان، مقامات حریری است. این کتاب را که سرشار از انواع ظرافت کلام عرب است، به حق می توان نمونه عالی فصاحت در ادب عرب شمرد. سعدی که سال ها در بغداد زندگی کرده است، با این کتاب انس تمام یافته است و اشاراتی که به ویژه در بوستان دارد به طور تام بر این علاقه و انس دلالت می‎کند. از مطالعه آثار سعدی و مقامات حریری و مقایسه آنها این نتیجه حاصل می شود که سعدی در بیان مطالبی به طور مستقیم از مقامات حریری اثر گرفته است. این تاثیرات شامل دو جنبه لفظی و مضمونی و محتوایی است. در این مقاله اثرپذیری کلام سعدی در بوستان و گلستان از مقامات حریری نشان داده شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: سعدی، مقامات حریری، گلستان، بوستان
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  • Elham Sayyedan * Pages 1-16
    Writing is a tool for transferring of concepts, information and findings and it is subject to certain rules and principles in every language. Paying attention to the writing principles and avoidance of writing mistakes necessitate precise and systematic codification of the writing principles. One of these principles of systematic writing is paying attention to the smallest semantic unit, i.e. word, when writing. The recognition of the word and its proper application is the prelude to the correct writing. Offering an efficient pattern for the selection of the words assists correct writing. Word is the smallest part of writing and it plays an effective role in text formation. The coherent and principles connection of the words is of a considerable importance in writing. Failure in selecting correct words bars the advance to the next stage that is the very topic of coherent writing; therefore, correct writing depends on the precise and right selection and application of the words. In writing books, discussions on words are scattered about two parts, namely formal and lingual editions. In formal edition, the spelling method and cursive writing and block lettering are discussed. The discussion is solely related to the appearance of the words and the method of writing them. In lingual edition, as well, attention is directed at some wrong structures in writing of words; for example, words are discussed in discussions on various kinds of borrowing, serotyped writing, prolixity and so forth. But, an independent discussion regarding the principles of choice of word is missing from these books. Considering the importance of word selection and its being emphasized in rhetoric, enjoyment of such knowledge and, of course, its topics can set the ground appropriately for elucidating the principles of choice of word in Persian language.
    There are discussions put forth in rhetoric that are significantly connected to the grammar and writing rules; some researchers have pointed to the relationship between grammar, semantics and their differences: “grammar predominantly discusses the dos and distinctions; but, rhetoric substantially deals with such topics as artistic applications and the more effective choices and probabilities … also, the discussions in semantics are mostly related to the meaning that can be somehow considered as spiritual aspects of grammatical issues” (Shamisa, 2014, 31). But, discussions about the link between rhetoric and writing are amongst the topics that have not been yet considered the way they deserve.
    Verbal eloquence and fluency is amongst the discussions closely related to writing in rhetoric. Eloquence in rhetorical books is proposed in three levels, word eloquence, discourse eloquence and speaker’s fluency. In discussions on lexical eloquence, emphasis is made on the words’ meanings, grammatical dos and don’ts, lexical euphony and agreeableness of the lexical sounds as well as the application of the words and these topics are all closely associated with writing style, especially choice of word. In fact, the thing that is posited in rhetoric as “eloquence” is the discussion about the writing dos and don’ts. Some researchers believe that this part of rhetoric should be placed amongst the topics discussed in grammar (see also, Vafa’ei and Aghababa’ei, 2015: 46). Although such subjects as eloquence and its types feature grammatical infrastructure in some discussions (like opposition to the analogy). it is not completely matching with the grammatical rules and it is found interlaced with writing style in many of the cases.
    Considering the importance of words in writing and knowing that the emphasis is made on the conditions of selecting an eloquent word in rhetoric, the present study takes advantage of lexical eloquence pattern to take into account certain conditions for word selection in Persian language. Of course, the conditions mentioned for lexical eloquence in rhetoric are more of an affirmative aspect and the issue has been criticized to some extent; but, these same affirmative properties guide us to the optimum pattern of word selection. According to the descriptions presented up to here, the primary study question is that can the word eloquence pattern in rhetoric be used to offer an efficient pattern of word selection? So, the objective of the present article becomes the investigation and analysis of word eloquence pattern in rhetoric and then applying it in word selection.
    Pondering over the rhetorical books indicate that the rhetoricians have made suggestions for the proper selection and application of words that can be appropriate solutions for choice of words. It was made clear in an investigation of the word eloquence in rhetoric and taking it into consideration in word selection process that:- The thing that is proposed in rhetoric as “word eloquence” is a perfectly writing discussion that is intermixed in some of the cases with grammatical dos and don’ts.
    - Many factors cause letter cacophony and discordance of words’ euphony amongst which lengths of words, types of consonants and vowels and their style of arrangement can be pointed out.
    - Word lengthiness or combination in writing can cause damages to language in two respects: 1) it can cause pronunciation cacophonies and 2) discord the writing system of the language. Thus, the collocation of the letters is of a considerable importance in both speech and writing while, in the majority of the definitions provided for letter cacophony in rhetorical books, it has been to be connected with pronunciation. It seems that the term can also incorporate the inappropriate collocation of letters in writing system of the language.
    - Although strangeness/novelty of the usage is mostly applied for the obsolete and abandoned words from the perspective of rhetoric, it can be expanded to the words that do not feature the required validity and applicability in the standard Persian language and are not authenticated by the language specialists. Disregarding the obsolete and unfamiliar words, other word groups can be considered as instances of strangeness of the usage, including stereotyped writing, strange exotic words, unfamiliar colloquial words and some homonyms.
    - The discussion about opposition to the analogy in rhetoric is perfectly laid on the foundation of grammar and its most important examples in choice of word and word use areas pertain to two parts: 1) borrowing from Arabic and other languages; 2) lack of paying attention to the morphological and semantic rules of Persian language.
    - Antipathia of audition overlaps with letter cacophony in pronunciation area and it encompasses the use of heinous and bad words in rhetoric.
    Keywords: Eloquence, Lexical Eloquence, Rhetoric, Writing, Word Selection
  • Ayoub Ansari *, Alireza Shanazari ‎, Seyyed Ali‏ Seraj Pages 17-30
    Linguistics, as the other sciences, has divided into branches one of which is macro-linguistics. IN macro-linguistics analysis, text is studied based on the relations among different parts of it. The objective of the present study is the macro-analysis of Parvin Eatesami's tales based on Woodbury (1987, cited in Fabb, 1997) - Khanzadeamiri (1379) formalist model. This study is descriptive and the methodology is quantitative content analysis. As a whole, the results of analysis showed that the model with some modifications is recognizable in macro-structure of Parvin Eatesami's tales. One of obtained conclusions in this analysis is that Advice constituent/episode is in the main focus in Eatesami's tales. The analysis showed that the model with some modifications is recognizable in macro-structure of Eatesami’s tales. In the analysis, 2728 lines/verses out of the total 6824 analyzed lines, 39/98 percent, has been devoted to this episode/constituent. So, advice constituent is the main constituent in Eatesami's tales, and this matter indicates the instructive essence of this work.
    Keywords: Macro-structure, Woodbury (1987, cited in Fabb, 1997)-Khanzade Amiri (1379) formalistic model, Eatesami's tales, Formalistic linguistics
  • mohsen zolfaghary*, Zahra Mosavi, Ali khosravi Pages 31-48
    Based on the formalism school, the discovery of the beauty of a text, or so-called "text literacy", is one of the most important issues to be considered in the critique of a literary work. Focusing on the "text" itself, the theorists of this school try to discover the causes and factors that turn the ordinary and everyday language into a poetic language. According to them, using different techniques such as "defamiliarization", the world of the text can be alienated from the viewpoint of audiences. In the formalistic approach, the form and content of a literary work are not independent of each other, rather the content is represented in form; hence, the content and the theme of a literary work can be comprehended through the study of the form and structure. "Arghavan" is a brilliant poem with a social theme by Hushang Ebtehaj who is one of the famous figures of contemporary poetry. The dominant feelings in this poem are sadness, grief, and regret that, because of the lack of freedom, are imposed on the heart of the imprisoned poet. But his idealistic mind craves blowing up for flight and release. In a formalistic and analytical approach, this research aimed to study the linguistic, musical and aesthetic domains in "Arghavan". The formalist analysis of this work shows that the artistic techniques used at the three mentioned domains help to discover hidden aspects beyond the thought and ideas of the poet. Therefore, going beyond the words, linguistic interpretations, and syntactic functions in the poem, it was aimed to find answers to the following questions:1- How are the grief- and regret-centered emotions of the poet represented in the form and structure of this poem?
    2- How effective are formalist features in the acceptance and durability of "Arghavan" poem?
    3- How can focusing on the form and structure reveal the implicit and latent ideas in the poem?
    This review shows that this literary work has two major characteristics that have a profound and long-lasting influence on the mind and thought of the audiences that make the poem acceptable to them. The first one is the use of the communicative language in the poem which creates an intimate and close relationship between the poet and the audience. The other characteristic is the focus on the quest for freedom and the hope to release, which is a pervasive and universal human-social concept. Accordingly, the poet's ideas and social concerns, as well as his emotional and personal feelings are intermingled in a coherent manner and properly represented in the form and structure of the poem, making it a perdurable literary work. In addition, there are other reasons for the success, attractiveness, and durability of this poem that can be detected in the three domains of language, music, and aesthetics, which include:1. Domain of language: use of lexical terms connoting negative emotions, such as gleam, wretched, forgetfulness, penetration, pale, prisoner, mourning, and sorrow, which imply the grief and sadness of the poet, use of the attribute of art instead of the noun, anomalies in the construction and application of verbs, transposition of the parts of speech in a sentence, "Archaism", establishment of a variety of semantic relations, and use of colloquial language.
    2. Domain of music: use of heavy and dragged mater consistent with the content (faeilaton), the artistic use of the accompanying music (bringing rhymes in seven strings out of the total of ten lines of poetry and applying the row in six cases), amplifying internal music through the repetition of consonants and vowels (phonemes), and use of different types of puns.
    3. Domain of aesthetics: use of images in balance, consistent with the poet's feelings, use of metaphors, metaphorical combinations, personification, metaphorical symbols that make up the dominant part of the poem, use of allusion to avoid explicit expression of items, use of various rhetorical instruments and verbal and semantic artifacts such as simile, repetitions, synesthesia, hyperbole, paradox, etc.
    Ebtehaj used the mentioned features, and applied formal elements and various techniques to create an artistic and enduring work called "Arghavan" and he succeeded in transferring his emotions and feelings to the audience. Because of these features, critics place a high value on "Arghavan".
    Keywords: Hushang Ebtehaj, Arghavan, Formalism, Language, Music, Aesthetics
  • Mahmoud Bashiri, Reza Jamshidi * Pages 49-64
    Centuries after Maqameh had come to the fore, stories by the name of ''Picaresque'' began to be written in Spanish literature which had numerous similarities with Maqameh. Picaresque can be regarded as the evolutional forms of romances with a different subject matter. Lazarillo de Tormes is the first picaresque story which has been written in 16th century in Spain. Narratives of picaresque have numerous similarities with present-day stories, so much so that, some designate Don Quixote de la Mancha- one of the latest picaresque- as the first novel. Since Spain was conquered by Umayyad dynasty, connections were formed between Arabs and Spanish which lead to scientific, artistic, and cultural exchanges and bilateral use of cultural resources. Since picaresque was formed in Spain and because of its similarities to Maqameh, the hypothesis comes to the fore that it originates from Maqameh. This has been referred to in some works which we have made mention of them in the literature. However, we oppose this hypothesis by showing their differences and foregrounds of Picaresque in Europe as well as its social-historical factors.
    In 4th Islamic centuries, a species of prose came to the fore in Arab literature which was called Maqamat. It rapidly gained prominence because Arabic prose in this era had been tended to decorum and artifice and the appearance of Picaresque paved the way for the pens who adored artifice. Mohammad Taghi Bahar believed that Maqameh was a translation of "Gath'' in Mazdayasna (Zoroastrianism) which has survived after Islam. These excerpts in Mazdayasna were melodious and its syllabic poems had symmetry, balance and interval silences; just how Maqamat seems to be (Bahar, 1349, 2nd v: 234). Picaresque was a story written by a picaro in which a satire of his era and the people is narrated (Sibre, 1389:4). This literary genre appeared in 16th century in Spain and spread to other European countries like France, Italy, Germany, and England. The myth of Hermes can be regarded as the prototype of picaro. According to Greek myths, he was the god of roads, commerce, fortune, sports, and rhetoric. Hermes used to deceive people and trickery was one of his features (Manser, 2009: 219). Picaresque can also be a mixture of "picaro", "picador", "Picards", and "picaroon".
    Maqamat in its theme is influenced by the social and cultural situation of its era. Beggary, deceit, and tongue are some common themes of Maqamat which is a mirror of the social and cultural situation of that time. Picaresque is in its turn a micro history conflated of literary and historical narratives which its roots should be sought in humanism (De Haan and Mierau, 2014: 1-2). Since picaresque has come to the fore because of a protest to the feudalism of Spain in 16th c and the quasi- religious reign of the era, has been labeled as humanistic works.
    Considering similarities of Maqameh and picaresque, the appearance of Maqameh six century before picaresque and in Spain, the hypothesis has taken some force because Arabs lived and ruled Spain in that period and the bilateral relationships of them cannot be neglected. Nonetheless, these similarities do not provide a solid ground for the hypothesis because these similarities are there in postmodernism, symbolism and Persian classic literature.
    In addition to differences between the two which outnumbers their similarities, the second reason to reject the hypothesis is the fact that picaresque came into the fore influenced by a foreground of European story writing, holy Books, romance, Aesop's fables, The Fabliau, joke books, novella, and etc. the third reason is the social-cultural condition of Spain in 16th centuries and the influence of the life of picaro, Picards, picaroon; just as the influence of the rhythmic style of Quran and traditions of Abu-Zayd Sorooji, Abbas doos, Tarrar Basrah is evident. Furthermore, the fact is that picaresque was not directly influenced by Maqameh because of the three explicit intertextual relationships (quotations, plagiarism, and implicit intertextuality), none can be trace in picaresque from Maqameh.
    Picaresque should be considered as the product of Spanish social condition of that period of time, not an imitated one nor influenced by eastern prose. This story genre, indeed, was taken from the lives of the poor and picaro of that era of Spain which criticized feudalism, quasi-religious reign, and churches. It is a satire on the miserable state of the poor and their hopeless struggle for bread. At best, Maqameh can be considered as one of the foregrounds of picaresque.
    Keywords: Social foreground, literary foreground, picaresque, impressionability, Maqameh, ‎features‎
  • Ashraf Khosravi *, Fakhri Zarei Pages 65-78
    ‘The Setar’ is a short story written by Jalal Al-e-Ahmad. This article, with an eclectic and combined method, aims at criticizing technical and aesthetic aspect of the work along with its social content, to show how the author utilized these elements in order to express social thoughts. Al-e-Ahmad is not an introverted writer who has fallen into his own minds and is ignorant of what goes on in society. He is a social and realistic person. The Setar represents part of the author's thoughts and criticizes him for some social damage, albeit indirectly, with the effect of satirical taste. The author depicts the conflict among religious extremist group, fanatical superficial observers, and one-dimensional artists, and, of course, guides the story in such a way to criticize the unaware, worldly, and fanatical religious group and provokes the reader to sympathize with the boy who plays setar (a music tool). In fact, the author complaints more about bigotry and instrumental utilization of religion and considers its adverse consequences as destructive. It is also a show of wealth and well-being of a number of people and the poverty of another group.In addition, the author criticizes beliefs and prejudices that have entered the society in the name of religion that must be broken and moderated. Human interest is a social issue that is of utmost importance in short stories. The writer is indifferent to the society and the educational system, human interests, contradictions and inconsistencies, and false calculations in his work.
    Characterization, tune, spatiation, description, conflict, suspension, complication and resolution, how to begin and end the story and other techniques of story writing, along with literary techniques, give a unique representation to the story, and make it interesting in terms of form and content. The element of ‘waiting’ which is considered to be the most important feature of the story, is extremely high. Al-e-Ahmadartistically utilized literary techniques such as humorous expression, repetition, paradox and simile and mixed his thoughts to art to make his story influential. The bitter satire used by the author to express social issues has made the story very attractive.It is hoped that this article could be a pattern, though incomplete, for similar cases and would complement and refine the next-generation scholars in order to provide more context for interaction between researchers in the fields of literature and sociology.
    Keywords: Sociological Criticism, Jalal Al-e-Ahmad, the Setar, Elements of Story, Aesthetic ‎Techniques
  • Mahmood Aghakhani bizhani *, Esmaeel Sadeghi Pages 79-95
    In Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, Passing through the fire, falling into the blood, conquering hard and difficult fortresses, answering to the mysterious questions and passing of the kings is one of the most important bases for testing the heroes in which the heroes must go through an important and difficult test to achieve their goal. The passage of fire (or VER) to prove innocence in the story of Siavash, flooding in the blood to escape from the fateful destiny in Zohak's story, choosing the kingdom to determine the new king in the story of the kingdom of Kikávos,the test of choosing Zal’s husband, the sons of Fereydoun and Goshtasb by the priests, the Shah of Yemen and the Kaiser of Rome, testing the hero in the story of Haftkhan Rostam and Esfandiar, are the most important tests in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh. The purpose of this research is to analyze the basics, goals, forms, and structure of various tests in Shahnameh. This research is fundamentally based on library studies and descriptive-analytic methods. Heroes who have a godfather and support of God and who seek a clean and good development will easily pass these tests and triumph, but Zahak, who is bad, will fail in his test. All tests have the same structure, in the 1st place, the situation is balanced, then it changes with an incident and eventually the balance is restored with the action of the hero and the test.
    Keywords: Shahnameh, test, structuralism, hero
  • Ali Jalali *, Manoochehr Foroozandeh Fard Pages 97-114
    One of the concerns of editors in editing ancient texts is adherence to orthography the manuscript or use to new orthography Persian language. Indeed, in editing ancient texts we cannot adhere to all the rules of the new orthography. Because poets sometimes have decorated their poems based on ancient orthography features. For this reason editors should note that sometimes accuracy of meaning is depends on the particular orthography.
    The basis of this figurative device is formal elements of Persian Orthography and languages and symmetry. In this orthography we can paste some words together and write them separately and in general, a word can be written in different ways. This Properties of orthography makes the word in combination with other words find new meaning and in proportion or conflict with other word in the text create a semantic relationship. On the other hand, mankind has seen everything symmetrically and considered this symmetry a sign of beauty. In Persian literature Symmetry, both formally and semantically, has created many beauty and most rhetorical tricks are the result of symmetry.
    Keywords: ancient texts, emendation, editing, orthography, symmetry, rhetoric
  • Mohammad ali Mohammadi * Pages 115-128
    Saadi who is renowned as the "King of the Realm of Literature", in addition to his own innate sense and inherent faculty, benefited from various sources, for his eloquence. One of these sources and references has been the unique masterpiece of the Arabic letters, Maqamat al-Hariri by Abu-Mohammed Al-Qasim Hariri Basri (446-516 H = 1054-1122 AD). This work, owing to its inclusion of nice and astonishing anecdotes, abundance of figures of speech, esthetic requisites of speech and frequent usage of the Qur'anic Verses, Hadith, Arabic poems and proverbs, attracted Saadi's attention. As Saadi used to study at the Nezamieh school of Baghdad, he became familiar with the book. Saadi's attention to Maqamat is to the extent that he has mentioned it in Golestan and Bustan, in a number of occasions. It is worth mentioning that the Persian literary figures and poets had never deemed themselves to be needless of Maqamat al-Hariri; however, it seems that Saadi has been interested in the book, more than anyone else. As a consequence, in the Persian poetry and literary works, the strongest inspiration from the book can be seen in Saadi's words. As a matter of fact, the rhetorical style of Saadi'sGolestan is similar to Maqamat to a great extent. As Bahar, Malekosho'ara( poet laureate) asserts " Golerstan is the second Maqamat al-Hamidi" which is, in turn, regarded as an utter imitation of Maqamat al-Hariri. In short, Saadi has mentioned some points in Golestan and Bustan which are indicative of his attention to Maqamat al-Hariri. The inspirations of Saadi from Maqamat al-Hariri are of two categories: The first category includes verbal inspirations, so that we can sometimes see that Saadi quotes some words from Maqamat al-Hariri, which are used in the Persian literature for the first time, e.g. juxtaposing the two words of /ʔeʃa/ (=the night prayer)and /ʔæʃa/ (=supper) or the two words of /ʤəʊʔ/ (=hunger) and /hoʤəʊʔ/ (=sleep) and sometimes a complete phrase has been cited, e.g. /be hokm-e zæruræt/ (=as the need arises). The second category, which is more important than the first, is the citation of similar concepts, which sometimes includes a phrase, e.g. " practical effect on distant people" (making some people cry) or lack of competence in asking and answering questions, in which Saadi renders Hariri's word "missing all arrows in the quiver"to "He dropped the arrow of the reason quiver". And sometimes, Saadi utilizes the gist of a tale narrated by Hariri, and develops it very delicately and artistically by changing the characters and sets it in a new design, as if it has happened to him himself, e.g. the Euphrates Narrative of Maqamat al-Hariri, mentioned in the 4th chapter of Bustan, under the topic of "Anecdote of the Scholar".
    Keywords: Maqamat al-Hariri, Golestan, Bustan, Saadi