فهرست مطالب

  • سال هفتم شماره 15 (بهار و تابستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/03/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • صفحه 1
    در سال های اخیر، از یک سو درخواست ها برای تحصیل در دانشگاه های کشور افزوده شده است. از سویی دیگر، پژوهشگران و مدرسان مراکز آموزش زبان فارسی دانشگاه های کشور در پی ادغام همزمان یادگیری زبان فارسی و محتوا هستند تا بتوانند به عنوان یک روش آموزشی کارآمد، یادگیری زبان فارسی به عنوان زبان دوم و نیز یاددهی موضوعات درسی در علوم گوناگون انسانی، اجتماعی، مهندسی و پزشکی را آسان سازند.
    همچنین پیامدهای شناختی مهم و گوناگونی در ارتباط با فرایندهای زبانی و مفهومی این رویکرد وجود دارد که هنوز در کشور ما مورد بحث و پژوهش قرار نگرفته است. برخی از اصول این رویکرد این است که زبان برای یادگیری و همچنین برقراری ارتباط استفاده می شود و این موضوع درسی است که زبان مورد نیاز برای یادگیری را تعیین می‏کند. در یک درس با این رویکرد عناصر زیر ترکیب می شوند:محتوا: پیشرفت در دانش، مهارت ها و درک مربوط به عناصر خاص یک برنامه ی درسی معین؛
    ارتباط: استفاده از زبان برای یادگیری و یادگیری برای استفاده از زبان؛
    شناخت: توسعه ی مهارت های تفکر که میان شکل گیری مفهوم (تجریدی و انتزاعی) ، درک و زبان پیوند برقرار می کند؛
    فرهنگ: در معرض دیدگاه های جایگزین و فهم مشترک قرار گرفتن که به آگاهی نسبت به دیگران و خود عمق می بخشد.
    به نظر می رسد فرایندهای شناختی در کسب مفاهیم اطلاعات ویژه ی محتوا، می تواند به کارگیری زبان فارسی به عنوان زبان دوم را در فعالیت های آموزشی تحت تاثیر قرار دهد؛ اما هنوز چارچوب های نظری این روش آموزش زبان فارسی برای ادغام محتوا و زبان در یک کلاس مورد بررسی قرار نگرفته است و با آن که از نیم سده‏ی پیش آموزش محتوا و زبان در کلاس های مراکز آموزش زبان فارسی به صورت جداگانه تدریس می شود، هنوز برهمکنش این دو بر یکدیگر برای ما ناشناخته است. به همین منظور، پیشنهاد می شود پژوهش های اصیلی در مورد روش های اجرایی این رویکرد و چارچوب درس ها در مراکز آموزش زبان فارسی انجام گیرد. بدیهی است که این نشریه از چنین پژوهش هایی با رویی گشاده استقبال می کند.
    امیررضا وکیلی ‏فرد
    آموزشکاو زبان فارسی
  • حسن تقییان ، ابراهیم خدایی، عباس بازرگان، علی مقدم زاده، مسعود کبیری صفحات 3-30
    پژوهش حاضر با هدف ساخت و رواسازی آزمون خواندن با استفاده از سنجش شناختی تشخیصی انجام شد. به این منظور ابتدا با دسته بندی خصیصه های مرتبط با خواندن در تحقیقات و اسناد ملی و بین المللی، مهم ترین خصیصه های خواندن مشخص شد. پس از آن با استفاده از نظر متخصصان زبان و ادبیات فارسی و معلمان ابتدایی آزمون اولیه طراحی شد. پس از اجرای مقدماتی و تحلیل های اولیه و حذف پرسش های نامناسب درنهایت آزمون نهایی با 27پرسش طراحی شد که چهار خصیصه ی درک اطلاعات صریح متن، استنباط، تلفیق، تفسیر و دانش واژگان را مورد سنجش قرار می دهد. در این تحقیق مراحل ساخت این آزمون تشریح شده است. با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری خوشه ای، آزمون روی 816 نفر از دانش آموزان پایه ی ششم ابتدایی شهر قم اجرا شد. تحلیل های آماری با استفاده از مدل شناختی تشخیصی افزایشی، انجام شد. شاخص های نسبی و مطلق برازش، نشان دهنده ی برازش مناسب مدل است. همچنین استفاده از شاخص های همسانی و دقت طبقه بندی نشان دهنده ی همسانی و دقت مناسب طبقه بندی دانش آموزان توسط آزمون است. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد این آزمون می تواند نیم رخ خصیصه های خواندن دانش آموزان را با استفاده از مدل سنجش شناختی تشخیصی شناسایی کند.
    کلیدواژگان: سنجش شناختی تشخیصی، خواندن، پایه ی ششم، مدل شناختی تشخیصی افزایشی
  • مریم نوذری رابری، حیات عامری، مجتبی منشی زاده ، ارسلان گلفام صفحات 31-52
    هدف از پژوهش حاضر، مقایسه ی رشد حوزه های زبانی کودکان نارساخوان و عادی بود. روش این پژوهش، توصیفی و از نوع پس رویدادی یا علی– مقایسه ای بود. در این پژوهش 60 نفر شامل: 30 دانش آموز نارساخوان رشدی و 30 دانش آموز عادی پایه ی اول تا سوم دبستان شرکت داشتند. این دانش آموزان از طریق نمونه گیری در دسترس انتخاب شدند و با استفاده از آزمون هوش تجدید نظر شده ی وکسلر کودکان و آزمون خواندن و نارساخوانی (نما) مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند؛ درنهایت نیز، جهت ارزیابی رشد زبان گفتاری، از نسخه ی نهایی آزمون رشد زبان استفاده شد. تحلیل یافته ها با استفاده از آزمون های آماری من ویتنی و کروسکال والیس صورت گرفت. یافته های به دست آمده از این بررسی نشان داد بین میانگین نمرات کودکان نارساخوان و عادی در حوزه های زبان که شامل حوزه های معنایی یا واژگانی (واژگان تصویری، واژگان ربطی و واژگان شفاهی) و حوزه های دستوری (درک دستوری، تقلید جمله و تکمیل دستوری) است، تفاوت معناداری وجود دارد؛ به طوری که میانگین نمرات دانش آموزان عادی در این حوزه ها بیش از میانگین نمرات گروه نارساخوان است. بنابراین، با توجه به یافته های حاصل از این تحقیق می توان نتیجه گرفت که کودکان نارساخوان نسبت به همتایان عادی شان، توانایی های زبانی ضعیف تری در حوزه های واژگانی، نحوی، زبان گفتاری و خرده آزمون های مربوط به آن ها دارند؛ همچنین مقایسه ی داده ها به لحاظ رشدی نیز نشان داد که بین حوزه های زبان کودکان نارساخوان و عادی در سه پایه ی تحصیلی تفاوت معناداری وجود دارد و کودکان کلاس سوم در هر دو گروه، عملکرد بهتری در حوزه های زبان نسبت به کودکان کلاس اول و دوم دارند. ازاین رو، پیشنهاد می شود در برنامه ی درمانی کودکان نارساخوان، آموزش حوزه های زبانی در کنار سایر مداخلات درمانی گنجانده شود.
    کلیدواژگان: نارساخوانی، زبان گفتاری، معناشناسی، نحو
  • آسیه سادات مدرسی سریزدی، عزت الله نادری ، مریم سیف نراقی، قدسی احقر صفحات 53-76
    هدف این تحقیق ارائه ی الگوی برنامه درسی کارآفرین محور در درس فارسی دوره ی ابتدایی می باشد. چراکه اهمیت و جایگاه زبان فارسی به عنوان پیام آور جلال و عظمت فرهنگ ایرانی و حافظ وحدت و هویت ملی، بر کسی پوشیده نیست و کتاب درسی فارسی، در عین حال که عمده ترین منبع یادگیری فراگیران در زمینه ی «خواندن» و «پرورش مهارت های درک مطلب» است؛ ایفاگر نقش ها و فعالیت های گوناگون برای تحقق اهداف و مهارت های زندگی است تا با توجه به اهمیت دوره ی ابتدایی در زندگی افراد، دانش آموزان را برای زیستن متعالی آماده کند و در جهت تقویت مهارت و نگرش کارآفرینانه ی آنان نقش موثری ایفا کند. این پژوهش، تحقیقی کاربردی و از حیث روش، تحلیلی و زمینه ای می باشد. در این مقاله، بررسی مطالعات انجام شده در زمینه ی کارآفرینی، طراحی برنامه ی درسی (به طور خاص برنامه ی درسی درس فارسی) و نظریه های مختلف صاحب نظران، منجر به ایجاد یک دیدگاه نظری در مورد برنامه ی درسی مبتنی بر مولفه های کارآفرینی در درس فارسی گردیده است که در قالب الگوی برنامه ی درسی طراحی شده به برنامه ریزان درسی و دست اندرکاران تعلیم و تربیت پیشنهاد می شود. لازم به ذکر است الگوی پیشنهادی به 49 نفر از متخصصان برنامه ی درسی و کارآفرینی استان یزد ارائه شد تا میزان تناسب الگوی پیشنهادی مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. در همین راستا، پرسش نامه ای حاوی 75 گویه طراحی و به گروه موردنظر ارائه گردید. میانگین پاسخ ها نشان می دهد که از نظر متخصصان مربوطه الگوی پیشنهادی بر اساس مولفه های دانش، نگرش و مهارت کارآفرینی بسیار مناسب می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: برنامه ی درسی، درس فارسی، کارآفرینی، الگو
  • جلال رحیمیان، سید بهنام علوی مقدم * صفحات 77-96

    در پژوهش حاضر، محتوای کتاب های درسی فارسی متوسطه ی دوره ی اول (هفتم، هشتم و نهم) سال تحصیلی 96–97، از منظر کاربرد ابزارهای انسجام واژگانی و در چارچوب نقش گرایی هلیدی و حسن (1976) مورد واکاوی قرار گرفتند. پژوهش به شیوه ی تحلیل محتوا و به صورت توصیفی انجام گرفت و محتوای آن شامل سه کتاب عنوان شده در فوق بود که از هریک، سه فصل به شیوه ی تصادفی انتخاب شدند. مواردی که از نظر هلیدی و حسن ابزارهای انسجام واژگانی محسوب می شوند در سه کتاب درسی استخراج گردیده و بسامدگیری شد. درصد وقوع هریک از ابزارها نیز به دست آمد. پس از بررسی داده ها مشخص شد، کتاب فارسی هفتم با 158 مورد، کتاب فارسی هشتم با 125 مورد و فارسی نهم با 120 مورد، در به کارگیری ابزار انسجام واژگانی به ترتیب در رتبه های اول تا سوم قرار دارند. در کتاب فارسی پایه ی هفتم، باهم آیی بیشترین ابزار انسجام به کاررفته و تضاد، کم ترین ابزار استفاده شده بود. در فارسی هشتم، باهم آیی و هم معنایی به ترتیب بیشترین و کم ترین ابزار انسجام واژگانی به کاررفته در این کتاب و در فارسی نهم نیز، شمول معنایی بیشترین و باهم آیی کم ترین ابزار به کار رفته بودند. در راستای تحلیل آماری دقیق تر و یافتن معناداری در توزیع ابزارهای انسجام واژگانی در هریک از کتاب ها، از آزمون مجذور کای استفاده گردید. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده در سطح p<0, 05، میان توزیع ابزارهای انسجام واژگانی به کاررفته در هریک از پایه های تحصیلی هفتم، هشتم و نهم، تفاوت معنی داری وجود دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل محتوا، نقش گرایی، انسجام واژگانی، کتاب های فارسی
  • معصومه نجفی پازکی صفحات 97-118
    هدف از انجام پژوهش حاضر شناسایی رابطه ، رسم الخط متون کتاب درسی فارسی با مهارت روخوانی دانش آموزان دوره ی اول ابتدایی بود. جامعه ی مورد مطالعه دانش آموزان دوره ی اول ابتدایی دبستان های مناطق نوزده گانه ی شهر تهران در سال تحصیلی 95-94 بودند. در این پژوهش چهار مدرسه (دو مدرسه دخترانه و دو مدرسه پسرانه) از منطقه ی 9 تهران به طور تصادفی انتخاب شد. در هر مدرسه از سه کلاس اول، دوم و سوم آزمون روخوانی به عمل آمد. در مجموع 12 کلاس از چهار مدرسه در این پژوهش شرکت کردند که مجموع دانش آموزان 399 نفر شد. ابزار پژوهش آزمون استاندارد خواندن (Koromi Nouri, 2009) بود. هنگام سنجش خواندن، آزمون گر متن خواندنی را به آزمودنی می داد و با کرنومتر زمان اندازه گیری می شد و تعداد خطای خواندن محاسبه و ثبت می شد. نوع خطا با توجه به آزمون تشخیصیShirazi et al. , 2005) ) تعیین گردید. تحلیل داده ها حاکی از آن است که تفاوت مهارت روخوانی دانش آموزان دوره ی اول ابتدایی در خط نسخ و تحریری معنی دار است (sig<0, 05) و در خط نسخ بهتر از خط تحریری است. همچنین نتایج نشان می دهد مهارت روخوانی دانش آموزان در خط نسخ از پایه ی اول تا سوم وضعیت پایداری دارد؛ بنابراین خط نسخ خط بی نشان و مناسب آموزش است. مقایسه ی نتایج حاصله نیز، نشان داد سرعت و دقت دانش آموزان در خواندن خط نسخ همواره بهتر بوده است؛ لذا نتیجه می گیریم خط مناسب خواندن در کتاب درسی دوره ی اول ابتدایی، خط نسخ است.
    کلیدواژگان: خط نسخ، خط تحریری، روخوانی، اول ابتدایی، دوم ابتدایی، سوم ابتدایی، دوره ی اول ابتدایی
  • حمیدرضا برابری، عطیه کامیابی گل ، محمود الیاسی صفحات 119-136
    مهارت نوشتاری توانایی برقراری ارتباط و انتقال اطلاعات و عقاید، به کمک مجموعه ای از نشانه های نوشتاری است. یکی از مسائل در حوزه ی آموزش زبان، بررسی تفاوت های رشد مهارت نوشتاری افراد مختلف در حوزه ای خاص می باشد. بر این اساس در پژوهش حاضر تفاوت های مهارت نوشتاری در چارچوب مکث و همچنین الگوهای نحوی مورد بررسی قرار میگیرد. برای جمعآوری داده های مورد نظر ابتدا 30 دانش آموز دبیرستانی از تربت جام به صورت تصادفی انتخاب شدند (15 نفر دختر و 15 نفر پسر). سپس از همه ی شرکت کنندگان خواسته شد که با استفاده از نرم افزار واژه پرداز متن، حدود یک بند درباره ی پدیده ی تقلب در مدارس و راه های پیشگیری از آن بنویسند. برای جلوگیری از تداخل و انحراف در نتایج، شرکت کنندگان از لحاظ سن، جنسیت، تعداد افراد هر گروه، سطح آشنایی با رایانه و نرم افزار واژه پرداز، سطح نمرات و معدل تحصیلی یکسان سازی شدند و به طور تصادفی در سه گروه سنی قرار گرفتند. درنهایت نتایج حاصل از بررسی یافته ها نشان می داد که فارسی زبانان 13 تا 18 ساله در عواملی همچون مدت زمان نگارش متن، تعداد کلمات به کار رفته، الگوهای مکث، میزان دیرش مکث، جایگاه نحوی وقوع آن و نیز ویرایش متن به هنگام نوشتن متن با یکدیگر تفاوت دارند و با افزایش سن این تفاوت ها بیشتر می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: رشد مهارت نوشتاری، مکث، الگوهای نحوی، شناخت، نرم افزار واژه پرداز
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    In recent years, there has been increased enrollment of foreign students at the universities of the country. Researchers and instructors of Persian language teaching centers in the universities are seeking to integrate Farsi language acquisition and content learning to arrive at an effective instructional approach which would facilitate the acquisition of Persian as a second language and the learning of content in subject areas such as humanities, social sciences, engineering, and medicine.
    Diverse and important cognitive influences of this instructional approach in relation to language acquisition and content learning processes have not been explored in our country. In this approach, language is used for learning as well as communication, and it is the content which determines language learning targets. In a typical lesson based on this approach, the following components are integrated:-content: improvement of knowledge, skills, and comprehension of the specific elements of a given curriculum
    -communication: using language to learn and learning to use language
    -cognition: the development of thinking skills which relate concept formation (abstract) to comprehension and language
    -culture: exposure to alternative perspectives and common understanding which would deepen awareness of self and others.
    It seems that cognitive processes which are implied in the acquisition of content-specific information could affect the use of Persian as a second language in instructional activities. However, the theoretical frameworks of this approach to teaching Persian language which seeks to integrate content and language learning have not been put to test in language classes. For the past fifty years, language and content have been addressed separately in Persian language teaching centers. Thus, there is little knowledge about the interplay of these elements of content based language learning. Therefore, it is recommended that fundamental research be conducted on the methods of implementation of this approach and the framework of the lessons in the Persian language teaching centers. As such, this journal welcomes manuscripts which report such studies.

    Amirreza Vakilifard
    Editor-in-Chief
  • Hasan Taghiyan, Ebrahim Khodayee, Abbas Bazergan, Ali Moghaddamzadeh, Masoud Kabiri Pages 3-30
    The present research aimed at the construction and validation of a reading test based on cognitive diagnostic assessment model (CDM). In order to construct the test, the most important reading attributes were identified by classifying the attributes relevant to reading in national and international research and documents. Subsequently, the test was designed by considering the viewpoints of experts in the field of Persian language and literature and primary school teachers. After pilot and preliminary analysis and eliminating inappropriate items, the final test was designed with 27 items, which measured four attributes of comprehension of explicit information in the text, inference, integration and interpretation, and vocabulary. In this research, the construction stages of the test were elaborated. Using a cluster sampling method, the test was performed on a sample consisting of 816 sixth grade students in Qom. The statistical analyses were carried out via additive CDM. The relative and absolute indices of fitness indicated that the model is sufficiently fit. Moreover, use of classification consistency and accuracy indices indicated that the test is capable of classifying students with proper consistency and accuracy. The research results illustrated that this test can identify students’ reading attributes using cognitive diagnostic assessment model. Extended Abstract:Evaluating ability of reading specifically in primary school students is of utmost importance. Though, national and international researches and assessments demonstrate weakness in Iranian students reading, no test for assessing of reading skills for primary school student is yet available. Recent developments of educational assessment is basis to construct tests that diagnose students mastery in different attitudes. Among them cognitive diagnostic assessment can demonstrate students weakness and strength in different attitudes. Generally, the goal of cognitive diagnostic assessment is promoting assessment for learning versus learning outcome assessment by providing the information needed to modify the teacher's training in the classroom. In another word the goal of cognitive diagnostic assessment is obtaining diagnosis and formative feedback by demonstrating students mastery of attitude exactly. The present research aimed at construction and validation of a reading test using cognitive diagnostic assessment . So this research has two minor goals: (A) identification of reading attributes and (b) designing a reading test using a cognitive diagnostic model. In order to achieve the first goal, reading theories were first reviewed . Reviewing reading theories suggests that existing theories analyze reading with great complexity and subtlety, making it almost impossible to make a test based on these theories . Therefore, in order to identify reading attributes, first reading attributes in national and international research and documentation, and valid language tests and researches that were performed with the cognitive diagnostic approach to assessing language, were collected and the most important reading attributes were collected . The attributes were categorized in several stages with the view of the specialists of Persian language and primary school teachers, and finally, four main attributes for the construction of the test were identified. Subsequently, The test was designed by viewpoints of experts in the field of Persian language and literature and primary school teachers. Though, in the stages of the construction of the initial test, the appropriate coverage of the various combination of the Q-matrix was carefully noted, but in a Focus group, the suitability of the Q matrix was investigated . After pilot and preliminary analysis and eliminating inappropriate items, the final test was designed with 27 items, which assessed four attributes of comprehension of explicit information in the text, inference, integration and interpretation, and vocabulary. The test consists of three types of items . In a class of items, the student must answer questions about the story content after reading a short text. In the second class, the student should understand the meaning of the words and ancient literature sentences. In third class items, students should be able to recognize the meaning of words in different sentences. In this test, in addition to the standards of educational measurement, a cognitive diagnostic model was used and specific Persian language requirements such as Iranian proverbs, ancient poetry and ancient literature, and some sources of reading errors that are rooted in Persian features (such as different letters with the same pronunciation, differences in the written and spoken word of some words, etc.) has also been considered. In this research, the construction stages of the test were elaborated. Using a cluster sampling method, the test was performed on a random sample consisting of 816 sixth grade students in Qom. The statistical analyses were carried out using additive cognitive diagnostic model. After the initial analysis and the removal of inappropriate items, the relative and absolute indices of fitness indicate that the model is sufficiently fit. Moreover, usage of classification consistency and accuracy indices indicate that the test is capable of classifying students with proper consistency and accuracy. Students' mastery of the four attitudes of reading in this test was between 0.53 and 0.68 . Subjects' mastery in the attributes of comprehension of explicit information in the text was 0.68, in inference attributes and vocabulary knowledge, each was 0.58, and in the integration and interpretation attribute was 0.53 . Students' mastery in the attributes has been compared with the two minimal criteria and the criterion that Jang (2009) has proposed. According to the minimal criterion, students have mastered all reading attributes. Based on the criterion that Jang (2009) suggests, the minimum level of proficiency required for each attribute is 0.6. Accordingly, students have mastered the comprehension of explicit information in the text, and have not mastered other reading attributes. The results of this study showed that this test can identify the profile of reading attributes of students using a diagnostic cognitive model
    Keywords: cognitive diagnostic assessment, Reading, Sixth Grade, additive CDM
  • Maryam Nozari Rabari, Hayat Ameri, Mojtaba Monshizadeh, Arsalan Golfam Pages 31-52
    The goal of this study was to compare language development in dyslexic and normal children. This study was descriptive and employed causal-comparative ex post facto design. Participants were 60 first to third grade elementary students: 30 with developmental dyslexia and 30 normal students. These students were selected by availability sampling and by using Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and Reading and Dyslexia (NAMA). At the end, the development of spoken language was measured via Test of Language Development (TOLD-P: 3). In order to analyze data, Mann-Whitney Test and Kruskal Wallis Test were used. Findings obtained from this research showed that there was a significant difference between mean of scores of dyslexic and normal children in linguistic areas which included: semantic or lexical areas (picture vocabulary, relational vocabulary, and oral vocabulary) and syntactic areas (grammatical comprehension, sentence imitation, and grammatical completion). That is, the mean of scores of normal children was higher than dyslexic group. Therefore, according to obtained findings from this survey, it can be concluded that dyslexic children compared to normal subjects had weaker linguistic abilities in semantics, syntax, and spoken language. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between mean of scores of dyslexic and normal children in Spoken language areas in grades 1-3 and third graders had better language performance compared to first and second graders in both groups. Therefore, it is suggested that along with other therapeutic interventions, teaching of linguistic areas be included in the treatment program for children with dyslexia. Extended Abstract:Dyslexia is a severe type of learning disability that affects some children, adolescents and adults (Lyon B, 1995). Weber (1985), in the Culture of psychology, refers to dyslexia as any kind of reading disability in which the children lag behind their class in the field of reading. There is no objective evidence that indicates deficiencies such as mental retardation, major brain damage or emotional and cultural problems as well as speech. Almost 80% of students with learning disabilities have difficulties in reading (Mays and Calhoun, 2006).
    Today many studies show that children with learning disabilities have less skills in phonological, semantic, syntactic and communicational skills than their peers. In addition, attempts to describe subgroups of children with learning disabilities prove that the largest subgroup is children with linguistic weaknesses that almost form half of the population of children with learning disabilities (Brian et al. , 1991, p. 119). The prevalence of spoken language disorders among students with learning disabilities shows that these disorders are one of the most common problems of these students, but these problems have not been much considered (Halahan et al, 2011؛ quoted in Alizadeh et al. , 1390, p. 442).
    One of the issues that has attracted the attention of researchers in recent years is the relationship between the development and evolution of language and its fundamental role in reading skills.
    Linguistic disorders affect not only the individual's ability to communicate in everyday life, but also prevent the learning of skills such as reading and writing, as well as have a negative effect on performance in other areas such as participation in social interactions and learning foreign language (Halahan et al. , 2011؛ quoted in Alizadeh et al. , 1390, p. 440) so, as for the importance and role of language in learning of reading skills, in this research, we sought to answer the general question of what is the difference between linguistic development of dyslexic children and normal children in the first to third grades of elementary schools. It should be noted that because spoken language is a very complex category (Halahan et al. , 2011, quoted in Alizadeh et al. , 1390, p. 439), in this study, only two aspects of the spoken language that are considered in Test of Language Development (TOLD-P: 3) (1998) have been studied. Therefore, the purpose of the development of spoken language in this research is the skills that include the semantic domains (picture vocabulary, relational vocabulary, and oral vocabulary) and syntax (grammatical comprehension, sentence imitation, and grammatical completion).
    It should be noted that the present study was conducted within the framework of psychology of language and examined the relationship between language and reading. In addition, the purpose of the growth of language in this article is the development of spoken language; therefore, the research hypotheses are:The first hypothesis: dyslexic children have a weaker performance than their normal counterparts in the growth of semantic / lexical domains (picture vocabulary, relational vocabulary, and oral vocabulary), and their difference in performance is statistically significant.
    The Second hypothesis: The performance of dyslexic children in the development of syntactic domains (grammatical comprehension, sentence imitation, and grammatical completion) is weaker than their normal counterparts, so that there is a significant difference between their performance.
    The third hypothesis: There is a significant difference between the development of spoken language (semantic and syntactic skills) in dyslexic children and normal children, and dyslexic children have a weaker performance than their normal children.
    The fourth hypothesis: With increasing educational level, the growth of speech language of children in both dyslexic and normal groups is significantly increased.
    The fifth hypothesis: There is a significant difference between the growth of spoken language domains ​​of dyslexic children and the normal first to third grade elementary students.
    This study was descriptive and causal-comparative (ex post facto). participants were 60 students: 30 students with developmental dyslexia and 30 normal students of grades 1- 3 in elementary schools of Kerman city. These students were selected by non-random sampling and by using Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and Reading and Dyslexia (NAMA) Test. At the end, the growth of spoken language between two groups were measured via Test of Language Development (TOLD-P: 3).
    The data that were analyzed in this study included scores that normal and dyslexic students in the first to third grade of elementary students received in Test of Language Development. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
    Descriptive statistics includes the calculation of mean and standard deviations. The hypothesis tests was performed by using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests with a significance level of 0. 05 and With the help of the SPSS software.
    Findings obtained from this research showed that there is a significant relationship between mean of scores of dyslexic and normal children in linguistic areas which include: semantic or lexical areas (picture vocabulary, relational vocabulary, and oral vocabulary) and syntactic areas (grammatical comprehension, sentence imitation, and grammatical completion). The mean of scores of normal children was higher than dyslexic groups. Therefore, according to obtained findings from this survey, it can be concluded that dyslexic children compared to normal subjects have a weaker performance both in the whole test and in each subtests in semantics, syntax and spoken language. Furthermore, there is a significant difference between mean of scores of dyslexic and normal children in Spoken language areas in 1-3 grades. Children in third grade had better language performance compared to first and second graders in both groups. Therefore, it is suggested that teaching linguistic areas, along with other therapeutic interventions, be included in the treatment program for children with dyslexia
    Keywords: dyslexia, spoken language, semantics, syntax
  • Asiyeh Sadat Modarresi Saryazdi, Ezatolah Naderi, Maryam Seif Naraghi, Ghodsi Ahghar' Pages 53-76
    This research was written with the aim of presenting a theoretical model of entrepreneurship-oriented curriculum for Farsi courses at elementary school. The importance of Farsi language as the messenger of glory and the greatness of Iranian culture and the preservation of national identity and unity should not be overlooked. The Persian textbook, as the main source of reading and developing comprehension skills, plays various roles and activities in the realization of students’ life goals and skills. Elementary education has an important role in preparing students for an elevated life and in developing and strengthening entrepreneurial attitudes in primary school students. This research was an applied research which adopted review and analysis method. In this paper, the review of studies on entrepreneurship, curriculum design (in particular the curriculum of the Farsi language) and various theories of experts in this field led to the creation of a theoretical perspective on Farsi curriculum which drew on components of entrepreneurship. This article presents this model to curriculum designers and educational authorities. The proposed model was presented to 49 curriculum design experts and entrepreneurs of Yazd province in order to assess the appropriateness of the proposed model. In this regard, a questionnaire containing 75 items was developed and presented to the group. The average of responses showed that according to the experts, the suggested model is very suitable in terms of the knowledge, attitude and entrepreneurial skills components. Extended Abstract:
    Children in every society are the decisive future forces of society. The forces that can advance society towards perfection or vice versa will lead to backwardness and decline. In order to achieve the individual's and society's progress, one of the most important skills that every child should have is the entrepreneurial skill. There is a lot of evidence that entrepreneurship education is effective in increasing entrepreneurial attitudes and thus increasing the likelihood of entrepreneurship. The elementary period is the most important course in all world education systems (Estiri, 2010: 3). And in terms of the number of teachers and students and the impact of this period on life and education, has a special place (Jafari Moghadam and Fakharzadeh, 2011: 48). For this reason, the curriculum should be targeted at awareness raising and strengthening the attitude towards entrepreneurship (Arasti et al., 2015: 593). The integration of entrepreneurship education in the school curriculum enriches learners’ learning experiences and increases the relationship between school and industry and agriculture, as well as providing an opportunity to test the entrepreneurship content and methods of teaching due to the novelty of the subject (Yaghubi Najafabadi, 2010: 31). According to Kourilsky (1990), in order to encourage entrepreneurship education in primary schools, the emphasis should be on creating divergent thinking skills. She said that learning experience should focus more on explanation and inquisitiveness. In this way, students would be more involved in entrepreneurial thinking and behaviour, and the learning should focus on providing them with some entrepreneurship foundation (Abd Hamid, 2013 :9).
    On the other hand, attention to textbooks in developing entrepreneurship in elementary schools is very important (Altbach, 1991: 97). Because the textbook is the most important educational medium (Nourian, 2007: 358), in addition to providing many of the necessary information services, forms the attitudes and sensitivities of individuals and contributes to the consolidation and formation of a particular value system within human beings (Amiri, 2006, quoted by Bayat et al., 2013: 53). Textbooks should also be reinforced by creating opportunities and activities for individual and group learning of mental and intellectual skills in the individual (Sajjadi and Sahraee, 2014: 75).
    The Persian textbook as the main source of learning for learners in the field of "reading" and "developing comprehension skills" " (Debbaie et al., 2010: 30) plays various roles and activities for realizing life's goals and skills in order to prepare students for the transcendental life, and thus can play an effective role in strengthening the entrepreneurial attitudes of primary school students) Jafari Moghadam and Fakharzadeh 2011: 48).
    Considering the importance of the above mentioned materials and given the background of the research; to design an effective strategy for entrepreneurship education for children and students in Iran, it is necessary to design patterns and curricula. The programs should observe the process of its preparation; the principles governing the value system and the philosophy of education, the education system, the scientific and cultural developments and the needs of society. In this regard, different perspectives on the elements of the curriculum have been raised and each of them has elements for designing a curriculum. In this study, for the design of curriculum, the view of Zais (1997) is considered. According to Zais, curriculum elements include: goal, content, learning activities and evaluation. Therefore, by studying the relevant texts and relying on various theories on the subject of research, and with the aim of empowering elementary students in entrepreneurship, efforts have been made to design and formulate an entrepreneur-centered curriculum in the Farsi language in accordance with its objectives and principles.
    Research
    method
    Since the researcher in this study is trying to design a curriculum model based on entrepreneurship components in Farsi lesson, the analytical and field method is used for doing it.
    In this regard, the researcher first, with regard to theoretical foundations and the research history of the research, as well as the objectives of the Farsi language, identified the issues and sought the views of the supervisors and counselors on the preparation of the Farsi lesson curriculum based on the entrepreneurship components.
    Discussion
    In this research, the goals, content, learning activities and evaluation method of entrepreneurship curriculum based on the three components of knowledge, attitude and entrepreneurship skills are set first and after reviewing and summarizing different studies and theories in this regard, and attention to the Farsi curriculum of elementary school and the characteristics of learners, the proposed syllabus elements are presented in the framework of Table 1.
    Table 1: Theoretical model of curriculum based on entrepreneurial components in Farsi lesson
  • Jalal Rahimian, Seyyed Behnam Alavi Moghadam Pages 77-96

    In the present study, contents of Persian textbooks of junior high school (seventh, eighth and ninth grades) were examined regarding the use of lexical coherence tools within the framework of Halliday and Hasan's Functional linguistics theory (1976). The research was conducted in a content analysis method and was descriptive. From each of the three books, three chapters were randomly selected. All lexical coherence tools were identified and tallied in the textbooks. The percentage of occurrence of each instrument was also obtained. The results showed that in the seventh, eighth, and ninth grade Persian books 158, 125, and 120 lexical coherence tools were used, respectively. In the seventh grade book, collocations and opposites were the most and the least commonly used instruments, respectively. In the eighth grade book, collocation and synonymy were the most and the least used instruments, respectively. In the ninth grade books, hyponymy and collocation were the most and the least used instruments, respectively. For more accurate statistical analysis, Chi-square test was used to explore the distribution of lexical coherence tools in each of the books. Based on the results obtained at the level of p <0.05, there was a significant difference between the distribution of lexical coherence instruments in each of the books. Extended Abstract: In this research, the content of Iranian Junior High School Persian textbooks (Grade 7, 8 and 9), published in school year 97-98, is studied in terms of Lexical Cohesive Devices in the framework of Halliday and Hassan’s functional Linguistics.
    This investigation is conducted by analyzing content in a descriptive way. And the content includes three lessons randomly picked from the above books. Cases that are considered as Lexical Cohesive Devices from Halliday and Hassan’s perspective, were extracted from all three books. Frequency and percentage of usage of each device was diagnosed as well. After analyzing the data, we came to conclusion that the 7th grade book with 158 cases of Cohesive Devices, the 8th grade book with 125 cases and the 9th grade Persian textbook with 120 cases, respectively achieved the first, second and third rank in using Lexical Cohesive Devices.
    In 7th grade Persian textbook, collocations were the most and antonyms were the least used Cohesive Devices; collocations and synonyms were distinguished as the most and the least useful Lexical Cohesive Devices in 8th grade, and in 9th grade Persian textbook, hyponymy was the most used Device and collocations were the least.
    In order to achieve a more exact statistical analysis on distribution of Lexical Cohesive Devices in each book, the Chi-Square Test was used. Based on the results, in pth, 8th, 9th grade Persian textbooks’ distribution of Lexical Cohesive Devices

    Keywords: content analysis, functional linguistics, lexical coherence, Persian textbook
  • Masoumeh Najafi Pazoki Pages 97-118
    The aim of this research was to determine the relationship between orthography of Persian textbooks and primary school students’ read-aloud skill. The study population consisted of the 1st to 3rd grade primary school students in Tehran in 2015-2016 academic year. In this research, four schools (two girls’ schools and two boys’ schools) were randomly selected from district nine. In each school, a read-aloud test was held in the first, second and third grades. Overall, in the four schools, 12 classes participated in the study and the sample amounted to 399 students. The research tool was the standard read-aloud test of Koromi Nouri (2009). When testing, the tester gave the reading text to the participants, measured the time with a stopwatch and registered the number of read-aloud errors. The error type was identified according to the diagnostic test of Shirazi et al. (2005). The data analysis showed that in Naskh and Tahriri orthographies, there was a difference between read-aloud scores of the primary school students. Students’ performed better in Naskh orthography. The results showed that students’ read-aloud skill in Naskh orthography was stable from first to third grades. Thus, Naskh is the unmarked orthography and is appropriate for teaching. In addition, the comparison of the results showed that read-aloud speed and accuracy was always better in Naskh orthography. Therefore, it was concluded that Naskh orthography is the most appropriate orthography for reading in the first to third grade primary school books.

    Extended Abstract:Reading is the ability of decoding written symbols to speech sounds (Gough, 1972). The first system in word decoding is vision analysis system that has two main responsibilities: at first it must recognize what the written letter is and second, where the letter is in a word. Vision analysis process does the analysis in three levels: orthography characteristic level, letter level, word letter. In the orthography characteristic analysis, it is important that in a word like “سرخ” teeth are in the horizontal line or the dot is above of the last letter. In the letter level the reader recognizes that three letters with special characteristic are arranged one after the other. In addition, in the letter level, the reader must know that where the letter is in the word. In the word level, the reader would find out the word consists of three letters and each letter is in the certain place of the word (McClelland & Rumelhart, 1981).
    Two kinds of orthography (Naskh & Tahriri) were used in the Persian books of the first to third grade students which differed in the function of vision analysis system. Naskh is a kind of orthography that its main characteristic is exact geometrical symmetry consideration, having equability and clarity, and easiness for reading and writing learning. In four-sixth of this orthography, ballpoint motion is plane and in two-sixth of it, ballpoint motion is circular. Tahriri is a kind of orthography that is educed from Nastalligh orthography. In five-sixth of this orthography ballpoint motion is circular and in one-sixth of it, ballpoint motion is plane.
    The aim of this research is to determine the relationship between orthography of Persian textbooks (Naskh & Tahriri) and students reading skill in the first to third grade students. The sample consisted of the first to third grade students in Tehran in 94-95 academic year. In this research four schools (two girls’ schools and two boys’ schools) were randomly selected in region nine. In each school a reading test was held in the first, second and third grades. Totally 12 class of the four schools participated and the whole number of students were 399. The research tool was the reading standard test of Koromi Nouri (1388). When testing, tester gave a reading text to participants, measured the time by stopwatch and registered the number of reading errors. The error type was identified according to the diagnostic test of Shirrazi and Nillipour (1384).
    The data analysis shows the difference between reading skill of the first to third grade students in Naskh and Tahriri orthography is meaningful (sig<0. 05) and it is better in Naskh orthography. The results show students reading skill in Naskh orthography is in a stable situation from first till third grade, so it is unmarked and appropriate for teaching. In addition the comparison of results shows students’ reading speed and accuracy is better in Naskh orthography continually, so appropriate orthography for reading in the first to third grade books is Naskh orthography
    Keywords: Naskh orthography, Tahriri orthography, read-aloud, first grade, second grade, third grade, 1st to 3rd grade primary school
  • Hamid Reza Barabari, Atiyeh Kamyabi Gol, Mahmood Elyasi Pages 119-136
    Writing skill refers to communication through a system of written signs. One of the major issues in language teaching relates to exploring the differences in the development of this skill. The present study aimed to examine the development of writing skill in terms of pause and syntax patterns. To collect the required data, 30 high school students were randomly selected (15 females and 15 males). The students were asked to write a paragraph about cheating on exams and the ways to prevent it. To prevent interference and distortion of the results, the participants were homogenized in terms of age, gender, number of group members, level of familiarity with computers and word processing software, and also grade point averages. Then, they were randomly assigned to three groups based on age. The results indicated that 13 to 18-year-old Persian speakers were different with regards to the duration of writing, number of words used in writing, the duration of pauses, pause patterns, syntactic location of pause occurrence, and text editing while writing a text. With increasing age, these differences became more prominent.
    Extended Abstract
    Introduction
    Writing skill means communication through a system of written signs. This skill, as well as the differences in its growth rate, is among the major issues in language and language learning studies. In fact, communicating through written language is not only a great hurdle for second/foreign language learners, but also native speakers tend to display difficulty in this area. Fromkin, Rodman and Hymes (2002) have compared speaking with writing as two major production skills and have concluded that while both skills are vital in language learning, speaking has received a great deal of research attention while writing has not received its limelight. While speaking uses various vocal signals to convey a message, writing has to use sets of arbitrary symbols to achieve the same effect and in turn is more difficult to conduct. The present study aimed to examine the development of writing skill in high school Persian native speakers in the context of pauses and pause patterns as a cognitive factor.
    Literature Review
    Hasanlou and Mohammadi (1388) assert that writing is one of the most complex tasks for language learners to master. In their research, they found that those who were better writers were also better speakers and that age and level of education play a vital role in the mastery of written skill. According to Deane, Odendahl, Quinlan, Fowles, Welsh, and Bivens (2008), the way an individual writes, mirrors their understanding and recognition of vocabulary meaning and syntactic structures; overall competence; power to relay information and relate to environmental phenomena; and generally, overall cognitive development. One important variable to study during writing is pause. How long a person pauses when writing can be affected by various factors such as age, gender, level of education, cognitive growth, etc. Myhill (2009) believes that with the advancement of age, syntactic complexities are more observable in writing. Also, sentence length and frequency of clauses and variation in clauses tend to increase with older writers. Schilperoord (2002) is among the various scholars who have conducted extensive research in the field of pauses during writing and he believes that this important factor has not received its due attention in English. The number of studies conducted on pauses during writing in Persian is almost non-existing and to the best of the writers’ knowledge, this is one of the pioneering studies in this filed. Johanson (2009) found that the development of writing skill is age dependent and that the overall quality of the written texts by 10-18 years olds was completely different.
    Methodology
    To collect the required data, 30 high school students were randomly selected; among them 15 females and 15 males, respectively. It should be noted that all the participants were fluent in Persian and also had enough mastery in writing. The students were asked to write a paragraph about students' cheating issue and preventive methods in high schools. To prevent interference and distortion of the results, the participants were balanced in terms of age, gender, level of familiarity with computers and word processor software and also school grade point averages. Then they were randomly divided into three groups based on age.
    Results
    The results indicated that 13 to 18-year-old Persian speakers are different with regards to the duration of writing, number of words used in writing, the duration of pauses, pause patterns and place of pause occurrence as well as text editing while writing a text. In the 13-14 year old group (first group), the average time span for writing was 1671 seconds, average pause duration 936 seconds and the average number of words used was 15. In the second group (15-16 year olds), the average time span for writing was 1800 seconds, average pause duration 973 seconds and the average number of words used was 227. Finally for the last group (17-18 year olds), the average time span for writing was 2413 seconds, average pause duration 1057 seconds and the average number of words used was 331. The t-test results indicate that there is a significant difference between the first (13-14 year olds) and third (17-18 year olds) groups as regards to the average time span for writing, average pause duration and the average number of words used. No significant difference was seen between the first and second groups. The results also indicate that the first group made 460, second group 697, and the third group 1530 corrections on the texts respectively. The t-test results reveal a significant difference among all three groups. The t-test results reveal no significant difference between pause duration and correction pauses between the second and third group; however, a significant difference was observed between the first and third group.
    Conclusion and
    Discussion
    Based on the obtained results, the following conclusions can be made: 1. older participants took longer to write their texts 2. the pause duration increased with age. 3. the number of words per text increased with age. 4. with the advancement of age, the number of overall used characters and edited characters increased. 5. at the word level, with the advancement of age, the number and duration of pauses decreased; however, the results were vice versa which revealed an increase at the sentence and clause level
    Keywords: Development of writing skill, pause, syntactic patterns, cognition, word processing software