فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:13 Issue: 4, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/08/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Mohsen Hesami , * , Mohammad Hosein Daneshvar , Mohsen Yoosefzadeh, Najafabadi Page 1
    Background
    Ficus religiosa is known as a pure source in traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes, asthma, diarrhea, gastric problems, epilepsy, sexual, infectious, and inflammatory disorders. Despite the fact that many studies have authorized its traditional medicinal uses, yet these utilized raw extracts have not been yet characterized. Therefore, there is a necessity for standardizing its phytochemical features and recognizing bioactivity, guided by bioactive metabolites.
    Objectives
    In this study, the effect of light and dark condition, different strengths of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, and their interactions on seed germination and the effect of plant growth regulators on callogenesis of F. religiosa via leaf, petiole, root, and internode explants were investigated.
    Results
    The results demonstrated the highest seed germination percentage was achieved at one-tenth strength of MS medium under the light condition. Also, the highest callus fresh weight was obtained from media supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) and 0.05 mg/L 6- benzyl amino purine (BAP) in all explants. The MS medium containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) produced greenish and compact calli while yellowish and compact calli was achieved in α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and finally 2,4-D produced yellow-brownish calli.
    Conclusions
    To the best of the author’s knowledge, this study was the first report of seed germination and callus induction through immature explants of F. religiosa. The seed germination and callogenesis system established in this study could be applied in the future for the enrichment of certain secondary metabolites as well as the production of new secondary metabolites, with the purpose of understanding and use of medicinal properties for this valuable germplasm
    Keywords: Seed Germination, Callus Induction, Plant Growth Regulator, Ficus religiosa
  • Elia Ostad Asiaei , Eskandar Moghimipour , Mohammad Hadi Fakoor Page 2
    Background
    Due to the increasing resistance of pathogenic bacteria to common antibiotics, researchers are seeking alternative antimicrobial agents with plant origins.
    Objectives
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of essential oil, extracted from the leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, the major Eucalyptus species cultivated in Khuzestan, South of Iran, against the growth of drug-resistant bacteria.
    Methods
    Essential oil was extracted from the leaves using the hydrodistillation method in a Clevenger apparatus. The constituents of the essential oil were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of essential oil was assayed using the disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were also determined using the macrodilution method.
    Results
    Isolation and identification of the main components of essential oil identified 1,8-cineole (55.2%) as the main component. The essential oil could control resistant pathogenic bacteria. The greatest effect of essential oil was reported against Klebsiella pneumoniae with an inhibition zone diameter of 35 mm and MIC and MBC of 500 and 1500 ppm, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest effect was reported against Salmonella infantis and Salmonella enteritidis with an inhibition zone diameter of 11 mm and MIC and MBC of 6,000 and 8,000 ppm, respectively.
    Conclusions
    The essential oil of E. camaldulensis (Myrtaceae family) grown in Iran exhibited significant activities against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, E. camaldulensis is an effective antibacterial and bactericidal agent in the treatment of infectious diseases
    Keywords: Antimicrobial Agents, Essential Oil, GC-MS, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella infantis, Salmonella enteritidis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis
  • Anoosheh Sharifan , Maryam Ranjbar , Hamed Ahari Page 3
    Background
    Ready-to-cook breast chicken is susceptible to bacterial changes, which, in turn, adversely affect both food quality and consumers’ health.
    Objectives
    This study was intended to investigate the antibacterial potency of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil (ZEO) and ethanolic garlic extract (EGE) against four bacterial strains, namely S. aureus, B. licheniformis, E. coli O157:H7, and S. enteritidis in ready-to-cook breast chicken.
    Methods
    Initially, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured to define baseline concentrations for in-vivo applications. Afterward, the chicken pieces were contaminated with the given microorganisms before marinating them with ZEO and EGE. Cell viabilities were computed throughout storage at 4°C. A five-scale test was carried out to assess organoleptic features. Results and
    Conclusions
    The findings indicated that the two agents could successfully reduce the bacterial growth although ZEO was more effective than EGE. A better in-vivo antimicrobial performance was observed for ZEO in contrast to EGE, approximately demonstrating a comparable behavior under in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. The concentrations of EGE and ZEO with significant bacterial growth showed lower scores in the sensory survey
    Keywords: Garlic, Extract, Essential Oil, Antimicrobial
  • Abdolrasoul Namjou , * , Nasser Yazdani , Esmail Abbasi , Mahmoud Rafieian, Kopaei Page 4
    Background
    Matricaria chamomilla and Melissa officinalis have been used as antidepressants in traditional Iranian medicine.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Matricaria chamomilla and Melissa officinalis extracts compared to the classic antidepressant drug, imipramine, in adult non-reserpinized and reserpinized mice through the forced swim test.
    Methods
    In the current experimental study, 80 mice were divided into 10 groups. The first group received normal saline and the second and third groups received 25 and 50 mg/kg of Matricaria chamomilla extract, respectively. The fourth and the fifth groups received 25 and 50 mg/kg of Melissa officinalis extract. The sixth group received imipramine at a dose of 15 mg/kg. The seventh group received 5 mg/kg of reserpine and normal saline. The eighth and ninth groups received 25 and 50 mg/kg of Melissa officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla extracts, respectively. The tenth group was given imipramine through intraperitoneal (I.P) injection. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s post hoc test in SPSS.
    Results
    Matricaria chamomilla (50 mg/kg), Melissa officinalis (25 mg/kg), and imipramine (15 mg/kg) in non-reserpinized mice significantly decreased the duration of immobility in the forced swim test compared to the control group (P < 0.01). There was a reduction in the duration of immobility in the reserpinized mice administered Matricaria chamomilla at a dose of 50 mg/kg compared to the positive control group (P < 0.01).
    Conclusions
    Matricaria chamomilla and Melissa officinalis have antidepressant effects and may be taken into consideration in treating patients suffering from depression
    Keywords: Depression, Forced Swim Test, Matricaria chamomilla, Melissa officinalis, Balb, C
  • Nelson António Freitas Fernandes, Laura Isabel Nave Canelo, Rosalina da Conceição dos Santos Mata , Dina Isabel Malheiros Dinis de Mendonça *, António José Geraldes de Mendonça Page 5
    Background

    Africa has a rich diversity of plant species, which can be considered important sources of new chemical compounds that can be used in the development of novel therapeutic drugs.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of extracts obtained from the roots of Phragmanthera glaucocarpa (Peyr.) Balle, a plant used in Angola folk medicine.

    Methods

    The prepared extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity using ABTS (2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), DPPH (1’,1’-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), and peroxide value methods. Total phenolics were evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method.

    Results

    For ABTS, the best EC50 result was obtained with the ethyl acetate fraction (1.06 ± 0.30 mg/mL). For the DPPH method, the methanol extract and aqueous fraction presented the best EC50 results, 0.10 ± 0.01 mg/mL and 0.10 ± 0.00 mg/mL, respectively. The ethyl acetate fraction had the highest phenolic content (280.42 ± 0.15 mg G.A.E. /g of dry extract). The best result for the peroxide reduction value on the eighth day of sunflower oil oxidation was obtained for the aqueous fraction, with 131.40 ± 1.05 meq O2/g of lipid sample.

    Conclusions

    The results of the present study demonstrate that the roots of the medicinal plant Phragmanthera glaucocarpa (Peyr.) Balle represent a promising source of natural phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity

    Keywords: Phenolic Compounds, DPPH, ABTS, Peroxide Value, Folin-Ciocalteu, Phragmanthera glaucocarpa
  • Emsehgol Nikmahzar, Mehrdad Jahanshahi *, Fatemeh Babakordi Page 6
    Background

    Scopolamine can induce amyloid β accumulation, oxidative stress, synaptic loss, and learning/memory deficit as seen in Alzheimer’s disease. Ginkgo biloba extract increases neurogenesis and suppresses the happening of pathological processes and cognitive decline.

    Objectives

    Herein, we explored the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on scopolamine-induced congophilic amyloid plaque accumulation and neurons density in the rats’ brain.

    Methods

    Ginkgo biloba extract (40 and 80 mg/kg/day) was injected daily intraperitoneally for seven days before and after the scopolamine injection (3 mg/kg) in protective and treatment group rats. At the end of the experiments, the rats’ brains were removed and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. After histological processing, Congo red staining was used to assess amyloid plaques while cresyl violet staining was employed to determine the neuron density.

    Results

    The administration of scopolamine led to increased congophilic amyloid plaque density in the hippocampus and cingulate cortex of the rats. Pretreatment with Ginkgo biloba extract significantly decreased congophilic amyloid plaque numbers in the hippocampus and cingulate cortex. In addition, scopolamine could reduce the hippocampal and cingulate cortex neuron numbers compared to the control group rats. However, Ginkgo biloba extract increased the hippocampal and cingulate cortex neuron numbers before and after the injection of scopolamine.

    Conclusions

    Our results showed that Ginkgo biloba extract could play protective roles against some scopolamine-induced Alzheimer’s disease-like pathologic dysfunctions, including amyloid β accumulation and neuronal loss, suggesting that treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract might be a promising prophylactic target for Alzheimer’s disease.

    Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, Therapy, Cingulate Cortex, Hippocampus, Neuron
  • Anayatollah Salimi , , * , Shadi Jafarinezhad , Azin Kalantari Page 7
    Background
    Ketorolac tromethamine (KT) is described as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Among various NSAIDs, ketorolac tromethamine is commonly used for postoperative and emergency relief of pain.
    Objectives
    The goal of this study was to describe and assess the in vitro skin permeability of KT microemulsions (MEs).
    Methods
    The KT ME formulations were prepared using pseudoternary phase diagrams. Appropriate ratios of oil, S/C mixture, and water were selected, and eight formulations were prepared based on a full factorial design consisting of three variables at two levels. The droplet size, differential scanning calorimetry, pH, stability, viscosity, drug release, and skin permeability were examined in the prepared MEs.
    Results
    The droplet size of ME samples ranged from 28.36 to 81.4 nm, and pH was within the range of 5.1 - 5.7. In addition, the viscosity of MEs was 38 - 135 cps. Considering the drug release profile, 88.04% of the drug (ME-K-1) was released within 24 hours. All ME formulations drastically increased the permeability coefficient and flux in the rat skin. The Jss and Papp parameters were 0.144 mg/cm2.h and 0.0057 cm2/h in the ME-K-8 formulation, respectively (i.e., 8.42 and 8.41 times higher than the control, respectively). Based on the findings, they were visually cleared, and no phase separation was detected.
    Conclusions
    According to the findings, the oil, S/C mixture, and water contents in ME formulations affect physicochemical characteristics and permeation parameters. The selected MEs increased the rate of permeation and permeability coefficient through rat skin. Ideally, MEs should transfer the drug through the skin while maintaining its size and release it into deep layers of the skin. ME formulations may be proper carriers for transdermal ketorolac delivery, although further research is necessary to validate their therapeutic application
    Keywords: Transdermal Delivery, Ketorolac Tromethamine, Microemulsion, Permeability, Release
  • Farahnaz Bineshian, Neda Bakhshandeh, Kazem Taherian, Hossein Nazari * Page 8
    Background

    Chaerophyllum is a genus from the family Apiaceae. Chaerophyllum macropodum as a wild species is endemic to Iran and Turkey. The leaves of this plant are used in the food industry, as well as medicine. Since resistance has increased in some Candida species, side effects of chemical drugs and the use of medicinal plants are very important.

    Objectives

    We reviewed the antioxidant and anti-Candida effects of hydroalcoholic leaf extracts of C. macropodum.

    Methods

    For the evaluation of the antioxidant potential of C. macropodum extracts, DPPH radical scavenging test, reducing power assay, and β-carotene bleaching test were performed. Moreover, the total free phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured. A GC-MS instrument was used for analyzing the extract components. In addition, hydroalcoholic extraction was performed by agar well-diffusion method against 40 Candida species isolated from patients.

    Results

    According to the DPPH test, a moderate antiradical activity was attributed to C. macropodum leaf extract; maximum inhibition (6.38) was reported at 1000 μg/mL. Based on the findings, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 57.43 ± 0.25 and 138 ± 19.80 (mg/g), respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for C. albicans and C. glabrata were 300 and 400 μg/μL at 48 hours, respectively.

    Conclusions

    In this study, a moderate antioxidant activity was attributed to C. macropodum leaf extracts. In addition, the results confirmed that leaf extracts had inhibitory activity against bacteria and Candida species. Therefore, they may be applied as antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal agents in food protection

    Keywords: Chaerophyllum, Candida, Antioxidant Activity, Hydroalcoholic Extract
  • Sara Salatin , Jaleh Barar , Mohammad Barzegar, Jalali , Khosro Adibkia , Farhad Kiafar , Mitra Jelvehgari Page 9
    Background
    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related and irreversible neurological disorder. The low efficacy of current therapeutic strategies is related to both poor drug potency and the presence of various obstacles in the delivery routes, such as blood-brain barrier (BBB) that limits the uptake of most drugs by the brain. Rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate (RHT) is used in mild to moderate forms of AD therapy.
    Objectives
    The present study described the use of Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs), as effective delivery vehicles, to improve the therapeutic efficiency of RHT.
    Methods
    RHT-loaded PLGA NPs were prepared using interfacial polymer deposition, following solvent displacement method with different ratios of polymer: Drug. The NPs were studied for entrapment efficiency, particle size, and surface morphology, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro drug release from NPs was also assessed by a modified dissolution method.
    Results
    The entrapment efficiency of RHT in NPs was found to be between 27.71 ± 6.86 and 45.70 ± 11.06 and the average size was about 75.14 to 173 nm. The zeta potential was negative (-2.28 to -10.5 mV), as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The drug released from NP formulations was between 69.98% and 89% upon 24 hours, which indicated improved sustained drug release characteristics.
    Conclusions
    These results suggested the potential usefulness of PLGA NPs for the delivery of RHT in a sustained and controlled manner
    Keywords: Interfacial Polymer Deposition, Nanoparticles, Rivastigmine, BBB
  • Marzieh Asadi, Babak Mohammadian, Ali Shahriari, Mohammad Mohammadi *, Hossein Foruozandeh Page 10
    Background

    Methotrexate as a chemotherapy agent causes oxidative stress in the liver. Chicory (Cichorium intybus), a member of the Asteraceae family, is a well-known herb possessing various biological activities.

    Objectives

    The present study was conducted to assess the protective effect of Cichorium intybus extract against methotrexate-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Methods

    Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. The negative control group was administered 5 mL/kg of normal saline. In the positive control group, normal saline was administered for 11 days, and a single dose of methotrexate (MTX; 20 mg/kg, i.p) was injected on the 7th day. Groups 3 - 5 received Cichorium intybus extract (CIE) at the doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg p.o., respectively, for 11 days, and a single dose of MTX was administered on the 7th day. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after the last injection. Blood samples were withdrawn to measure serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (TB) levels. Glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were assayed in liver tissues. A portion of the liver tissues was used for histological examination.

    Results

    The results showed a dramatic reduction in the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, GSH, CAT, SOD, and GPx and a significant increase in the levels of TB and MDA by MTX administration. The groups pretreated with CIE showed a significant increase in the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, GSH, CAT, SOD, and GPx and a significant decrease in the levels of TB and MDA at all the doses, but the most significant change was observed at the dose of 400 mg/kg (P < 0.05). Our histological findings confirmed the above-mentioned results.

    Conclusions

    The results revealed that Cichorium intybus has protective effects against the liver tissue damage induced by MTX.

    Keywords: Methotrexate, Oxidative Stress, Cichorium intybus, Rats