فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:15 Issue: 1, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/09/06
  • تعداد عناوین: 15

    Regardless of toxicity of nanoparticles, cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) are emerging as a multi-functional agent for biomedical purposes. On the other hand, Organophosphorus pesticides, like malathion, are inevitably found in the environment. The common involving pathway CeNPs and malathion share is oxidative stress. Therefore, we conducted this study to find the possible neutralizing or synergistic effects of CeNPs on oxidative stress responses in malathion-induced toxicity by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. In this experimental study, 40 Wistar male rats with the weight range of 200-250 g were randomly selected and divided into eight groups. Group1 (control, normal saline), group2 (100 mg/kg/day malathion /IP), group3 (15 mg/kg/day CeNPs/IP), group4 (30 mg/kg/day CeNPs /IP), group5 (60 mg/kg/day CeNPs /IP), group6 (100 mg/kg/day malathion+15 mg/kg/day CeNPs /IP), group7 (100 mg/kg/day malathion+30 mg/kg/day CeNPs /IP) and group8 (100mg/kg/day malathion+60 mg/kg/day CeNPs /IP). After 4 weeks of treatment, the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total thiol molecules (TTM) and activity of catalase (CAT) in lung tissue were measured. All data were analyzed by SPSS V16 and One way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc test. The results demonstrated that CeNPs caused significant increases in LPO and TAC, in a dose-dependent-manner. For TTM level, none of the groups presented any significant change compared to control. Significantly decreased levels of CAT, also, were seen in all treatment groups. Surprisingly, all animals of group 8 died. Worth of noting, groups receiving combined CeNPs and malathion showed severe responses for these parameters. These results discovered that CeNPs induces oxidative stress parameters and ROS production, especially combined with malathion in lung tissue. Groups receiving both CeNPs and malathion displayed synergistic toxic properties. LPO, TAC and CAT seem to be better parameters for measuring CeNPs-induced responses. Further investigations are required to shed light on clear mechanisms involved
    Keywords: Cerium oxide nanoparticle, Lung, Oxidative Stress, Rat, Malathion
    Quercetin is a natural flavonoid found abundantly in vegetables and fruits. Chrysin (5, 7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural polyphenol, occurs in many plants, honey, and propolis. Quercetin and chrysin have a blend of many pharmacological activities such as anticarcinogenic, pro-apoptotic, antiangiogenic, antimetastatic, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant properties. But there is no scientific evidence regarding the muscle relaxant activity and locomotor activities of selected flavonoids. The present study was planned to evaluate the influence of quercetin and chrysin on muscle relaxant and locomotor activities using experimental animal models. Quercetin and chrysin (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg) was administered to rats and evaluated for muscle relaxant activity using rota-rod apparatus and locomotor activity using actophotometer. The time spent on the rota rod was significantly reduced by chrysin at 20, 40 and 60 mg/kg when compared to saline (control). Quercetin also reduced the time spent but statistically not significant. The positive control, diazepam was found to be more significant (p< 0.001) than the test doses of chrysin. The results of the locomotor activity study indicated that chrysin significantly reduced the locomotion in rats, but quercetin has no significant activity. The results of the present study revealed the chrysin has significant (p< 0.001) and dose dependent muscle relaxant and locomotor depressant activities. Quercetin also reduced the muscle relaxant and locomotor activities but statistically not significant
    Keywords: Actophotometer, Rotarod apparatus, Quercetin, Chrysin, Locomotor activity
    Cancer is still one of the most invasive health problems around the world although many researches have been done in this field. Different kinds of drugs are developed and used to improve cancer therapy. Some evidence has shown that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have anticancer activity in addition to anti-inflammatory effects. To improve the safety profile of NSAIDs and enhance anticancer potency, different strategies such as hybridization are used in several studies. Indomethacin is a lead compound in NSAIDs classes' demonstrated inhibitory activity for some malignancies including breast and ovarian cancer. Two kinds of hybrids were proposed and synthesized using diamine linkers via amid bonds: indomethacin-indomethacin (hybrid A) and indomethacin-methotrexate (MTX; hybrid B). To confirm the structures of newly synthesized hybrids, melting points, IR, H NMR were applied. The cytotoxic effects of synthesized hybrids against Hela and MCF-7 cancer cells were evaluated by MTT assay. The results showed that both hybrids were more cytotoxic than indomethacin and MTX alone.
    Keywords: NSAIDs, Indomethacin, Hybrid, MTT, Methotrexate
    Baluchi's formulation is an herbal blend including Date, Almond, Cinnamon, and Pumpkinseed, which have‏‏ the Powerful antioxidant role and stimulate the brain to produce neurotransmitters. Cholinergic system plays an important role in learning and memory. Prescribing Baluchi's formulation‏‏ is effective in animal cognitive behavior. ‏‏ The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of antidepressant By Baluchi's formulation compound on decreased memory due to scopolamine in mice by relying on behavioral tests. It has also been observed that anticholinergic medicines such as scopolamine may cause disorder in the consolidation process in the memory of human beings and animals. So 40 Albino mice (25-30 g) were divided into five groups (+ & - controls and three treatments). During seven consecutive days, the mice received Baluchi's formulation (1, 2, 4 g/kg oral) thirty minutes before scopolamine (1mg/kg i.p.). At the same time, spatial memory and depression parameters were measured using MWM and EPM. The results showed that Baluchi's formulation treatments, significantly increased the time of animal presence in the target quadrant, the percentage of open arms and the time spent in the open arm compared with the control groups (p<0.001). The results of this study showed that the compounds in the Baluchi's formulation micronutrients may be effective in preventing and treating disorders such as depression and demands
    Keywords: Scopolamine, Baluchi's formulation, Alzheimer, Memory
    Aluminum phosphide (ALP) poisoning has a high mortality rate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lipid emulsion (ILE) and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) in the treatment of aluminum poisoning in the rat model. This experimental study was conducted on thirty-three rats. Six rats in the control group were given oral corn oil and twenty-seven rats in the other groups were orally poisoned using ALP dissolved in corn oil (Control group, ALP group, ALP-NAC group, ALP-ILE group). All the rats were monitored for hemodynamics and ECG parameters. Mixed ANOVA analysis was applied to compare means across groups. Actuarial life table analysis was applied to compare the survival rate of rats. In terms of hemodynamics, ALP group had a significant difference in means of heart rate (HR) and shock index (SI) compared to the control group (P = 0.04; P = 0.00, respectively). The ALP-ILE group had no significant difference in means SBP, HR and SI compared to control group (p=1.00, p= 0.58, p=1.00, respectively). In ALP-NAC group, there was a significant difference in means HR and SI compared to the control group (p=0.01, p= 0.00, respectively). The ALP-NAC group had no significant differences in means of SBP, HR ,and SI compared to ALP group but the ALP-ILE group had significant differences in means of SBP and SI. Considering ECG in ALP, ALP-NAC and ALP-ILE groups, changes in the PR interval and duration of QT were not significant compared to the control group. In the ALP-NAC and ALP-ILE groups had no significant differences in means of QT and PR interval compared to the ALP group.There was a 45% survival rate in the ALP-ILE group at the end of 3rd day. Lipid peroxidation in the ALP and ALP-ILE groups significantly increased in comparison to the control group. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the ALP-ILE group increased significantly compared to the control group but was significantly lower than those treated with NAC. In this study, two therapeutic strategies were compared in the treatment of ALP-poisoning. NAC with antioxidant properties and ILE with lipophilicity property. ILE due to its different osmolarity with intravascular osmolarity improves hemodynamic changes and compensates for the systemic effects of aluminum phosphide
    Keywords: Aluminum phosphide, Electrocardiogram, Hemodynamics, Mortality, N-acetyl cysteine
    More studies showed that diagnosis of cancer lead to occurrence of emotional problems in patient and his family. Fluoxetine is an anti-depression drug that used for treatment of Depression, Obsessive compulsive disorder, Panic disorder and nervous incontinence. The aim of this study was investigate the effect of fluoxetine on quality of life in patients with solid cancers. This is a randomized controlled clinical trial that has been done on two groups of patients each with 70 patients. One group received fluoxetine for 12 weeks and another group received placebo. In baseline and end of study, SF36 questionnaire were completed for all patients and results analyzed by statistical methods in SPSS.16. The most prevalent malignancy in case and control groups was gastric cancer with 40% and 42.9%, respectively. There wasn’t significant difference in QOL of patients in baseline between two groups but in the end of study, emotional-psychological health and vitality scores in case group was better than control group. In terms of physical symptoms and depression, the case group was better than control group. In start and end of study, in QOL score only difference was seen in physical activity which was better in case group than control group. Results showed that fluoxetine prescription in patients could recovery some dimensions of QOL and general health but not effect on some dimensions which probably related to short duration of fluoxetine prescription in patients
    Keywords: Solid cancer, Fluoxetine, QOL, General health
  • HIFZA HANIF , ALI HAIDER Pages 37-42
    Recurrent methodical nicotine administration prompts locomotor hyperactivity in human and rodents, such amplification in locomotion is characterized as nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization (NIBS). Thymoquinone (a phytochemical found in Nigella sativa seeds) has some rudimentary reports regarding its antioxidant, anti-depressant, neuroprotective and anti-nociceptive potential with a rich religious and historical background of safety and efficacy for multiple illness. Thereof, the current study was emphasized to explore thymoquinone potential effects on acquisition and expression of NIBS. Balb-C male mice (20-30 gm) were treated with thymoquinone (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg; PO) to investigate its potential effects on acquisition and the expression of behavioral sensitization induced by repeated meticulous nicotine administration (0.5 mg/kg; IP). In both studies, locomotor activity was recorded on 1st, 7th and 11th day in activity cages. Our data revealed that thymoquinone (30 mg/kg; PO) significantly (p< 0.001) inhibited the acquisition of NIBS whereas thymoquinone (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg; PO) significantly (p< 0.001) attenuated the expression of NIBS. Concluding that the current study provided mechanistic insight to the ameliorating potential effects of thymoquinone on behavioral sensitization induced by nicotine and can be deliberated as a potential therapeutic choice for the management of nicotine addiction
    Keywords: Nicotine, Mecamylamine, Hyperalgesia, Thymoquinone, Tail immersion, von Frey filaments
    Herbs are considered as effective remedies to heal diseases worldwide. As a result of given increasing trend of air, water and soil pollutions, health and quality of these herbs have now become a quite serious and important issue to be attention to. One of the main concerns is the presence of heavy metals in herbal drugs. In this study, the amount of lead, cadmium, and copper in edible herbal dribbles present in Iranian drug market have been measured with the aid of a polarography technique, Differential Pulse Stripping Voltammetry (DPSV). The simultaneous determination of the target elements was done in samples obtained from herbal drops present in citywide drugstores was performed. It was observed that the mean values of measured ions in the samples were beneath WHO and FDA’s standards and the concentration of cadmium in most samples was beneath the applied technique detection limit and consequently could not be traced
    Keywords: Lead, Copper, Cadmium, Herbal drugs, Polarography
    Sex differences in analgesic responses and tolerance to morphine under the systemic and injection in some nuclei of brain have been reported, although the trend of these differences varies across studies. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether development tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine differs between male and female in intra-nucleus accumbens administration of morphine in rat. In order to induce tolerance, adult male and female rats were injected with morphine (2.5, 5, 10 and 50 µg/0.5 µL; intra-accumbal infusions) for 4 consecutive days during which, non-tolerant group received a single dose of morphine (saline for 3 consecutive days and morphine on 4th day) and control vehicle group received saline (4 consecutive days). On day 4, tail flick and hot-plate test was done for pain evaluation in separated groups. The results of the study revealed 4 effects. 1) No significant morphine antinociceptive effect by tail flick test in both sexes, while significant antinociceptive effect of morphine were observed in the hotplate test. 2) No significant sex differences were observed in hotplate test after acute morphine injection to animals. 3) Rats showed significantly tolerance to morphine analgesic effects under protocol by hotplate test. 4) Female rats showed significantly more tolerance to morphine analgesic effects than males by hotplate test. These data demonstrate that there were sex differences in tolerance to morphine antinociception in intra-nucleus accumbens administration that is dependent, in part, on the nociceptive test
    Keywords: Sex differences, Nucleus accumbens, Antinociception, Tolerance, Morphine, Rats

    Rosa canina has been traditionally used in Iran as herbal medicine for treatment of painful and inflammatory conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of the Rosa caninain animal models of pain and inflammation. The analgesic effect was evaluated with hot plates a model of visceral pain in mice. Also inflammation produced by injection of formalin in paw of rats and the treatment by extract was assessed. Doses of extract used were 100, 300 and 700 mg/kg. The negative and positive control groups received normal saline and sodium salicylate respectively. The aqueous extract of R. canina could increase the latency time in mice in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). The pretreatment with extract significantly augmented the anti-nociceptive effects of Rosa canina and this was comparable with sodium salicylate and even more pronounced than sodium salicylate after 2 hours. Additionally, the inflammation induced by formalin was limited by aqueous extract of R. canina during acute and chronic phases of inflammation considered in 7 days period. The results of this study demonstrated the dose-dependent analgesic effects of Rosa caninaaqueous extract in mice model of pain. And also our data showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory action of the extract in formalin-induced edema. Our results contribute towards validation of the traditional use of Rosa canina in the management of pain and inflammatory conditions
    Keywords: Rosa Canina, Aqueous extract, Inflammation, Nociception
    Chronic use of morphine lead to dependence and discontinuation of the drug causes physical and emotional changes which needs pharmacological intervention. In the present study, the preventive effects of various doses of Passiflora incarnata extract on morphine withdrawal syndrome was evaluated in comparison to clonidine as a standard method. Total withdrawal score (TWS) was calculated based on behavioral sign of naloxone precipitated withdrawal syndrome in 56 adult male mice divided in 7 groups; in 6 groups morphine dependency was induced by chronic injection of morphine for 6 consecutive days. Passiflora incarnata hydro alcoholic extract was administered in doses 100, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg. Clonidine and normal saline were used in the control group. Withdrawal syndrome was induced by injection of naloxone. Total withdrawal score was decreased by chronic administration of Passiflora incarnata and clonidine. This study showed that clonidine (0.4mg/kg i.p.) and Passiflora incarnata extract significantly decrease TWS in the all used doses and in comparison to normal saline with a preventive effect comparable to clonidine. The data obtained in this study suggest Passiflora incarnata hydro-alcoholic extract therapeutic potential in prevention and management of opiate withdrawal syndrome which is comparable to the effect of clonidine, particularly at high doses of the plant extract
    Keywords: Passiflora incarnata, Morphine, Withdrawal syndrome prevention, Clonidine
    Glycyrrhiza glabra is one of the popularly grown leafy plants with several therapeutical effects in Iran. In this experiment, we evaluated the anti-anemia potential of aqueous extract of G. glabra on Phenylhydrazine-induced anemic rats. In vivo design, 50 rats were used. Induction of hemolytic anemia was done by three injections of Phenylhydrazine in 40 rats. After one day, the rats were divided into five subgroups, including negative healthy control, untreated negative control, and three groups receiving the G. glabra at 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg concentrations. At the end of day 15 of treatment, the animals of all groups were sacrificed, and blood samples were taken to analyze the biochemical, hematological, and immunological parameters. Several doses of G. glabra significantly (p≤0.05) enhanced the reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein, total protein, albumin, white blood cell, platelet, red blood cell, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, interleukin 4, interleukin 5, interleukin 10, interleukin 13, and interferon alpha and decreased the increased levels of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, ferrous, ferritin, erythropoietin, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, total and conjugated bilirubin, urea, creatinine, interleukin 1, interleukin 6, interleukin 12, interleukin 18, interferon gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, as compared to the untreated group. In conclusion, the obtained results revealed the anti-anemia potential of aqueous extract of G. glabra. Extraction of active molecules will be the future work to peruse
    Keywords: Glycyrrhiza glabra, Anti-anemia potential, Phenylhydrazine

    Possible effects of blackberry leaf aqueous extract on blood glucose and other serum components in normal and STZ –induced diabetic rats were investigated. Blackberry leaves extracts were prepared by maceration method and gavaged for 28 consecutive days to the animals. Rats with blood glucose level greater than 200 mg/dl, after injection of 70 mg/kg STZ, were enrolled in the study. Blood glucose levels in rats, at zero time, 1 and 3 hours after gavages, and each week was measured. In the 14th and 28th days, serum components, and on the last day, the weight of liver, kidney and heart were measured. Within four weeks, blood glucose levels in the group receiving the extract had a significant decreasing trend. In the group receiving the extract, serum lipid parameters and liver function tests, dropped from second to fourth week, compared with positive control group, was significant. This study showed that oral administration of aqueous extract of Blackberry leaves can have the blood sugar-lowering effects and reduction of serum lipids and liver function tests
    Keywords: Blackberry extract, Diabetes, Serum lipid, Liver function tests
    The purpose of this study was to determine the acid dissociation constants (pKa) of meloxicam in the presence of various surfactants including sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as an anionic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant and Triton® TX-100 (TX-100) as a non-ionic surfactant in different pre-determined concentrations. The related pKa was determined spectrophotometrically at a constant ionic strength of 0.1 M at 250°C. In order to investigate the effect of solvent on pKa of meloxicam, the pKa was also determined in different concentrations of ethanol, separately. The acid dissociation constant of all appropriate species were calculated using chemometric methods. In this study, DATAN® software was applied for analysis and interpretation of data. The acid dissociation constants (i.e. pKa) for meloxicam as poorly soluble drug were reported as 1.22±0.56 and 4.00±0.12 for pKa1 and pKa2, respectively. The obtained data showed that by increasing the concentration of SLS up to 0.05% (w/v), both the pKa1 and pKa2 of meloxicam were increased and to 2.67±0.054 and 5.73±0.029, respectively, while by increasing the concentration of CTAB, significant decrease was observed in pKa2 of meloxicam to 2.53 ± 0.16. Different concentrations of TX-100 posed non-significant changes in pKa1 and pKa2. It was also reported that by increasing the concentration of ethanol as a co-solvent, both pKa1 and pKa2 of meloxicam were increased to 2.42±0.083and 5.81±0.23, respectively.
    Keywords: Acid dissociation constant (pKa), Meloxicam, Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), Cetyltrimethylammonium bro-mide (CTAB), Triton® X-100 (TX-100), Ethanol
    The current study was aimed at exploring the effect of β-glucan (a naturally occurring polysaccharide) on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced impairment in learning and memory. Briefly, the animal model of CUMS was generated (28 days) followed by assessment of the efficacy of β-glucan (2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg) on learning and memory in Morris water maze (MWM). Moreover, the weight variation during the course of experiment and post-MWM corticosterone levels was also noted. Our data showed that the β-glucan provided dose dependent protection against deleterious effects of stress on spatial memory, which became statistically significant at 10 mg/kg. In similar manner, it has also antagonized the stress induced weight loss and corticosterone elevation. Taking everything into account, it can be deduced that β-glucan possesses therapeutic potential against stress induced cognitive impairment and this effect can be attributed to its normalizing effect on corticosterone levels
    Keywords: ?-glucan, Chronic unpredictable mild Stress, Corticosterone, Morris water maze, Spatial Memory