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هنرهای تجسمی - پیاپی 76 (زمستان 1397)
  • پیاپی 76 (زمستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/09/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • محمد جواد صافیان* ، هما نوزاد، حسین اردلانی صفحات 5-12
    مرلوپونتی یکی از نو آورترین فیلسوفان قرن بیستم بوده که ماندگارترین افادات وی به فلسفه در زمینه ادراک یا به بیان دقیق تر پدیدارشناسی ادراک است. در این پژوهش قصد بر این است با بررسی آرای فلسفی مرلوپونتی مروری داشته باشیم بر مسئله ادراک. با مطرح شدن ادراک، نقش فضا، بدن، دیگری و تجربه پر رنگ تر می شود و متعاقبا جایگاه مخاطب، صرفا به عنوان "مخاطب" از بین می رود و در بستری از شبکه های متعدد شکل پذیری و شکل دادن قرار می گیرد. هدف اصلی این پژوهش پیدا کردن شاخصه های مشترک بین فلسفه مرلوپونتی و هنر تعاملی است. برای نائل آمدن به این هدف پژوهش حاضر به شیوه توصیفی- تحلیلی و روش گردآوری اطلاعات کتابخانه ای است. که در آن محقق به تشریح و تبیین دلایل چگونه بودن و چرایی مسئله پرداخته و سپس آن را مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار داده و درنهایت به این نتیجه رسیده است که در هنر تعاملی مخاطب دیگر تنها یک نظاره گر صرف نیست بلکه با انجام کنش، خود در فرآیند خلاق تولید اثر شرکت می کند. می توان گفت همانگونه که مرلوپونتی در نظراتش بیان می کند، در هنر تعاملی، تمایزی میان سوژه و ابژه نیست و هر دو در تعامل با هم است که شکل می یابند.
    کلیدواژگان: مرلوپونتی، ادراک، هنر تعاملی، اینتراکتیو آرت، مخاطب
  • فاطمه رحیمی * صفحات 13-20
    یکی از مهم ترین موضوعات در تحلیل های فلسفی و نقد آثار هنری توجه به موقعیت مخاطب و نقش او در فرایند خلق اثر هنری است. در تاریخ فلسفه، ارسطو نخستین اندیشمندی است که در تبیین آراء فلسفی خود در پوئتیک ضمن توجه به ساختار متن و موقعیت هنرمند نخستین مبانی توجه به موقعیت مخاطب و زیبایی شناسی دریافت را ارائه نموده است. در فلسفه معاصر و زیباشناسی مدرن نیز امبرتو اکو ضمن اذعان به اهمیت پوئتیک ارسطو در تاریخ زیبایی شناسی دریافت، به بحث از توان تفسیری متن و نقش مخاطب پرداخته و در اثر گشوده نقدی جامع از هنر و زیباشناسی مدرن ارائه داده است. نویسنده در این مقاله با روشی توصیفی تحلیلی ضمن بررسی آراء زیبایی شناسی دریافت از دیدگاه ارسطو و امبرتو اکو، فرایند خوانش متن و موقعیت مخاطب را هم در پوئتیک ارسطو و هم در پوئتیک مدرن امبرتو اکو مورد واکاوی و تحلیل قرار داده است. هدف از این پژوهش واکاوی فلسفی «جهان متن» ، قابلیت تفسیری آن و نقش مخاطب در فرآیند خلق اثر در تاریخ فلسفه ی هنر است. نتایج پژوهش بیانگر اهمیت توجه به استراتژی متن، استراتژی مخاطب و نقش او در فرآیند خوانش اثرهنری در زیبا شناسی کلاسیک و زیبایی شناسی مدرن است.
    کلیدواژگان: زیبایی شناسی دریافت، پوئتیک، پوئتیک مدرن، مخاطب، جهان متن
  • محمدرضا باقری لری، نادر شایگان فر، اصغر کفشچیان مقدم * صفحات 21-28
    در قرون اخیر رشد تکنولوژی به نحوی بوده که بطور پیوسته برای بشر معیشت بهتر را در پی داشته و توانسته خود را در بسیاری از وجوه زندگی ازجمله هنر به منصه ظهور برساند. همچنین در به چالش کشیدن هنر از مفاهیم سنت گرایانه به مفهومی نو تاثیر تامل برانگیزی داشته است. به گونه ای که به مدد آن آثار هنری قابلیت بازتولید یافته و از این طریق در دسترس توده مردم قرارگرفته است. این مقاله در جهت تبیین مسئله نفوذ تکنولوژی در هنر و کالایی شدن اثر هنری از طریق تولید انبوه و بازتولید مکانیکی به طرح موضوع پرداخته و با استفاده از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی به بازخوانی روابط جامعه ی تکنولوژیک و هنر از طریق اختلاط هنر و زندگی روزمره، می پردازد. بازتولید اثر هنری در جامعه ای رخ می دهد که تکنولوژی و نظام سرمایه داری در آن فراگیر شده است پس در چنین جامعه ای تولید برای مصرف صورت می گیرد و در پی فرآیند تولید نظام مبادله و بازار شکل می یابد. این مکانیسم متاثر از تکنولوژی، منجر به تغییر در ماهیت هنر و کیفیت تولیدات هنری می گردد تا به آنجا که هنر با زندگی روزمره پیوند ناگسستنی خورده و جزء لاینفک آن محسوب می شود و نتیجتا هنرمند به عنوان یک تولیدکننده کالای هنری با تکثیر و انبوه سازی، قالب اثر هنری را دگرگون می سازد.
    کلیدواژگان: تکنولوژی، تولید، اثر هنری، کالا، اصالت هنر
  • یعقوب آژند * صفحات 29-40
    کانون هنری تبریز در سال های 896-883 ه یعنی سال های سلطنت سلطان یعقوب آق قویونلو، بدیل کانون هنری هرات در زمان سلطان حسین بایقرا (911-875 ه) بود. پیش از همه، کانون هنری سلطان یعقوب، مجالس و محافل ادبی و هنری و علمی او و هنرپروران و هنرمندان زمان وی پژوهیده شد. تتبع آثار بازمانده از این دوره، نسخه نگاره ها، عمارات، مرقعات و غیره، از ملزومات بود. ویژگی های این آثار و کیفیت تولید آنها که جملگی در رقابت با مکتب هرات صورت می گرفت، فحص شد. نتایج حاصله، بویژه در مورد هنرمندان و تولیدات دو کانون هنری تبریز و هرات حاکی از آن بود که بین این دو کانون، رقابتی پنهان و عیان، در کار بود. ارتباط دوستانه و مودت آمیز سلطان یعقوب با دربار سلطان حسین بایقرا، در نتایج حاصله نقشی در خور داشت. در این بررسی و پژوهش، از روش تجزیه و تحلیل یافته ها و داده ها، با کیفیت چند و چونی و بازیافت جزئیات برآمده از سه فرآیند در هم تافته وصف (چیستی) ارزیابی (چگونگی) و تحلیل (چرایی) استفاده شده است. با این روش استقرایی و رویکرد علمی، تصویری گویا و کل نما از کانون هنری تبریز در دوره سلطان یعقوب آق قویونلو فراز آمد.
    کلیدواژگان: شیخی یعقوبی، مرقعات سلطان یعقوب، درویش محمد، عبدالرحیم انیسی، سلطان محمد، عبدالکریم خوارزمی
  • سهیلا نمازعلیزاده *، ابوالقاسم دادور صفحات 41-50
    مهرعلی، یکی از نگارگران عصر فتحعلی شاه قاجار، در برخی از آثار خود، پیکره ایستاده پادشاه را با کمر باریک، شانه‏های پهن و عصای مرغ نشان در دست راست می نمایاند. سغد، از سرزمین های ایران باستان نیز در آثاری مانند سکه، سپر چوبی و نقاشی های دیواری، پیکره هایی مزین به جواهرات، کمر باریک، شانه‏های پهن و عصای مرغ نشان در دست راست معرفی می کند که شیوه روایی برخی از آنها متاثر از ادبیات حماسی شاهنامه است. تحقیق حاضر در پی پاسخ گویی به این سوال است: معناشناختی عناصر نمادین یکسان بکار رفته در آثار مورد پژوهش چیست؟ نوشتار حاضر به شرح هشت تصویر و تطبیق آنها با متن دینی- اخلاقی گاهان و شاهنامه می پردازد و تلاش دارد تا با بررسی جنبه های گوناگون خشترویریه، مظهر سیطره قدرت خدا نزد ایرانیان باستان و فره کیانی یکی از نمادهای قدرت و عطیه الهی است. شیوه ی گردآوری اطلاعات به طریق اسنادی و کتابخانه ای بوده و با روش تحلیلی و توصیفی– تاریخی، بررسی شده است. نتایج نشان می دهد که الگوهای بصری و مفهومی پیکره نگاره های فتحعلی شاه قاجار به رقم مهرعلی و پیکره های انسانی هنر سغدی، تلفیقی از ادبیات حماسی شاهنامه فردوسی با اندیشه فلسفی ایران باستان است و بر اقتدار و مشروعیت حکومت ایزدی پادشاه دلالت دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: مهرعلی، پیکرنگاری درباری فتحعلی شاه قاجار، هنر سغدی، خشترویریه، فره کیانی
  • یوسف منصورزاده *، مینو بهفروزی، مینو بهفروزی صفحات 51-60
    قربانی، یکی از معروف ترین مناسک دینی و مذهبی در طول تاریخ است؛ که در اکثر ادیان، به شکلی برگزار می گردد. مناسک قربانی، اعمالی است که انسان با یک سلسله اعمال، هدایایی به پیشگاه خدایان تقدیم می نماید. قربانی گاو، به دست میترا، مهم ترین نکته در آئین میترا است. این صحنه، در تمام عبادتگاه های کشف شده آیین میترا تکرار می شود. قربانی گاو، برای حاصلخیز نمودن زمین، برای اولین بار در تاریخ بشر در مکتب میترا متداول شد و بعدها به ادیان دیگر کشیده شد. پیروزی خیر، موضوع اساسی غالب نقش های مهری است. اصولا در کشتن گاو، مساله آفرینش است، یعنی مرگ و رستاخیز؛ موضوعی که همه ساله تجدید می شود.
    این مقاله به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی است که هدف آن تجزیه و تحلیل فلسفه قربانی در آئین میترا که با توجه به آثار هنری به جای مانده در سرزمینهای اروپایی است. و نتیجه می گیرد که نقوش برجسته در صحنه های قربانی میترا بیانگر مفاهیم نجومی ، تجسم کی هان ، نجات و رستگاری انسان و برکت و تداوم حیات می باشد که همه و همه ناشی از تاملی عمیق بر پیچیدگی های ارتباط میان تمام موجودات است.
    کلیدواژگان: میترائیسم، میترای رومی، نقش برجسته، تاورکتونی، رستگاری
  • علیرضا طاهری * صفحات 61-70
    نسخه خطی کتاب «تشریح بدن» نوشته منصور بن الیاس دارای اهمیت ویژه ای است زیرا هیچگونه تصویرسازی تشریح کامل بدن انسان، پیش از رساله پزشکی وی در جهان اسلام، به دست نیامده است. تاریخ تالیف رساله وی با عنوان «تشریح بدن» را سال 799 هجری می دانند. هدف مقاله بررسی تصاویر نسخه های موجود در کتابخانه ملی پزشکی آمریکا، کتابخانه ملی فرانسه و کتابخانه دانشگاه کمبریج به طور خاص بوده و سپس نمونه هایی از نسخ غربی و ژاپن برای مقایسه به طور اختصار آورده می شود. سوال این است که: شیوه تصویرسازی نسخه های کتاب «تشریح بدن» منصوری دارای چه کیفیت بصری بوده و چه تاثیری بر سایر کتب تشریح بدن گذاشته است؟ با اینکه شش تصویر تشریحی از بدن در این نسخه وجود دارد ولی به دلیل نشان دادن شفاف اجزای داخلی بدن و شیوه ترسیم بدن در وضعیتی خاص، قابل توجه و متشخص است. اگرچه سایر تصاویر این نسخه از نسخه های غربی قبل یا زمان خود الهام گرفته ولی برخلاف شیوه آنها توضیحات و نوشته ها در داخل و خارج بدن، هم سان و همردیف با اعضای بدن قرار گرفته اند و همین شیوه است که به عنوان شیوه «تشریح منصوری» بر روی نسخ غربی قرون هفدهم و هجدهم تاثیر گذاشته است. روش تحقیق توصیفی است.
    کلیدواژگان: نسخ خطی پزشکی، تشریح بدن، آناتومی، منصوربن الیاس، تصویرگری
  • مینا شیرانی *، اصغر ایزدی جیران، برایان اسپونر، مریم کوهستانی صفحات 71-80
    مقاله حاضر در نظر دارد به بررسی و فهم نقوش تزیینی سفال «کلپورگان» از دیدگاه فرهنگ و جامعه آفریننده اش بپردازد. سفال کلپورگان دست ساخته فکر و اندیشه زنان بلوچ است و گستره مادی و معنوی بسیاری را از فرهنگ بلوچ در خود جای داده است. این مقاله با رویکرد انسان شناسی هنر یه دنبال پاسخ این پرسش که: معانی فرهنگی نقوش سفال های کلپورگان برای سازندگان آنها چیست؟ در این پژوهش توصیفی-تحلیلی نویسنده با تکیه بر مشاهدات و پژوهش های میدانی -که از طریق مصاحبه، عکسبرداری ،فیلم برداری و مشاهده مشارکتی انجام شده - کوشیده است که در میان نظریه های مختلف انسان شناسی هنر با استفاده از نظریه هنر به مثابه نظامی معناشناختی،نقوش را در چارچوب فرهنگ بلوچ تحلیل و بررسی کند. نویسنده ابتدا به تحلیل شکلی و سبکی نقوش پرداخته، سپس برای بازنمایی شکلی معنا، به دیگر آثار هنری منطقه همچون سوزندوزی،گلیم و سفالینه های باستانی جهت رمزگشایی اشکال و طرح ها رجوع کرده است.
    نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که 1. این نقوش بازنمود آداب، رسوم، اعتقادات، باورها و به طور کلی بازنمود سطوح مختلفی از فرهنگ جامعه کلپورگان است و 2. زنان سفالگر منطقه، به منظور انتقال و حفظ و تداوم و بازتولید این فرهنگ به ساخت سفالینه های منقوش اشتغال دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: انسان شناسی هنر، بررسی معناشناختی، فرهنگ بلوچ، سفال، کلپورگان، نقوش
  • امین ابراهیمی دهکردی *، سارا سعادت فرد صفحات 81-90
    امروز سیمای کلان شهر تهران مخدوش و به لحاظ هویت مندی و برقراری ارتباط با شهروندان بسیار ضعیف است. منظر شهری ارتباط مستقیم با جدارهای شهری داشته و از این بعد می توان اهمیت دیوارنگاری ها را موردبررسی قرارداد. نقاشی های دیواری می توانند در کنار ارتقا کیفیت محیط، ابزاری برای انتقال مضامین هویتی، مذهبی، فرهنگی، و… باشند. فرضیه پژوهش آن است که نقاشی های با مضامین انتزاعی و تکنیک های اجرایی جدیدتر نسبت به سایر رویکردهای اعمال شده ، به لحاظ انسجام و هویت مندی و تاثیر بر شهروندان موفق ترند. پژوهش هایی که تاکنون صورت پذیرفته بیشتر جنبه های فنی و قابلیت های تکنیکی را بررسی کرده اند، این پژوهش به صورت تخصصی سه رویکرد غالب نقاشی های دبواری معاصر را مورد ارزیابی قرار داده و سعی نموده به این سوال بنیادی پاسخ دهد که: کدام یک از رویکردهای سه گانه نقاشی دیواری معاصر تهران از دیدگاه شهروندان موفق تر می باشد؟
    ماهیت پژوهش کاربردی و داده اندوزی به روش پیمایش و توزیع پرسشنامه بوده است، لذا تعداد 300 پرسشنامه در مناطق مختلف تهران توزیع شد، نتایج حاصل بیانگر این موضوع بود که نقاشی های دیواری متاخر از دیدگاه شهروندان در سنجه های مورد ارزیابی، وضعیت مطلوبی نسبت به آثار پیش از خود دارد، همچنین اولویت های شهروندان درزمینه موضوع نقاشی دیواری به ترتیب: رویکردهای انتزاعی، شبیه سازی و یادمانی می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: نقاشی دیواری، هویتمندی، رویکرد انتزاعی، رویکرد شبیه سازی، رویکرد یادمانی، تهران
  • سمانه صادقی مهر *، علی اصغر میرزایی مهر، حمید فرهمند بروجنی صفحات 91-102
    همزمان با تشکیل تمدن ایرانی حضور ادیان مختلف آسمانی بخشی از ساختار اجتماعی هر دوره از این سرزمین را شامل شده است. از این رو از دیرباز کلیمیان ایران نیز ، قسمتی از فرهنگ این سرزمین را شکل داده اند. در این میان نوع نگاه و نحوه برخورد حکومت مرکزی صفویان با هنر و فرهنگ مذاهب، بویژه کلیمیان، قابل تامل و بررسی است که بیش از هرچیز به فضای حاکم بر اصفهان در سده 11 ه. ق برمی گردد. همچنین نوع خاصی از فرهنگ زبانی و هنری کلیمیان شکل می گیرد که به فارسیهود مشهور است. هنر فارسیهود برگرفته از کتاب آرایی این اقلیت دینی در ایران می باشد. از ادبیات خاص کلیمیان ایران در آن دوران، نوع ویژه ای از کتاب آرایی فارسیهود متشکل از زبان عبری و نگارگری این عصر شکل گرفته، که خاص این دوران است. این پژوهش برمبنای روش شناسی خود از نظر هدف، از نوع بنیادی، از نظر روش، تطبیقی- تحلیلی و موردکاوی به دنبال یافت داده های مناسب بوده برای تطبیق نمونه های فارسیهود با نگارگری مکتب اصفهان بوده و از انواع روش های مقایسه ای در تجزیه و تحلیل نگاره ها برای یافت قرابت مکتب اصفهان و به خصوص آثار معین مصور، نگارگر سده یازدهم با نمونه های فارسیهود استفاده نموده است.
    کلیدواژگان: کتاب آرایی کلیمیان، فارسیهود، مکتب اصفهان، عصر صفویه، معین مصور، سده 11 ه.ق
  • ابراهیم باقری طالقانی، رضا افهمی *، وحید چوپانکاره صفحات 103-112
    تناسب افردنس های محصولات و اطلاعات معرف آنها با سطح توانمندی های فیزیکی و شناختی کاربران، عاملی تعیین کننده در میزان کاربردپذیری محصولات مختلف، بخصوص محصولات تعاملی است. در بعضی از محصولات تعاملی، امکان شخصی سازی سطوح واسط کاربری و برخی از افردنس ها وجود دارد، اما در محصولات تعاملی عمومی که کاربران آنها از توانمندی های فیزیکی و شناختی متفاوتی برخوردارند، امکان شخصی سازی و تطبیق افردنس های محصولات و اطلاعات معرف آنها با کاربران وجود ندارد و تعامل گروهی از کاربران با محصولات، با مشکلات متعددی همراه است. لذا هدف پژوهش حاضر ارائه راهکار مناسبی برای ارتقاء طراحی محصولات تعاملی عمومی و بهبود کاربردپذیری آنها در سطح گسترده است. در این مقاله با فرض اینکه کاربرد افردنس چند سطحی در محصولات تعاملی عمومی می تواند موجب بهبود کاربردپذیری آنها برای قشر وسیعی از کاربران با توانمندی های متفاوت شود، فرایند کامل یک پژوهش کاربردی با مطالعه موردی دستگاه خودپرداز تشریح شده است. اطلاعات مورد نیاز این پژوهش به شیوه میدانی و با کاربرد ابزار اصلی پرسشنامه جمع آوری شده و داده های آماری به شیوه توصیفی و استنباطی مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته است. نتایج نشان می دهد که کاربرد افردنس چند سطحی در محصولات تعاملی عمومی باعث بهبود تعامل کاربران و افزایش کاربردپذیری محصول می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: افردنس، افردنس چند سطحی، محصولات تعاملی عمومی، کاربردپذیری محصولات، دستگاه خودپرداز
  • مریم خلیلی *، الهام عتیقی لرستانی، جمشید امامی صفحات 113-125
    طراحی اشیا می تواند افراد را به انجام فعالیتی ترغیب نماید. در دوران کودکی، محیط نقش مهمی را در انگیزه فعالیت و یادگیری حین فعالیت ایفا می کند. امروزه به دلیل تغییر شیوه و محل زندگی کودکان در فضاهای شهری، امکان تجربه طبیعت به ندرت برایشان فراهم است. از سوی دیگر نگهداری از گیاهان، فعالیتی است که در حیطه مسئولیتهای بزرگسالان گنجانده شده است. در این پژوهش نحوه یادگیری پرورش گیاهان با استفاده از اصول طراحی ترغیبی برای کودکان مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است. در این راستا مدرسه پیش دبستانی مفید در منطقه ستارخان تهران به مدت هشت ماه مورد مطالعه موردی قرار گرفت. روش شناسی مورد استفاده در این پژوهش از نوع کاربردی– کیفی می باشد. بر پایه متد هشت گامه مطرح شده توسط فاگ، معیارهای اصلی طراحی استخراج و پس از بررسی های انجام شده بر اساس ارزش گذاری پارامترها، بسته ای بازی گون برای ترغیب کودکان پیش دبستانی به پرورش گیاهان ارائه گردید. پس از ارزیابی های صورت گرفته از سوی ده کارشناس آموزشی و سه کارشناس کشاورزی و آزمون های انجام شده با چهل و شش دانش آموز، نتایج معنادار نشان داد که استفاده از اصول طراحی ترغیبی و انضمام عناصر بازی گون، میزان علاقمندی و مهارت یادگیری کودکان در پرورش گیاهان را افزایش می دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: ” طراحی ترغیبی “، ” بازی و یادگیری “، ” کودکان پیش دبستانی “، ” پرورش گیاهان “
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  • mohammad jawad safian*, homa nozad, Hosseyn ardalani Pages 5-12
    Maurice Merleau-Ponty was one of the most innovative 20th-century philosophers. His lasting advantage in philosophy is in terms of perception or more precisely the phenomenology of perception. This research is intended to review the issue of perception, which is the inseparable and adhered part of implementation,by investigating philosophical opinions of Merleau-Ponty. By mentioning perception, the role of space, body, the other, experience and "eye and mind" becomes more obvious. As a result, the audience's position merely as an audience would disappear and it would lie in a context of multiple networks of formation and shaping.Phenomenology isone of the most important tools by which one can peruse the issue of perception and analyze the body-centered works."return to phenomena" is proposed in phenomenology. It means a new and pure approach to everything, a specific experience of things themselves, and an intuitionbased on accurate observation, without anyconceptual presupposition and prejudice. Regarding theattitude of phenomenologists, everything is a "phenomenon" and in phenomenological view, phenomenon is the essence of the object. The phenomenologist starts with what we initially face to and attains its’ essence which is phenomenon in a phenomenological sense. Phenomenology doesn’t simply representthe pre-existing truth like art but it compels us to see the world in a different wayand this means that a new truth would be created.Hence, according to Eric Matthews the phenomenology considered by Merleau-PontyCombines a form of subjectivism with a form of objectivism. Consequently, the objective comprehends that each single experience belongs to a person, so how an objectis realized is about how it is realized by a particular person.For the followers of this school, "personal experience" is very important. According tophilosophy ofMerleau-Ponty, art is not separated from perception and the realm of everyday interaction of people with the world. Like other objects, the work of art also motivates the audience to move in space, situate in it, and rebuild its’ constructs. The meaning of the artwork articulates again owing to each rebuilding. It seems that the work of art materializes the correlation among body, mind and the world. This materialization, emphasizing on the perceptionbeing external more than ever, is visible in contemporary art. Therefore, the main aim of this research is to find joint characteristics between Merleau-Ponty’s philosophy and interactive art, and achieving a new understanding and cognition of interactive propagation. To reach this aim, the survey is done using analytical vs descriptive method and information is gathered by library research methodusing written and digital resources.The researcher, in addition to illustrating what exists, describes and expresses why and how the issue stands there, then analyzes it, and at the end, concludes that in interactive art audience is not only a spectator and a viewer but also a participant in the creative process of production by doing an action. It can be claimed, as Merleau-Ponty expresses in his comments, there is no distinction between subject and object in the world of interactive art and both of them form interacting with each other.
    Keywords: Merleau-Ponty, perception, interactive art, audience
  • fatemeh rahimi * Pages 13-20
    One of the important issues in the modern Hermeneutics is interpretation of text and openness of artwork. While this is an old subject in the history of philosophy. Aristotle (384-322 BC) is first philosopher in the history of art that in his Poetics - a famous work about literary critic – pay attentions to the text structure and the author position and nevertheless he considers first principles from aesthetics of perception and reader position in his philosophical account of tragedy in ancient Greek culture. Besides in the modern aesthetics, Umberto Eco (1932 - 2016) a Italian famous influential essayist and critic of culture and art considers perception aesthetics, the process of reading and interpretation of text in his variety works such as The Open Work (Opera aperta), The role of the read, interpretation and over interpretation even in his famous novel: The Name of the Rose. From Eco's viewpoint a narrator, as well as a poet, should never provide interpretations of his own work. He says a text is a machine conceived for eliciting interpretations. He claims the active role of interpreter in the reading of texts endowed with aesthetic value. From Eco's point view a text, in so far as it is the result of the manipulation of the possibilities of system, it is not open in the same way. In the process of producing a text one reduces the range of possible linguistic items. By reducing the possibility of producing infinite strings, a text also reduces the possibility of trying certain interpretations. To say that the interpretations of a text are potentially unlimited does not mean that interpretation has no object. To say that a text has potentially no end, does not mean that every act of interpretation can have a happy end. Thus, in this essay, I have discussed three important concepts in the history of philosophy of art: "the text "(or same" the text world ")," the reader place " and "the process of reading of text and the potentiality of interpretation" in the Aristotle 's Poetics and the Eco 's modern poetics. Really, I've researched about the relationship between the text and the reader from point view of these two thinkers. The result of research show us although Aristotle points to the position of reader and his relationship to the artwork but his aesthetic views is not counted accurately among the "aesthetics of perception", for he argues the reader has not role in the process of creation of artwork at all, That is when he is confronting artwork, he falls victim to his feeling and emotion. Also by reading it, he will merely discover intention of author. While in the Eco's modern poetics, the main issue is the openness of the artwork, potentiality of interpretation of text and also the active role of reader in the process of creation of the artwork. Actually he influences the ability to interpret and create the text world during the reading of the artwork, and believes that the "Model Reader" has a significant contribution to this process.
    Keywords: aesthetics of perception , Aristotle, Umberto Eco, reader, text world, artwork
  • mohammadreza bagherilori, nader shayganfar, asghar kafshchian Moghadam * Pages 21-28
    In the last few centuries man has been witnessing rapid technological development. So far advances in technology lead to better livelihoods in many aspects of life, including art. Technology has been sobering effect on the traditional art concepts to new meaning. The era of technology proceed the creation and reproduction of contents and functions of modern society which is rooted in everyday life.it coincides with the emergence of innovative and avant-garde art and commodity stereotypes in society which leads to a culture where art and life became intertwined together. So stereotypical values in art was common while as much fun without reflection was accessible to all.So by this way, it helps artwork to be reproduced and it has been available to the masses. This article is to explain the influence of technology in art and commodification of art through mass production. It uses descriptive terms and taking advantages of library sources such as technology, in order to review the impact of technology on art works and its aim is to explain the relationship of the technological community and art through the incorporation of art and everyday life. Reproduction of a work of art happens in a society that is inclusive of technology and capitalism. In a capitalist system, tangible and personal ties between producer and consumer is discrete. Artist for foreign (future consumer) that he will not see produce and this is the same market. Thus, the art, the material crystallized the value of the exchange, is approaching to the state of money, the abstract product.Therefore in such a society production was formed in the wake of the consumption. Following the production process, an exchange system is shaped. The mechanism affected by technology, is leading to changes in the nature and quality of artistic production. So Art inextricably linked with everyday life and becomes an integral part of it. so, in such circumstances, the artist is considered as a commodity producer of art. The artist makes unique works outside its monopoly with mass production. So an object disruption are influenced on the functions of human relations in society and therefore artwork as a concrete object in commodities will be seemingly normal. He used the media, materials and various tools regardless of the traditional concerns with the help of various technologies try to create art, or reproduce his artwork in order to be balm to the innate needs. As a result of the proliferation and Mass production, art is transformed into something accessible, and the artist with mass production and economic approach to art removed it from the framework of art. In this case the artist becomes the manufacturer and tries to look at the perfect effect of demand and supply and to convert their products to money. And finally out of the aesthetic approach, work of art becomes an object, so that there is no attention to aesthetic values and is provided as a product.
    Keywords: technology, production, artwork, product, originality of art
  • Yaqub Aq Quyunlu* Pages 29-40
    The qara Quyunlu clan reach to power in western Iran before the time of Timur’s incursions. Throughout the first half of fifteenth century, the Qara Quyunlu took Isfahan, Fars, Kerman and even Khurasan especially Herat, but briefly. Their most significant adversary was the rival Aq Quyunlu clan, whose Sultan Uzun Hasan had spent years in the struggle to establish Aq Quyunlu power in Iran and Anatolia.They made Tabriz their capital. Sultan Yaqub AQuyunlu built spelendid monuments in his capital and painted their walls with scene of battle and reception of forign ambassadors. He made his court the resort of poets, painters, calligraphers and so on. He commissioned with Sultan Husyn Bayqara and riveled with him. Two albums (Murraq) produced for him by two celebrated court painter, Sheikhi and Dervish Muhammad. Under Sultan Yaqub painting style developed the initially rellied on Timurid school of Herat, but envolved into different modes, depending on Turkman’s life. Whereas Tabriz style preserved the wealth of details of Timurid painting of Herat, it is artists simplified the compositions of Herat painting while maintaining a brighter palette. Tabriz style is often dismissed for its lack of splendour and brilliance. This style of painting clearly reflect the stages of Turkman court at Tabriz. One of Khamsa of Nizami embodies over a half of century of princely Timurid, Turkman and Safavid patronage in the names of the princes through whose hands it passed. This Khamsa originally begun for Barbur Mirza son of Baysunghur. There after PirBudag Qara Quyunlu seized it. It then came into the possession of Khalil Mirza son of Uzun Hasan and for the paintings he commissioned master Sheikhi and master Dervish Muhammad. Then it took to control his brother Sultan Yaqub who too strove to have it finished and exerted much effort But it had unfinished as his death in 1490. This Khamsa finally came into the possession of Shah Ismail Safavi, under whose direction it finished and nine painting were added it. Some of Sultan Yaqub’s Painters must have continued to work on this Khamsah. For example, the Miraj painting dated 910 H. added to the Khamsah in the ealier Aq Quyunlu tradition. The postscript of this manuscript informs the reader that Sultan Khalil asked the scribe Anisi to copy the Khamsah and the painters Sheikhi and Dervish Muhammad to illustrate it. Anisi mentioned in postscript is the same one as the manuscript’s scribe Abd al-Rahim al-Yaqubi, Whose penname was Anisi. In the study of the album (Muraqqa) associated with the name of Sultan Yaqub are two albums. These albums were in Topkapi Saray library with two numbers H.2153 and H.2160. The paintings and calligraphies in both albums are executed in variety of materials. A rough count of the attributions in these albums gives Sheikhi seventy-one and Dervish Muhammad three. As for Muhammad Siyah Qalam, his attributions amount to sixty-five. These mass of material are associated with Sultan Yaqub Aq Quyunlu, because a large portion of material signed by artists bearing the Nisba Yaqubi.
    Keywords: Tabriz Style, Sultan Yaqub, Shaikhi, Dervish Muhammad, Anisi, Sultan Muhammad
  • Abolghasem Dadvar, Soheyla NamazAlizadeh * Pages 41-50
    During the reign of Fath Ali Shah Qajar, Iranian`s Painting achieved a new step and excellent conditions caused revival of art. In order to display the king's power, some of painters such as Mihr `Ali, showed the simbolic king's figures by a narrow waist and broad shoulder like Rustam, Iranian champion. The resplendent royal portraits of Fath Ali Shah, the pre-eminent ruler of the Qajar dynasty, is an exemplary model of the extensive canon of life-size portraits commissioned by the monarch. Such paintings immortalised his rule of Persia, both internally to the Iranian populace and externally to overseas governments and royalty. Well-versed in the power of images, Fath Ali used painting to demonstrate his authority, wealth, and accomplishments. In fact, the sense of splendor, strength, and stability that these cultural productions projected present a very different picture from the one offered by historical facts. Fath Ali Shah’s Paintings were sometimes sent to foreign leaders as displays of the dynasty’s prosperity and cultural acuity. Artists often incorporated European techniques into their work. Frequently, however, some images decorated royal buildings at home, where they were intended to awe and impress visitors. Continuing an ancient Persian tradition, Fath Ali Shah`s portraits were venerated in much the same way that religious images were. Fat'h Ali Shah commissioned great numbers of lifesize portraits of himself and his sons, works which formed the backdrop to court ceremonies, the works, painted by Mihr 'Ali .He portrayed Fat'h Ali Shah in his many stately roles, and were intended to show his power as a ruler rather than to be realistic portraits. As a result, the works are heavily stylised, are painted in rich, deep tones, and are filled with symbols of power. The archaeological findings in the Sogdian state where located in the ancient Iran, have also displayed the collection of some artworks like handicrafts, coins and murals. Studies show that the features of Sogdian figural patterns are formed by jewelery, crown, narrow waist and broad shoulders. Comparing the visual and conceptual patterns used in the painting of Fath Ali-Shah Qajar that painted by Mihr`Ali and some Sogdian coins, wooden shields and mural paintings are the purposes of this comparative study.We try to answer these questions: What are the features of visual patterns used in the Qajar and Sogdian art? How to describe the similar concepts in these works? This visual research described a qualitative method of visual content analysis and the data have been gathered through a documental and librarian method. In order to compare the similar patterns used in two art periods, the notion of Khshathra Vairya is required. Khshathra Vairya has centeral role in Iranian ontology and Zoroastrian belief. It seems that recognizing the various aspects of Khshathra Vairya`s concepts help us to understand the artworks in two different periods.The most important finding is that the common visual and conceptual patterns used in the two art periods referr to revive the ancient Iranian philosophy and divine kingdom.
    Keywords: Mihr‍` Ali, Fath Ali shah `s Painting, Sogdian art, Khshathra Vairy, frawahr
  • Yousef Mansourzadeh* , Minoo Behfroozi, Minoo Behfroozi Pages 51-60
    The sacrifice of bull is the most important religious costume in the Mithraism and has been related to another ceremonies. In the bas-relives of Europe, Mithra has always been killing the bull” tauroctony”. The sacrifice of the bull is the symbol of the creation; killing of the new bull is creating new life, and this concept is located at the center of ancient beliefs and secrets, which represents life, death and resurrection. The philosophy of killing of bull by with various symbols has been interpreted by scholars, which mainly expresses the astronomical concepts, the embodiment of the universe, and the deliverance and salvation of human, which all of them expresses the deep contemplation on complexities of relationships between all beings. In interpretation of the sacrifice scene, many scholars have theorized, but with all the different opinions, everybody thinks that the "auroctony " is a scene of salvation, A fact that has been considered and believed by believers will lead them to salvation through the taking advantage of eternal blood and joining God in eternity. This article has attempted by approach of descriptively-analytically, to analyze the philosophy of bull sacrifice by Mithra, which forms the main axis of Mithraism, by relying on artistic works. They believed that whole world to be exist from the sacrifice of a bull, and Mithra sacrifices himself and kills the bull, then he ascends. In other words, it is itself sacrificed. This scene is more symbolic and religious aspect not a real event of life. The triumph of the Mithra on the elderly bull is one of the requirements of the winter revolution and the rise of light over the darkness, the heat on the cold and the spring over the winter. The Mithraeists believed that the use of flesh and blood of bull would become a new life. The flesh and blood of the cat do not only exert physical power, also purify the soul, and have a beneficial effect upon the resurrection in eternal bliss. Some scholars such as Kristen Sen and Louise have concluded from these considerations that Mitra wanted to create a mystical unity with the cattle. Therefore, identity of Mithra identified in the scene of the bull sacrifice; he is the creator of nature and re-casting, the savior who intervenes in the system of nature, to bring goodness and spiritual happiness to humans. This is where the most amazing Mitra's story, which is an interesting scene of the creation, comes into being: from the bull's body, the beneficial plants, and they cover the whole earth. The wheat grow up of his spine, and from his blood, a vine leaves, to provide a sacred drink. Ahriman orders his Followers to attack the bull's carcasses, to destroy the source of life, infecting with oppression; the scallop is tied to the testicle of the animal, so that its organ contaminates it with poison, but the miracle of creation Occurring. This scene is repeated in all the discovered temples of Mitra.
    Keywords: Mithraism, Roman Mithra, tauroctony”, bas-relief, salvation
  • Alireza Taheri * Pages 61-70
    The work he was most known for was his, Tashrīḥ-i badan-i insān (The Anatomy of the Human Body, also known as "Mansur's Anatomy" Tashrīḥi Manṣūri). Mansur's Anatomy is a medical treatise of about forty manuscript folios. It consists of seven sections: an introduction, five chapters covering the osseous, nervous, muscular, venous, and arterial systems, and an appendix on the formation of the fetus and compound organs, such as the heart. Instead of discussing interrelated functions of organs, he discussed organs based on their hierarchical ordering of functionality-related groups according to their importance to the life of the body. No anatomical illustrations of the entire human body are preserved from the Islamic world before those which accompany the Persian treatise composed by Mansur ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Yusuf ibn Ilyas. While Mansur's Anatomy was not the first notation of the human body, it is considered to be the first color atlas ever created. This document led to a great deal of change in the way the Islamic world viewed human anatomy at the time, as until this point a color atlas was considered to be against Islamic law. Mansur ibn Ilyas is also credited with one of the earliest anatomical sketches of a pregnant woman; while many believe his other illustrations to have been inspired by earlier Latin and Greek writings, the pregnant woman is considered an original work. Most of the illustrations that Manṣūr ibn Ilyās used to illustrate his treatise were not original with him. The origin of the anatomical series of full-length figures remains a puzzle, but it clearly predates the Persian treatise by Manṣūr ibn Ilyās written at the end of the 14th century. Historians have noted the similarity between the first five full-length illustrations and certain early Latin sets of anatomical diagrams. This similarity is particularly evident in the diagram of the skeleton which in both the Latin and Persian versions is viewed from behind, with the head hyper extended so that the face looks upward and with the palms of the hands facing towards the observer - a posture, some have noted, suggestive of a dissection table. All the figures are in a distinctive squatting posture. The question is: What are the features of illustrating the versions of Mansuri's body descriptions and how did they affect other books that describe the body? Though there are six body image illustrations in this version, it is remarkable for the body to be clearly visible in the body's internal components and in the way it depicts a specific state of the body. Although other illustrations of this edition of the Western versions are inspired before or in time, but unlike them, descriptions and writings are placed inside and outside the body and with the organs of the body, and this is how it manifested itself as a way of describing Mansuri on the western manuscripts of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The research methodology is predominantly descriptive.
    Keywords: Manuscripts of Medicine, Mansur's Anatomy, Anatomy, Man??r ibn Ily?s, Illustration
  • Mina Shirani *, Asghar Izadi Jeiran, Brian Spooner, Maryam Kuhestani Pages 71-80
    Pottery as a handmade originated from humans’ thoughts goes back to Neolithic period. It has always provided a ground for demonstrating thoughts and beliefs of pottery craftsmen and women; and, it is consideredas best cultural material and guidance for deeper recognition of lifestyle and thoughts of its manufacturer.
    Kalpouregan is one of the places known for its potteries, and traditional way of making them still being continued. Pottery making activity in the region is just done by craftswomen, through usage of very simple tools and their intrinsic motifs. These women have learned the art from their ancestors and maintained it, with no change. This adherence to traditions and not being effected by related traditions of other regions are among the most important characteristics of these potteries which makes them distinguished from other samples. Studying culture, traditions and custom of the region in past and present may help us to identify these motifs, which undoubtedly are based on culture of the region.
    Kalpouregan pottery is a handmade originated from thoughts of Balouch craftswomen; while, accommodating an extended material and spiritual scope of Balouch culture, in itself. Studying motifs may demonstrate important dimensions of the culture and studying the culture on the other hand may help better understanding of the motifs carved on potteries. The paper has been prepared to the aim of such understanding through an approach to anthropology of art, to answer the following question: “Motifs carved on Kalpouregan potteries are of what meaning for their creators?” This descriptive-analytical method of research has been performed as a field study through making interviews, photography, filming, and participant observation, to collect data. The author has tried to study and analyze the motifs based on framework of Balouch society, through “art theory” as a semantics system from among various theories based on anthropology of art. In anthropology of art, there is no theory or theoretical system specifically provided about art. Those existing are merely very general opinions or descriptive theories stated in works of those anthropologists dealing with art, according to their specific field experiences. These opinions may be used as sensitizer theories. Mainprinciple of anthropology is method or shape, and the subject will be explained and analyzed in relation to its much expanded background as the method of analysis, i.e. culture of Kalpouregan region. Therefore, no theory provided by a specific anthropologist has been considered as the basis for analysis and conclusion in the paper; and, some of very general opinions stated by some of them have been used.
    After shape and style analyses of motifs to represent meaning through shapes, the author has referred to other artistic works of the region like needlworks, Kilim, and etc. to decrypt shapes and designs.
    The results show that: 1- The motifs represent customs, beliefs and traditions and in general, various levels of pottery making in culture of Kalpouregan culture; and, 2- Craftswomen of the region are occupied with carved potteries to maintain, continue, reproduce, and transfer the culture.
    Keywords: Anthropology of Art, Semantic study, Balouch culture, pottery, Kalpouregan, motifs
  • Amin Ebrahimi Dehkordy *, Sara Saadatfard Pages 81-90
    Today the face of Tehran metropolis defaced and in term s of identity and communicating with citizens is extremely weak. The urban landscape has direct connection with urban walls, and from this perspective, the significance of wall art can be considered. Wall paintings that can, along with the improvement of the quality of the environment, provide a means for transmitting the themes of identity, religion, history, culture, and so on. The fundamental belief in this study is that paintings with conceptual (abstract) themes and newer techniques of execution, and more consistent with other applied approaches, such as simulation and memory, are more successful in terms of cohesion and identity and their impact on citizens. Researches that have been carried out so far have examined most of the technical aspects of wall-painting and technical capabilities, but this research has specifically focused on three dominant approaches to contemporary urban painting. It is difficult to satisfy the most of audience of a wall paintings in the public space of the city. However, recognizing the common characteristics of citizens (such as nationality, culture, religion, historical background, etc.) with regard to the proper understanding of the timing and needs of society.Able to create works that have the minimum qualifications necessary to satisfy the majority of citizens.Help, also general themes expressed in the wall painting to the expressive features of the environment and culture where the audience is taken, so that the effect of the wall to create a sense of belonging contacts..In this way, muralism in urban space should, in the light of field research, be of such a kind as to be useful to and useful to citizens .Considering the emphasis on theoretical foundations of works, along with monitoring their implementation with new techniques, in line with the intellectual development of citizens, can contribute to improving the status of this art. The present study is based on the nature and purpose of the applied research type, which has a definite prioritization, and uses a descriptive method to explain theoretical foundations of researchThe method of explaining the findings of the research is also qualitative. The data base was based on the study of library documents as well as survey and distribution of the questionnaire. Therefore, 300 questionnaires were distributed in different regions of Tehran with the same conditions and randomly distributed among the three groups .The results of the research reflect the fact that the late mural paintings from the viewpoint of Tehranian citizens are more favorable than the works before them(Wall paintings of the 70s and 80s ), This research clearly shows that the abstract approach, despite being new, is considered as a new experience in the urban space of Tehran. Although there are still shortcomings in the message transfer, then the simulation approach and then the memorandum approach have gained the highest scores, the results of which are raising the level of artistic understanding of citizens, paying attention to the themes and techniques of execution, and expressing the desire for quality against Quantity
    Keywords: Mural Painting, Identity, Abstract Approach, Simulation Approach, Memorial Approach, Tehran
  • Samane Sadeghimehr *, aliasghar mirzaeimehr, hamid farahmand boroujeni Pages 91-102
    Persian civilization coincided with the formation of the heavenly religions depending on the diversification of the social structure of this country is included in each period. The kind of look and attitude of the central government Safavid art and culture, religions, especially Jews, consideration, review and research. The atmosphere of the city in the 17th century AD in a way that might have been Jewish themes borrowed from literary masterpieces of Muslim Persians and inspired by book layout techniques and traditions prevalent in the Safavid court art workshops or private workshops artists of the era, to produce their own illustrated books. The particular type of culture and art among the Jews formed that is known to Judeo-Persian. Judeo-Persian art from the book layout of this religious minority in Iran. At the same time the presence of the Safavid state in the seventeenth century, a certain type of book layout consists of Hebrew and Judeo-Persian miniature paintings of this period are formed that its special time. This study sought to interpretation, explanation and exploration of the dark activities of Jewish art book to comprehensively analyze their illustations. Also looking root of the image, and finally matching them with samples of his counterpart in the Safavid era and the result, the formation of this particular image according to aesthetic principles of doctrine and especially illustrated books, painting seventeenth century in Isfahan. At the same time formed the roots of the culture of Isfahan in Safavid era can be for Jews in this century origins of the book layout also be evaluated. In this period due to the growing demand nongovernmental paintings such as single portrait for artists can be traced to their roots as well as Judeo-Persian painting. special Jews manuscripts consists of lines of Hebrew and figures are taken from the Painting School in the seventeenth century and the origins of this art is in the sixteenth century. This could be why the Iranian Jews as a great and ancient minority is rooted in the country. Armenian Christians cannot see something special paintings. But there are differences in image quality, most images are revealed to aesthetic issues. This may be due to high cost or high cost of gold is the artist of the century. So that we can say that actually the Safavid workshops did them. But according to image matching with samples available from the School of Isfahan can be traced illustrious artists of the era, illustrated by the Reza Abbasi and most of all his disciples followed. Especially Judeo-Persian book illustration art sought to revive two components identified in the works. One that can create a sense of patriotism and strong similarities in their technical to Isfahan school miniature artists and painters such Moein Mosavir. And revived their religious beliefs Judaism to survive the subject of stories and using instead of Hebrew script Persian expression that is. A special kind of book layout to any form of religious minorities in Iran eleventh century formed the heavily indebted Iranian painting is unique, of course.
    Keywords: Jewish book arts, Judeo-Persian, School of Isfahan, Safavid era, Moein Mosavir, 17th century AH
  • Ebrahim Bagheri Taleghani, Reza Afhami *, Vahid Choopankareh Pages 103-112
    The conformity of products affordances and their signifiers with the level of physical and cognitive abilities of users, is a key factor determining the usability of different products, especially interactive products. The multi-functionality of interactive products has created the process of working with them through sequential and nested affordances, Therefore, working with them is more complex and difficult than many products. In some interactive products (such as Mobile phone and some applications), there is the possibility to customize interfaces and some affordances, so users can match them with their needs, level of ability and skill; but in generic interactive products (such as ATM, ticket vending machines) which users have different physical and cognitive abilities, it's not possible to customize and match the products affordances and signifiers with different users, so the interaction involves many problems.
    The purpose of this research, is to provide a good solution for improving the design of generic interactive products and enhancing their usability; so it is assumed that designing multi-level affordances can provide the appropriate use of generic interactive products for a wide variety of users. Accordingly, the background of the affordance theory in the field of product design has been briefly outlined. Then, the start point of this research and the reasons for choosing ATM as the case study are mentioned, and the full process of an applied research is described. Applied data in this research is gathered through the field study, using the questionnaires. Independent variables such as age, gender, level of education, user experience and skills, and familiarity with intelligent systems, were selected as the most important variables affecting the understanding of the affordances and the way of using the ATM.
    In the first stage of research, the users problems and needs in dealing with the ATM, different users preferences in the design of affordances and the most important variables affecting the desirable affordances, were determined using the questionnaire. In the second stage, significance of the relationship between independent variables with understanding the simplicity or difficulty of the process of interaction with ATM, became clear using the second questionnaire and Chi-square test and the severity of the relationship was determined using Cramer's test. In the third stage, in order to prepare multi-level affordance test, the affordances of three services of ATM were designed in three levels based on the results of the first and second questionnaires. In the fourth stage, the affordances and user interaction steps were programmed and simulated by application, then presented to the statistical sample and tested with the third questionnaire. In the fifth stage, the statistical data were analyzed using SPSS software in descriptive and inferential manners.
    The result of this study shows that if be possible to select a level of affordance which is appropriate to the physical and cognitive abilities of the users, the process of doing the work will be less difficult and less complicated and the work will be satisfactory for the user. At the end of the article, some suggestions on how to apply multi-level affordances in generic interactive products are provided.
    Keywords: Affordance, Multi-level affordance, Generic interactive products, Usability of products, ATM
  • Maryam Khalili*, Elham Atighi Lorestani, Jamshid Emami Pages 113-125
    During everyday life, many situations occur in which design has changed the way of our thinking. Artifacts and environments can be designed in a way to persuade people to perform a specific action in a specific situation. Education plays a key role in societies’ improvement. One of the age periods which is often neglected is childhood. Many behavioral characteristics are influenced by experiences of these first years. In this period, environment plays an essential role in learning and learning through action. At present time due to the changes in people’s lifestyle, the nature presence in living and learning places become a priority in the field of education for children. Children today do not have access to the natural world. They live in urban areas which rarely provide the experience of nature. The growing emergence of computer games in children’s lives leads to decreasing their attention to the natural environments. On the other hand taking care of a plant is mostly considered as an adults’ duty. Gardening even on a very small scale can have numerous benefits for child’s development. In children’s early education, some new trends are emerging. For instance play for learning in early childhood has become a valid approach which focuses on playful activity. Play and games can be used as a persuasive tool for child’s education. Studying existing products by focus on nurturing plant showed that many factors including lack of age appropriate educational elements are considered as obstacles in encouraging them through the process of caring for plants. In this regard, presented research aims at teaching children how to take care of plants by using persuasive design tools. Because of its educational programs, Mofid preschool located in Sattar Khan area in Tehran city is selected and studied as a case study. Analytical investigation is started from December 2015 to the beginning of May 2016 with an average of three days per week by designers’ presence in different educational spaces of Mofid preschool. A sum of 46 students is studied in this research. Both direct and indirect observation techniques are used according to the involved students. This study is based on a simultaneous practical-qualitative research methodology and persuasive design principles. The design principles are extracted of eight-step design methodology proposed by B.J. Fogg. The user’s observation shows that including elements of guiding through nurturing plant will increase the children’s interest in this activity. Playful and child-friendly elements are considered as appropriate persuasive tools which is the main purpose of this research. The current research seeks to prove the hypothesis that by using persuasive factors, the quality of child’s learning in the field of nurturing plants will be improved. At the end, a playful educational pack is presented as a persuasive tool to encourage child’s participation in taking care of plants. The results extracted from prototype evaluation, educational experts’ advises and users’ opinions, indicate that using persuasive design principles promotes children’s learning skills in the field of nurturing plants.
    Keywords: “Persuasive design”, “play, learning”, “preschool children”, “raising plants”