فهرست مطالب

تنشهای محیطی در علوم زراعی - سال یازدهم شماره 4 (زمستان 1397)
  • سال یازدهم شماره 4 (زمستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/09/26
  • تعداد عناوین: 26
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  • صدیقه فابریکی اورنگ *، ثریا مهرآباد پوربناب صفحات 791-802
    آگاهی از تنوع ژنتیکی موجود در ارقام اهلی و خویشاوندان وحشی یک گونه گیاهی، در به کارگیری آن ها در برنامه-های اصلاحی از اهمیت زیادی برخوردار است. با توجه به اینکه بخش قابل توجهی از اراضی زیر کشت گندم در ایران در مناطق خشک قرارگرفته و اینکه گونه های گیاهی با راهبرد های مختلفی ازجمله تغییر در آنزیم های آنتی اکسیدانی، خود را با تنش های محیطی وفق میدهند، لذا مطالعه هرچه بیشتر در رابطه با شناسایی گونه های مقاوم و نیز شناخت نوع سازوکار تحملی آن ها امری ضروری است. ازاین رو و به منظور بررسی اثر تنش خشکی بر محتوای رنگیزه های فتوسنتزی، وزن تر و خشک ریشه و اندام هوایی و فعالیت آنزیم های آنتی اکسیدان در پنج گونه اجدادی و تکامل یافته گندم از جنس Aegilops و Triticum، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سه سطح آبیاری نرمال (100 درصد ظرفیت زراعی) ، تنش متوسط (50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی) و تنش شدید (25 درصد ظرفیت زراعی) اجرا گردید. با مقایسه میانگین داده ها بیشترین میزان فعالیت آنزیم های کاتالاز، سوپراکسید دیسموتاز، آسکوربات پراکسیداز و گایاکول پراکسیداز طی تنش شدید به ترتیب با میزان افزایش 80، 34، 84 و 29 درصدی نسبت به عدم تنش مشاهده شد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که گونه های T. aestivum و T. urartu ازنظر فعالیت SOD، گونه Aegiliops tauschii ازنظر CAT، گونه T. durum ازنظر APX و گونه Ae. speltoides ازنظر GPX به دلیل بیشترین افزایش فعالیت آنزیم های ذکرشده در هر دو تنش متوسط و شدید جزء گونه های کاندید برای اصلاح به تحمل خشکی با مکانیسم آنتی اکسیدانی مربوطه محسوب می شوند. مقدار کلروفیل کل در شرایط تنش متوسط و شدید به ترتیب کاهش 11. 5 و 66 درصدی داشت، بااین وجود در دو گونه Aegiliops speltoides و T. durum کمترین میزان کاهش نسبت به شرایط نرمال مشاهده شد. میزان کارتنوئید با افزایش شدت خشکی کاهش یافت، اما این کاهش در گونه T. durum رخ نداده بلکه با شدت تنش بر میزان کارتنوئید که یک آنتی اکسیدان غیرآنزیمی نیز محسوب می شود افزوده شد.
    کلیدواژگان: آنتی اکسیدان، آسکوربات پراکسیداز، تنش خشکی، کاتالاز، سوپراکسیددیسموتاز
  • حمزه حمزه، علی اصغری *، سید ابولقاسم محمدی، امید سفالیان، سلیمان محمدی صفحات 803-816
    به منظور بررسی اثر تغییرات صفات فنولوژیک و تخصیص مواد فتوسنتزی در شرایط متفاوت رطوبتی بر عملکرد دانه گندم نان، 148 لاین اینبرد نوترکیب گندم نان به همراه والدین (Yecora Rojo و No. 49) در قالب طرح آلفا لاتیس با دو تکرار و در شرایط آبیاری کامل و قطع آبیاری در مرحله سنبله دهی در دو سال زراعی 93 و 94 در دو مکان مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. تحت شرایط نرمال رطوبتی بالاترین مقدار وراثت پذیری عمومی و خصوصی برای تخصیص مواد فتوسنتزی به ساقه به ترتیب با مقادیر 84. 61 و 42. 30 درصد و در شرایط قطع آبیاری برای روز تا سنبله دهی با مقادیر وراثت پذیری عمومی و خصوصی 90. 86 و 45. 43 درصد برآورد شد. بالاترین بازده گزینشی در هر دو شرایط مربوط به صفات عملکرد دانه، روز تا سنبله دهی، روز تا رسیدگی فیزیولوژیک، طول دوره پر شدن دانه، تخصیص مواد فتوسنتزی به ساقه و انتقال مجدد مواد فتوسنتزی بود. تحت شرایط نرمال رطوبتی و قطع آبیاری عملکرد دانه با روز تا سنبله دهی تخصیص مواد فتوسنتزی به ساقه و سنبله و میزان انتقال مجدد همبستگی مثبت و معنی دار و با نسبت تخصیص مواد فتوسنتزی به سنبله و ساقه همبستگی منفی و معنی دار نشان داد. بر اساس نتایج تجزیه رگرسیون و علیت در شرایط نرمال صفات تخصیص مواد فتوسنتزی به ساقه، سهم انتقال مجدد در عملکرد دانه، میزان انتقال مجدد، نسبت تخصیص ساقه به سنبله و تخصیص مواد فتوسنتزی به سنبله (0. 87=R2) و در شرایط قطع آبیاری صفات سهم انتقال مجدد در عملکرد دانه و انتقال مجدد (0. 86=R2) در توجیه تغییرات عملکرد دانه اثر معنی دار داشتند.
    کلیدواژگان: انتقال مجدد، گندم نان، همبستگی، وراثت پذیری
  • مهدی کاکایی * صفحات 817-833
    تنش های محیطی از قبیل تنش کم آبی یکی از موانع اساسی در تولید محصولات زراعی در بسیاری از نقاط جهان خصوصا مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک نظیر ایران محسوب می شوند. دربین گیاهان زراعی متنوع، حبوبات اهمیت بسیار مهمی در تامین غذای بشر دارد. این گروه از گیاهان دارای ارزش غذایی زیادی بوده و از مهم ترین منابع غذایی سرشاراز پروتئین می باشند. در این مطالعه شش رقم عدس (سبز قزوین، توده محلی اسدآباد، توده محلی کرمانشاه، کیمیا، بیله سوار و گچساران) در مزرعه آموزشی-تحقیقاتی دانشگاه پیام نور اسدآباد، در سال زراعی 96-1395 با آرایش کرت های خردشده بر پایه طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار کشت گردید. تنش خشکی در چهار سطح نرمال، تنش خشکی بعد از گلدهی، تنش خشکی بعد از نیام دهی و شرایط کاملا خشک به عنوان عامل اصلی و شش رقم عدس به عنوان سطوح عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. عملیات برداشت پس از رسیدگی با حذف اثر حاشیه صورت گرفت. صفات موردمطالعه شامل عملکرد دانه، وزن صد دانه، تعداد دانه در بوته، تعداد نیام در بوته، ارتفاع گیاه در مرحله نیام دهی، ارتفاع در مرحله برداشت، طول نیام، عرض نیام، طول برگچه، تعداد دانه در نیام، وزن خشک تک بوته، محتوای آب برگ، محتوای کلروفیل گیاه در طی مراحل رشدی، صفات فنولوژیک روز از سبز شدن تا گلدهی و روز از سبز شدن تا نیام دهی بودند که از روش های استاندارد برای اندازه گیری آن ها استفاده شد. در بخش دوم برای مطالعه تنوع مولکولی به کمک پروتئین های دانه عدس، پروتئین های ذخیره ای دانه ارقام مذکور با بافر استخراج، استخراج شدند. سپس الکتروفورز با استفاده از روش SDS-PAGE انجام پذیرفت. تجزیه خوشه ایبا استفاده از الگوی پروتئینی دانه ژنوتیپ های موردمطالعه و اختصاص داده های صفر (عدم حضور باند پروتئینی) و 1 (حضور باند پروتئینی) با کمک نرم افزار NTSYS نگارش 2. 02 e توسط روش UPGMA انجام گردید. جهت مطالعه همسویی و مقایسه نتایج داده های مورفولوژیکی (زراعی) و داده های مولکولی از آزمون مانتل-هانزل (Mantel-Haenszel) توسط نرم افزار XLSTAT, 2017 استفاده شد که همبستگی معنی داری در سطح احتمال 5 درصد بین صفات زراعی در شرایط طبیعی با داده های مولکولی مشاهده گردید. همبستگی معنی دار بین صفات زراعی در شرایط تنش خشکی و داده های مولکولی مشاهده نگردید. بر اساس آزمون مقایسه میانگین، ژنوتیپ های گچساران و کیمیا به ترتیب دارای عملکرد مطلوب تری نسبت به سایر ژنوتیپ ها بودند.
    کلیدواژگان: آزمون مانتل، اسپلیت پلات، الکتروفورز پروتئین، تنوع ژنتیکی، ضریب تشابه جاکارد
  • امیرمحمد حسین نیا، احمد نظامی *، محمد کافی، سعید خاوری خراسانی، جواد رضایی صفحات 835-846
    با توجه به کمبود آب و مصرف زیاد آب در هیبریدهای دیررس ذرت، بررسی رشد، عملکرد و مصرف آب در هیبریدهای این گیاه ضروری می باشد. از این رو به منظور بررسی اثرات کم آبیاری بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد هیبریدهای ذرت دانه ای، آزمایشی به صورت کرت های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار، طی دو سال زراعی 4-1393 اجرا شد. کرت های اصلی به سطوح آبیاری (100، 80 و 60 درصد نیاز آبی) و کرت های فرعی به هیبریدهای ذرت (شامل دو هیبرید دیررس(KSC705, KSC704) ، دو هیبرید متوسط رس (KSC500, KSC400) و دو هیبرید زودرس ((DC370, KSC260) تخصیص داده شدند. نتایج نشان داد که عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد همه هیبریدها در مواجهه با شرایط کم-آبی، به طور معنی داری کاهش یافت، به طوری که در سال اول در هیبرید KSC705 (دیررس) و هیبرید KSC400 (متوسط رس) ، کاهش آبیاری از 100 به 60 درصد نیاز آبی، کاهش حدود 20 درصدی عملکرد را به دنبال داشت. در صورتی که در هیبرید زودرس کاهش آبیاری از 100 به 60 درصد نیاز آبی کاهش چندانی در عملکرد ایجاد نکرد. در سال دوم کاهش آبیاری از 100 به 60 درصد نیاز آبی در هیبرید KSC705 (دیررس) ، KSC400 (متوسط رس) و DC370 (زودرس) به ترتیب منجر به کاهش 24، 28 و 24 درصدی عملکرد شد. برتری عملکرد در هیبریدهای دیررس متاثر از برتری صفاتی مانند ارتفاع بوته، تعداد ردیف بلال، تعداد دانه در ردیف، وزن 300 دانه، شاخص برداشت و عملکرد زیست توده بود، با وجود این با اعمال کم آبیاری شدید، این برتری در بین هیبریدها معنی دار نبود. لذا به نظر می رسد که بتوان هیبریدهای دیررس را برای مناطق بدون محدودیت آب و هیبریدهای متوسط رس را برای شرایط با محدودیت آب استفاده کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: 300 دانه، گروه های رسیدگی، نیاز آبی
  • حسین زاهدی* ، اکبر علی پور صفحات 847-861
    جو یکی از سازگارترین غلات است که در شرایط آب و هوایی مساعد، در خاک حاصلخیز که قابلیت نگهداری آب در آن زیاد باشد کشت می گردد. این گیاه نسبت به گندم در برابر خشکی مقاوم تر است، پدیده خشکی در ایران یکی از مهم ترین عوامل محدودکننده تولیدات زراعی است. اعمال تنش کم آبی به شدت اجزای عملکرد و عملکردهای بیولوژیک و دانه را کاهش می دهد. استفاده از نانو کودها منجر به افزایش کارایی استفاده از عناصر غذایی، مدیریت صحیح مصرف کود و کاهش تعداد دفعات کاربرد کود می شود. بدین منظور آزمایشی به صورت کرت های خردشده با طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 95 - 1394 در مزرعه دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس به اجرا درآمد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل کاربرد کود نانو کلات آهن و منگنز دارای 11 سطح به ترتیب شامل غلظت یک در هزار کود نانو کلات آهن، سه در هزار کود نانو کلات آهن، یک و نیم در هزار نانو کلات منگنز، سه در هزار کود نانو کلات منگنز، یک در هزار کود نانو کلات آهن و یک و نیم در هزار کود نانو کلات منگنز، یک در هزار کود نانو کلات آهن و سه در هزار کود نانو کلات منگنز، یک و نیم در هزار کود نانو کلات منگنز و سه در هزار کود نانو کلات آهن، سه در هزار کود نانو کلات آهن و سه در هزار کود نانو کلات منگنز، بدون محلول پاشی (شاهد) ، محلول پاشی آب خالص، سه در هزار کود میکرو آهن و سه در هزار کود میکرو منگنز، به عنوان فاکتور فرعی و رژیم های آبیاری در سه سطح بدون تنش (50% آب قابل استفاده مزرعه) ، کم آبی در مرحله رویشی (30% آب قابل استفاده مزرعه در مرحله رویشی) و کم آبی در مرحله زایشی (30% آب قابل استفاده مزرعه در مرحله زایشی بود، به عنوان فاکتور اصلی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که محلول پاشی سطوح مختلف نانو کلات آهن و منگنز در مراحل رویشی و زایشی موجب افزایش میزان عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد خصوصا در مرحله ی رویشی شد، حال آنکه تیمار شاهد (بدون محلول پاشی) کمترین میزان عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد را داشت. همچنین اثرات متقابل نانو کلات آهن و منگنز و سطوح مختلف تنش کمبود آب بر کلیه صفات اندازه گیری شده به جز شاخص برداشت معنی دار بود. درنهایت نتایج نشان داد که تنش کم آبی در مرحله زایشی و رویشی موجب کاهش و استفاده از نانو ذرات موجب افزایش میزان عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد می گردد؛ بنابراین، عوارض جانبی ناشی از کمبود آب می تواند در این منطقه و مناطق مشابه با محلول پاشی نانو کلات آهن و منگنز کاهش یابد.
    کلیدواژگان: رشد رویشی، رشد زایشی، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک
  • رضوان کرد زنگنه، سیدکیوان مرعشی * صفحات 863-872
    به منظور تعدیل اثرات کمبود رطوبت خاک بر عملکرد و اجزاء عملکرد گندم، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال زراعی 95-1394 در شرایط آب و هوایی اهواز به مورداجرا گذاشته شد. عامل اول رژیم آبیاری بر اساس تشتک تبخیربه صورت 60 (عرف منطقه) ، 90 و 120 میلی متر و عامل دوم شامل کاربرد تلفیقی کودهای شیمیایی و زیستی پتاسه درچهار سطح به صورت کاربرد: کود شیمیایی سولفات پتاسیم (شاهد) ، کاربرد 75 درصد سولفات پتاسیم+ پتابارور2، کاربرد 50 درصد سولفات پتاسیم + پتابارور2 و کاربرد 25 درصد سولفات پتاسیم + پتابارور2 بود. نتایج نشان داد بین سطوح مختلف رژیم آبیاری تفاوت معنی دار ازنظر تعداد سنبله در مترمربع، تعداد دانه در سنبله، وزن هزار دانه و شاخص برداشت مشاهده شد. تاثیر کاربرد توام کودهای شیمیایی و زیستی به جز شاخص برداشت بر سایر صفات معنی دار بود. اثر متقابل بین رژیم آبیاری و مصرف توام کودهای شیمیایی و زیستی بر عملکرد دانه و عملکرد زیستی معنی دار بود. بیشترین عملکرد دانه متعلق به آبیاری بر اساس 60 میلی متر تبخیر و کاربرد 75 درصد سولفات پتاسیم+ پتابارور2 با 5971 کیلوگرم در هکتار و کمترین مقدار به تیمار آبیاری بر اساس 120 میلی متر تبخیر و کاربرد 25 درصد سولفات پتاسیم+ پتابارور2 با 2081 کیلوگرم در هکتار تعلق داشت. درصد افزایش عملکرد دانه در تیمار کاربرد 75 درصد سولفات پتاسیم + پتابارور2 در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد، 12. 3 درصد بود. نتایج نشان داد کاربرد باکتری مذکور همراه با کاربرد کود شیمیایی توانست رشد گندم را تحت تاثیر قرار دهد. از طرفی با توجه به اینکه در هر سه رژیم آبیاری عملکرد دانه در شرایط 75 درصد سولفات پتاسیم+ پتابارور2 نسبت به تیمار عدم استفاده از کودهای زیستی (شاهد) افزایش معنی دار داشت، لذا این ترکیب کودی را می توان در شرایط تنش رطوبتی و بدون تنش رطوبتی در منطقه توصیه کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: رژیم آبیاری، سولفات پتاسیم، کود زیستی، عملکرد دانه
  • ارازقلی خوجم لی *، علی نخ زری مقدم، مهدی ملاشاهی، لیلا آهنگر صفحات 873-882
    به منظور بررسی تاثیر نیتروژن و آبیاری تکمیلی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد نخود رقم آزاد، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه دانشگاه گنبدکاووس در سال زراعی 95-1394 اجرا گردید. عامل نیتروژن در سه سطح شامل عدم مصرف نیتروژن، مصرف 25 و 50 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار و عامل آبیاری در سه سطح شامل بدون آبیاری، آبیاری تکمیلی در مرحله گل‎دهی و آبیاری تکمیلی در دو مرحله گل‎دهی و پر شدن دانه بود. نتایج مقایسه میانگین نشان داد که بیش ترین عملکرد دانه و پروتئین از تیمار مصرف 50 کیلوگرم نیتروژن به ترتیب با 3346 و 793. 8 کیلوگرم در هکتار به دست آمد. حداقل عملکرد دانه و پروتئین نیز مربوط به تیمار عدم مصرف نیتروژن به ترتیب با 1880 و 412. 9 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود. بیش ترین عملکرد دانه و پروتئین از تیمار آبیاری در مرحله گل دهی + پر شدن دانه به ترتیب با 2923 و 649. 7 کیلوگرم در هکتار و حداقل عملکرد دانه و پروتئین از تیمار عدم آبیاری به ترتیب با 2199 و 515. 9 کیلوگرم در هکتار به دست آمد. آبیاری در مرحله گل دهی + پر شدن دانه بیش ترین مقدار اجزای عملکرد را تولید کرد. مصرف نیتروژن تعداد غلاف در بوته، تعداد دانه در بوته، وزن 100 دانه، عملکرد دانه، وزن خشک بوته، درصد پروتئین و عملکرد پروتئین را افزایش داد. بیش ترین درصد پروتئین با 23. 72 درصد به تیمار مصرف 50 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار تعلق داشت. کم ترین درصد پروتئین با 22. 03 درصد از تیمار عدم مصرف نیتروژن به دست آمد که با تیمار مصرف 25 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار اختلاف معنی داری نداشت.
    کلیدواژگان: درصد پروتئین، مرحله گل دهی، غلاف، مرحله پرشدن دانه
  • حسین خیری استیار، یهرام میرشکاری *، فرهاد فرح وش، ابراهیم خلیلوند بهروزیار ، علیرضا تاری نژاد صفحات 883-892
    به منظور بررسی اثر گوگرد و تیوباسیلوس بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ارقام لوبیا در شرایط تنش کم آبی آزمایشی در بهار سال 1395 در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تبریز به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با سه تکرار به اجرا در آمد. در این پژوهش سه رقم لوبیا (درسا، اختر و صدری) ، چهار سطح کودی (شاهد، کود گوگردی به مقدار 300 کیلوگرم در هکتار، باکتری تیوباسیلوس و کود گوگردی + تیوباسیلوس) و تنش کم آبی (شاهد، قطع آبیاری از زمان گلدهی و پر شدن نیام) موردبررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد تفاوت معنی داری میان ارقام لوبیا، سطوح کودی و مراحل قطع آبیاری وجود داشت. مقایسه میانگین اثرات متقابل نشان داد تنش کم آبی به ویژه قطع آبیاری از مرحله گلدهی موجب کاهش صفات شاخص برداشت، عملکرد دانه، بیوماس کل، وزن صد دانه، تعداد کل نیام و تعداد نیام پر و در مواردی موجب افزایش مقاومت روزنه ای و کلروفیل گردید،درحالی که قطع آبیاری از مرحله پر شدن نیام تاثیر منفی کمتری بر صفات فوق داشت. با کاربرد باکتری تیوباسیلوس به ویژه همراه با گوگرد از اثرات منفی تنش آبی کاسته شد. درحالی که با افزایش طول دوره تنش میزان تاثیر مثبت باکتری به همراه گوگرد نیز کمتر شد. اعمال باکتری تیوباسیلوس به همراه کود گوگردی در خاک های با اسیدیته قلیایی می تواند جهت افزایش تحمل ارقام لوبیا به تنش کم آبی مفید باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: گلدهی، بیوماس، درسا، اختر، صدری
  • سید مسعود ضیایی، حمیدرضا خزاعی* ، احمد نظامی صفحات 893-906
    کمبود آب خاک ازجمله عواملی است که بر عملکرد و کارکرد فیزیولوژیکی ماش، تاثیر بسزایی دارد. لذا به منظور بررسی مقادیر رطوبت خاک بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ارقام ماش آزمایش مزرعه ای به صورت کرت های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در بهار سال 1394 به اجرا درآمد. تیمارهای رطوبتی خاک شامل: 80، 60 و 40 درصد ظرفیت زراعی مزرعه در عامل اصلی و ارقام ماش (ازبکستانی، پرتو، هندی و لاین های B73-726 و A73-726) به عنوان عامل فرعی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر سطوح مختلف خشکی، رقم و اثرات متقابل آن ها بر ویژگی های فنولوژیک برحسب درجه روزرشد از کاشت تا ظهور جوانه گل، از کاشت تا رسیدن اولین نیام، از کاشت تا رسیدگی کامل و از ظهور جوانه گل تا رسیدگی کامل و عملکرد و اجزای آن مثبت و معنی دار بود. لاین A73-726 دارای کوتاه ترین و رقم ازبکستانی بیشترین طول دوره رشد در بین ارقام و لاین های موردبررسی بودند. لاین A73-726 بیشترین طول دوره رشد زایشی را در بین ارقام و لاین های موردبررسی دارا بود. از طرفی رقم ازبکستانی باوجود طولانی بودن طول دوره رشد، کوتاه ترین دوره رشد زایشی را دارا بود. نتایج نشان داد که لاین A73-726 در تمام سطوح رژیم رطوبتی اعمال شده دارای بیشترین و رقم ازبکستانی کمترین عملکرد دانه و شاخص برداشت را دارا بودند، بیشترین همبستگی عملکرد دانه به ترتیب با تعداد غلاف در بوته، تعداد دانه در غلاف، شاخص برداشت، عملکرد بیولوژیک، تعداد شاخه اصلی در بوته و طول غلاف مشاهده شد.
    کلیدواژگان: شاخص برداشت، صفات مرفوفیزیولوژیکی، دوران پس از گلدهی، تنش رطوبتی
  • محمد میرزاخانی * صفحات 907-916
    کمبود آب از مهم ترین عوامل محدودکننده تولید محصولات کشاورزی در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک دنیا ازجمله ایران است. جهت بررسی شاخص های حساسیت به تنش ارقام ذرت تحت شرایط تنش آبی و کاربرد اسید سالیسیلات، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 1390 به صورت کرت های دو بار خردشده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. تنش رطوبتی به عنوان عامل اصلی در سه سطح شامل آبیاری بر اساس نیاز آبی گیاه (شاهد) ، آبیاری به میزان 80 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه، آبیاری به میزان 60 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه در کرت های اصلی و ارقام مختلف ذرت به عنوان عامل فرعی در سه سطح (S. C 370, Apex, S. C 704) در کرت های فرعی و تیمار محلول پاشی اسید سالیسیلیک به عنوان عامل فرعی فرعی در دو سطح، عدم مصرف و مصرف 300 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم در هکتار در کرت های فرعی فرعی قرار گرفتند. صفاتی مانند ارتفاع ساقه، طول پانیکول، تعداد بلال در مترمربع، ارتفاع بلال از سطح زمین، بیوماس علوفه، شاخص حساسیت به تنش (SSI) ، شاخص تحمل (TOL) ، میانگین بهره وری (MP) ، میانگین هندسی بهره وری (GMP) ، شاخص تحمل به تنش (STI) ، شاخص عملکرد (YI) و شاخص پایداری عملکرد (YSI) مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر سطوح مختلف تنش رطوبتی بر صفاتی مانند تعداد بلال در مترمربع و بیوماس علوفه معنی دار بود. صفات ارتفاع ساقه، طول پانیکول، ارتفاع بلال از سطح زمین و بیوماس علوفه نیز تحت تاثیر ارقام مختلف ذرت قرار گرفتند. رقم S. C 704 ازنظر شاخص های حساسیت به تنش (0. 85) ، میانگین بهره وری (42. 65) ، میانگین هندسی بهره وری (42. 46) ، شاخص عملکرد (1. 20) و شاخص پایداری عملکرد (0. 82) نسبت به سایر ارقام از برتری محسوسی برخوردار بود.
    کلیدواژگان: پایداری عملکرد، تنظیم کننده رشد، شاخص پایداری، میانگین بهره وری
  • نفیسه مهدی نژاد *، حدیث موسوی، براتعلی فاخری، فروزان حیدری صفحات 917-929
    به منظور بررسی اثر نانو کلات آهن، سنتز شیمیایی و سنتز سبز نانو ذرات نقره بر فعالیت آنزیمی، پروتئین کل و درصد پارتنولید گیاه بابونه کبیر تحت تنش خشکی آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی در سه تکرار در گلخانه دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زابل اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل فاکتور اول یعنی تنش کم آبی در دو سطح (عدم تنش و تنش ملایم یعنی پنجاه درصد ظرفیت زراعی) و فاکتور دوم شامل محلول پاشی نانو ذرات در سه سطح نانو کلات آهن با نسبت دو در هزار میلی لیتر، نانو ذرات نقره سنتز شیمیایی و سنتز سبز با غلظت 30 پی پی ام و یک سطح محلول پاشی با آب مقطر به عنوان شاهد بود. جهت بررسی فعالیت آنزیم های کاتالاز، پلی فنول اکسیداز، پراکسیداز، گایاکول پراکسیداز و پروتئین کل بعد از اعمال آخرین محلول پاشی، نمونه برداری از برگ های کاملا جوان و گسترده انجام و موردسنجش قرار گرفت. برای اندازه گیری درصد پارتنولید عصاره گیاه از دستگاه کروماتوگرافی مایع با کارایی بالا (HPLC) استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که تغذیه برگی نانو ذرات و تنش کم آبی منجر به افزایش فعالیت آنزیم های اکسیدانی، پروتئین کل و درصد پارتنولید در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد گردید. می توان اظهار داشت محلول پاشی نانو نقره سنتز شیمیایی تحت تنش کم آبی باعث افزایش آنزیم های اکسیدانی کاتالاز و پراکسیداز (به ترتیب 3. 4266 و 0. 28730 واحد در گرم وزن تر در دقیقه) و نانو کلات آهن در شرایط تنش کم آبی باعث افزایش آنزیم گایاکول پراکسیداز و آنزیم پلی فنل اکسیداز (به ترتیب 0. 5452 و 1. 2373 واحد در گرم وزن تر در دقیقه) شده است. همچنین میزان پروتئین کل با محلول پاشی نانو نقره سنتز شیمیایی و نانو کلات آهن بدون اعمال تنش کم آبی و عملکرد اقتصادی گیاه بابونه کبیر (مقدار پارتنولید) با محلول پاشی نانو نقره سبز تحت تنش کم آبی افزایش یافته است. به طورکلی می توان بیان کرد که گیاه دارویی بابونه کبیر با دارا بودن سیستم آنزیمی قدرتمند و تولید آنزیم های اکسیداتیو در سطوح بالا، می تواند رادیکال های آزاد را از بین برده و شرایط ادامه حیات را در شرایط تنش رطوبتی فراهم کند.
    کلیدواژگان: پلی فنل اکسیداز، کاتالاز، گایاکول پراکسیداز، نانو کلات آهن، نانو نقره
  • سمانه کیانی، سید عطاالله سیادت، محمدرضا مرادی تلاوت * صفحات 931-942
    رازیانه (Foeniculum vulgare L.) ، یکی از مهم ترین گیاهان خانواده چتریان است که اسانس آن در صنایع مختلف آرایشی و بهداشتی مورداستفاده قرار می گیرد. با هدف ارزیابی محلول پاشی هیومیک اسید و تنش رطوبتی در مراحل رشد زایشی سه بوم گونه ی رازیانه، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل اسپلیت در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام گردید. سطوح مختلف تنش رطوبتی (آبیاری کامل، قطع آبیاری از مرحله ی گلدهی، قطع آبیاری از مرحله پر شدن دانه) و محلول پاشی هیومیک اسید (عدم محلول پاشی و محلول پاشی 400 میلی گرم در لیتر) به صورت فاکتوریل در کرت های اصلی و بوم گونه (اصفهان، همدان و بوشهر) در کرت های فرعی بررسی شدند. صفات موردمطالعه شامل تعداد گره، قطر ساقه، طول میانگره دوم، تعداد چتر در ساقه ی اصلی و فرعی، عملکرد دانه، درصد اسانس، عملکرد و راندمان آبیاری تولید اسانس بود. نتایج نشان داد که تنش رطوبتی اثر کاهشی بر صفات موردمطالعه داشت. محلول پاشی هیومیک اسید طول میانگره و تعداد چتر در شاخه فرعی را افزایش داد. همچنین بیشترین عملکرد دانه مربوط به بوم گونه ی بوشهر با 1720. 12 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود. بیشترین تعداد چتر در ساقه ی اصلی و شاخه های فرعی هر دو از بوم گونه ی بوشهر حاصل شد ضمن اینکه بیشترین چتر در شاخه های فرعی در آبیاری کامل (61. 58 عدد) به دست آمد. بیشترین میزان درصد اسانس نیز در آبیاری کامل و در بوم گونه ی اصفهان (3. 8 درصد) حاصل شد. بالاترین عملکرد و راندمان اسانس در بوم گونه ی بوشهر و در شرایط آبیاری کامل و محلول پاشی هیومیک اسید حاصل شد. به طورکلی نتایج نشان داد که در شرایط آبیاری کامل، بوم گونه ی بوشهر به جهت دارا بودن عملکرد بالاتر، درصد و عملکرد اسانس بالا به همراه محلول پاشی هیومیک اسید بهترین بوم گونه بود. همچنین در شرایط تنش رطوبتی در هر دو مرحله ی گلدهی و پر شدن دانه بوم گونه ی بوشهر و اصفهان هر دو با محلول پاشی هیومیک اسید راندمان آبیاری تولید اسانس بالاتری داشتند.
    کلیدواژگان: پر شدن دانه، تعداد شاخه فرعی، تعداد گره گلدهی، راندمان آبیاری
  • فاطمه ملک ملکی *، نصرتاللهعباسی، ابراهیم شریفی عاشورآبادی، مهرشاد براری، محمد جواد زارع صفحات 943-957
    هدف انجام این آزمایش بررسی تغییرات عملکرد بوته، اسانس و برخی ویژگی های فیزیولوژیک برگ دو اکوتیپ گیاه داروئی زوفایی به اعمال تنش رطوبتی بود. آزمایش در قالب طرح کرت های خرد شده بر پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار و در دو سال (1395 و 1396) در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه ایلام انجام گرفت. کرت های اصلی شامل سه سطح تنش رطوبتی (آبیاری نرمال، تنش ملایم و تنش شدید) و کرت های فرعی دربرگیرنده فاکتور فرعی شامل دو اکوتیپ گیاه زوفایی بود. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که سطوح مختلف تیمارهای تنش رطوبتی بر صفات موردبررسی ازجمله عملکرد خشک برگ و بوته، درصد و عملکرد اسانس، شاخص سطح برگ، ارتفاع بوته و رنگیزه های فتوسنتزی تاثیر معنی داری داشت. به طوری که افزایش فاصله آبیاری از آبیاری نرمال تا تنش شدید سبب کاهش معنی دار تمامی صفات مذکور شد. بیشترین عملکرد خشک برگ، بوته، شاخص سطح برگ و کلروفیل a در تیمار آبیاری نرمال و بیشترین میزان درصد و عملکرد اسانس، کلروفیل b، کلروفیل کل و کاروتنوئید در تیمار تنش ملایم حاصل گردید. با توجه به یافته های آزمایش اکوتیپ ملکشاهی ازنظر عملکرد خشک برگ و بوته، درصد و عملکرد اسانس نسبت به اکوتیپ سومار برتری داشت. نتیجه بررسی دوساله آزمایش نشان داد که طی سال دوم به دلیل افزایش ارتفاع و شاخص سطح برگ بوته ها، میانگین صفاتی از قبیل عملکرد خشک برگ و بوته و عملکرد اسانس 1. 7 درصد نسبت به سال اول آزمایش افزایش نشان داد. ازآنجاکه دو اکوتیپ مورد آزمایش در طبیعت به صورت خودرو بوده و با شرایط اقلیمی ناپایدار و نامنظم بارشی سازگاری یافته اند، بنابراین اعمال آبیاری منظم در کشت آن ها به صورت زراعی در مقایسه با ایجاد محدودیت آبی ملایم موجب پاسخ منفی این گیاه ازنظر درصد و عملکرد اسانس و سایر خصوصیات رشدی می گردد که در مدیریت زراعی آن باید در نظر گرفته شود.
    کلیدواژگان: آبیاری، رنگیزه های فتوسنتزی، زوفایی، عملکرد خشک
  • جمشید سامانی پور، محمد جواد بابایی زارچ، طیبه حاجی رضایی، وحید ضیاییان احمدی، مجید جامی الاحمدی * صفحات 959-969
    به منظور ارزیابی قدرت رقابتی تاج خروس وحشی، تاج خروس سفید و خلر تحت تنش خشکی، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار با استفاده از آزمایش هایی با سری های جایگزینی اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل دو سطح تنش آب (80 و 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی آب خاک) ، نسبت های مختلف تداخل علف هرز با خلر (تاج خروس سفید + تاج خروس وحشی- خلر) شامل (100-0، 75-25، 50-50، 25-75 و 0-100 درصد) و هم چنین نسبت های مختلف تداخل بین دو علف هرز (تاج خروس سفید– تاج خروس وحشی) شامل (0-100، 50-50 و 100-0) بود. برای تحلیل نتایج از شاخص های عملکرد نسبی گونه ها و کل، شاخص شدت رقابت نسبی و شاخص غالبیت استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که ماده خشک تولیدی خلر، تاج خروس وحشی و تاج خروس سفید با کاهش محتوای آب خاک از 80 به 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی به ترتیب 33، 30 و 12 درصد کاهش یافت. هم چنین مشاهده شد که رقابت در بین این سه گیاه از نوع برون گونه ای بوده و بر هر سه گیاه اثر منفی داشته است. اگرچه شاخص غالبیت نشان از مغلوب بودن خلر در بیشتر نسبت های کاشت داشت اما با افزایش میزان تنش خشکی، به علت رقابت برون گونه ای علف های هرز، رقابت بین علف های هرز و خلر به کمترین میزان خود رسیده است که این موضوع باعث افزایش قدرت رقابتی خلر در برابر علف های هرز، تحت تنش خشکی شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: تاج خروس غلتان، حبوبات، عملکرد نسبی، قدرت رقابتی
  • اردلان ذوالفقاران *، بیژن قهرمان، ابوالقاسم حقایقی، محمد جلینی صفحات 971-979
    آب در مناطق خشک و نیمه-خشک بعضا شور بوده و از کیفیت پائینی برخوردار است، بنابراین گیاهان ممکن است تحت تاثیر توامان شوری و خشکی قرار گیرند. این پژوهش جهت بررسی واکنش عملکرد گندم و کاه تحت شرایط توام دو عامل آب و شوری در آبیاری بارانی بر روی گندم رقم بک کراس روشن 6611، با استفاده از دو خط آبیاری بارانی عمود بر هم، در قطعه زمینی به ابعاد 32 32 متر در غرب شهرستان بیرجند در خاکی با بافت شنی لومی انجام شد. زمین آزمایش، محل تلاقی دو خط لاین سورس (تک شاخه ای) عمود بر هم بود که از آبپاش های یک خط، آب شیرین (EC = 1. 5 dS/m) و از آبپاش خط دیگر آب شور (EC = 5. 5 dS/m) پخش می شد. پنج نوع تابع تولید شامل خطی ساده، کاب داگلاس، درجه دوم، لیتی و دینار و متعالی بر اساس تحلیل تابع تولید آب_شوری و با استفاده از داده های مزرعه ای مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که پیش بینی عملکرد گندم و کاه تحت تاثیر شرایط توام خشکی و شوری با تابع کاب داگلاس از توابع دیگر بهتر است. نتایج مقایسه نسبت نرخ جایگزینی نشان داد که امکان جایگزینی دو عامل شوری و مقدار آب برای حصول به وزن دانه و کاه یکسان وجود دارد. همچنین نتایج حاصل از آن نشان داد که در عملکردهای پایین تر، اثر مقدار آب بر کاهش محصول بیش از اثر شوری است.
    کلیدواژگان: آبیاری بارانی، شوری، تنش خشکی، گندم، نرخ جایگزینی
  • محمدحسین بناکار *، غلامحسن رنجبر ، ولی سلطانی صفحات 981-991
    اگرچه کشت روناس (. Rubia tinctorum L) با هدف استخراج ترکیبات مفید در ریشه آن در بسیاری از مناطق شور بخصوص در مناطق پسته کاری معمول بوده است، بااین حال تحقیقات اندکی بر روی جنبه های زراعی آن ازجمله روش های مناسب کاشت انجام شده است. این تحقیق به منظور بررسی روش های مختلف کاشت روناس و مقایسه آن با روش سنتی، به صورت طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی و با سه تکرار طی سال های 94-1390 در مزرعه تحقیقات شوری صدوق اجرا گردید. تیمارهای موردنظر شامل روش سنتی (کاشت به صورت کپه ای با ماسه بادی) ، کاشت به صورت کپه ای با خاک، کاشت بالای پشته، کاشت در محل داغاب، کاشت ته جوی و کاشت به صورت خطی بود. مقدار بذر مصرفی برای تمام تیمارها 300 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود و آبیاری با آب شور 10 دسی زیمنس بر متر انجام گرفت. در انتهای سال سوم در اواخر شهریورماه ریشه های روناس از خاک خارج و پس از خشک شدن وزن آن ها تعیین گردید. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین مقدار عملکرد تر و خشک ریشه مربوط به روش کاشت خطی (به ترتیب 18. 52 و 4. 98 کیلوگرم در متر مربع) و کمترین آن مربوط به روش کاشت روی پشته (به ترتیب 1. 13 و 0. 34 کیلوگرم در متر مربع) بود. این امر به دلیل بالاتر بودن تراکم بوته و پایین تر بودن شوری خاک در روش کاشت خطی نسبت به روش کاشت بالای پشته بود. درمجموع، کاشت روناس به طریق خطی عملکرد خشک ریشه را به میزان 2. 5 برابر نسبت به روش کاشت سنتی افزایش داد. بیشترین مقدار کارایی مصرف آب (0. 79 کیلوگرم بر متر مکعب) نیز از روش کاشت خطی حاصل گردید. به نظر می رسد کاشت روناس به روش خطی در شرایط شور، بتواند ضمن بهبود عملکرد ریشه و کارایی مصرف آب، موجب کنترل مطلوب تر شوری خاک نیز گردد.
    کلیدواژگان: آب شور، آلیزارین، خاک شور، رنگرزی، کاشت جوی و پشته، گیاهان دارویی
  • یونس خیری زاده، رئوف سیدشریفی* ، راضیه خلیل زاده صفحات 993-1004
    به منظور مطالعه عملکرد دانه، انتقال مجدد و شاخص سطح برگ تریتیکاله در واکنش به کاربرد کودهای بیولوژیک و نانواکسید روی در شرایط شوری خاک، آزمایشی در سال 1393 در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا گردید. فاکتورهای موردبررسی شامل شوری خاک در چهار سطح (عدم اعمال شوری، شوری 20، 40 و 60 میلی مولار) ، کاربرد کودهای زیستی در چهار سطح (عدم کاربرد، کاربرد میکوریز، کاربرد توام باکتری های سودوموناس و ازتوباکتر، کاربرد توام میکوریز و باکتری های محرک رشد) و محلول پاشی با نانواکسید روی در سه سطح (عدم مصرف، مصرف 0. 4 و 0. 8 گرم در لیتر) بودند. نتایج نشان داد با افزایش شوری عملکرد و شاخص سطح برگ کاهش ولی انتقال مجدد از کل اندام هوایی و ساقه افزایش یافت. مقایسه میانگین ها نشان داد بالاترین عملکرد دانه و حداکثر شاخص سطح برگ در حالت کاربرد توام میکوریز و باکتری های محرک رشد، محلول پاشی 0. 8 گرم در لیتر نانواکسید روی و عدم اعمال شوری به دست آمد. بیش ترین انتقال مجدد از ساقه و کل اندام هوایی در حالت شوری 60 میلی مولار، عدم کاربرد کودهای بیولوژیک و عدم محلول پاشی به دست آمد. اعمال شوری 20، 40 و 60 میلی مولار، عملکرد دانه را به ترتیب 8. 9، 22. 1 و 32. 3 درصد کاهش داد و استفاده توام کودهای بیولوژیک و نانواکسید روی به ترتیب 40. 1، 49. 7 و 40 درصد از این کاهش عملکرد را جبران کردند.
    کلیدواژگان: باکتری های محرک رشد، تنش شوری، ریزمغذیها، میکوریز
  • مرضیه کلهر، مریم دهستانی اردکانی *، مصطفی شیرمردی، جلال غلام نژاد صفحات 1005-1021
    شوری یکی از مهم ترین عوامل محیطی محدودکننده رشد و حاصلخیزی گیاه در سراسر جهان است. هدف از مطالعه حاضر، بررسی اثر سطوح مختلف شوری و اصلاح کننده های آلی بر برخی شاخص های رشدی، میزان جذب عناصر نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم و میزان فعالیت آنزیم پراکسیداز در گیاه همیشه بهار (Calendula officinalis L.) بود. آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی شامل پنج سطح از مواد اصلاحی (شاهد (بدون مواد اصلاح کننده) ، نیم و یک گرم عصاره جلبک دریایی در یک لیتر آب، 20 درصد حجمی گلدان کود گاوی کاملا پوسیده و 20 درصد حجمی گلدان کود ورمی کمپوست) و سه سطح شوری خاک (3. 5، 7. 5 و 10. 5دسی زیمنس بر متر) با سه تکرار در گلخانه به اجرا درآمد. در این آزمایش بستر بدون کود به عنوان شاهد در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج به دست آمده نشان داد که با افزایش سطح شوری، شاخص های رشدی و غلظت عناصر غذایی به طور معنی داری کاهش یافت. بیشترین سطح برگ، ارتفاع گیاه، وزن تر و خشک شاخساره و ریشه و غلظت عناصر نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم در گیاهانی که با کود گاوی در هدایت الکتریکی (EC) برابر با 3. 5 دسی زیمنس برمتر تیمار شده بودند، به دست آمد. مواد آلی در خاک به طور معنی داری خصوصیات رشدی همیشه بهار را در مقایسه با شاهد افزایش دادند. به دلیل غنی بودن کود گاوی از عناصر نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم گیاهان تیمار شده با آن در مقایسه با سایر تیمارها خصوصیات رشدی بهتری نشان دادند. با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده مشخص شد که اگرچه همیشه بهار در حالت عادی قادر به تحمل شوری تا 7. 5دسی زیمنس برمتراست اما در صورت استفاده از بستر کشت مناسب آستانه تحمل گیاه تا 10. 5 دسی زیمنس برمترافزایش خواهد یافت. همچنین مشخص شد که در میان تیمارهای موردبررسی، کود گاوی بهتر از بقیه توانست پایداری گیاه را در برابر شوری افزایش دهد و موجب بهبود خصوصیات رشدی آن گردد.
    کلیدواژگان: جلبک دریایی، خصوصیات رشدی، کود گاوی، ورمی کمپوست
  • علیرضا حسن فرد، احمد نظامی *، محمد کافی، جعفر نباتی صفحات 1023-1034
    هرچند کشت پاییزه باقلا موجب بهره گیری موثر از نزولات آسمانی، نیاز کمتر به آبیاری و بهبود عملکرد دانه آن نسبت به کشت بهاره می شود، اما وجود تنش سرما در این فصل به عنوان یکی از مهم ترین عوامل محدودکننده رشد در این گیاه محسوب می شود. به همین منظور آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با چهار تکرار در دو توده باقلا (بروجرد و نیشابور) در دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد اجرا شد. گیاهان در مرحله چهار تا شش برگی به مدت یک ساعت در هریک از دماهای موردنظر (صفر، 4-، 8-، 12-، 16-، 20-، 24- درجه سانتی گراد) توسط فریزر ترموگرادیان تحت تنش قرار گرفتند. بیست و یک روز بعد، درصد بقاء و برخی از خصوصیات مربوط به رشد مجدد مانند ارتفاع ساقه، تعداد برگ، سطح برگ، وزن خشک برگ، ساقه، مجموع اندام های هوایی و ریشه مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر دما بر درصد بقاء و سایر صفات رشد مجدد گیاه پس از اعمال تنش معنی دار بود؛ اما اثر توده و برهمکنش توده و دما بر درصد بقاء معنی دار نبود. به طوری که با کاهش دما درصد بقاء و سایر صفات رشد مجدد گیاه کاهش یافتند. این کاهش از دمای 12- درجه سانتی گراد شدیدتر بود و در دمای 16- درجه سانتی گراد منجربه مرگ تمام گیاهان شد. توده نیشابور تقریبا در تمام صفات رشد مجدد در محدوده دمایی صفر تا 12- درجه سانتی گراد با کاهش بیشتری نسبت به توده بروجرد مواجه شد. به این صورت که سطح برگ در بوته 24 سانتی متر مربع و وزن خشک برگ، ساقه، اندام های هوایی و ریشه به ترتیب 25، 30، 27 و 23 درصد کاهش داشت که مبین حساسیت بیشتر آن است. بین ارتفاع ساقه و سطح برگ گیاه با وزن خشک اندام های هوایی (به ترتیب **0. 98 =r و ** 0. 96 =r) و ریشه (به ترتیب **0. 96 =r و ** 0. 91 =r) همبستگی مثبت و معنی داری مشاهده شد؛ که نشان دهنده تغییرات همسو و هماهنگ بین دو صفت مذکور با وزن خشک گیاه است.
    کلیدواژگان: بقاء، کشت پاییزه، وزن خشک، همبستگی
  • مهدی تاج بخش، پرشنگ خلیلی* ، سمیرا مالکی خضرلو صفحات 1035-1044
    به منظور بررسی اثر ترکیبات مقاومت به سرما بر میزان رنگ دانه های کلروفیل، هدایت الکتریکی، وزن خشک و طول گیاهچه در گیاه کدو (Cucurbita moschata L.) تحت تنش سرما، آزمایشی در سال 1396 در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه، به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه ی بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. فاکتور اول شامل محلول پاشی 0. 25، 0. 5 میلی مولار اسیدسالیسیلیک، آرمان 3 (با غلظت 1:20 لیتر در لیتر) و آب مقطر (به عنوان شاهد) ، فاکتور دوم تنش دمایی (سرما) شامل دماهای 1-، 1، 3، 5 و 7 درجه سانتی گراد بود. صفات موردبررسی شامل کلروفیل، شاخص کلروفیل، میزان نشت یونی، وزن خشک گیاهچه (وزن خشک ریشه و اندام هوایی) ، طول گیاهچه (ریشه و بخش هوایی) بود. نتایج نشان داد، در تیمار دما و در دمای 1- درجه سانتی گراد میزان کلروفیل b، شاخص کلروفیل، وزن گیاهچه، طول گیاهچه نسبت به شاهد (7 درجه سانتی گراد) به ترتیب %48، 47%، 45% و 25% کاهش یافت. اثر متقابل تنش سرما و محلول پاشی در کلروفیل a، نشت یونی و وزن خشک ریشه معنی دار بود. با اعمال تنش دمایی میزان نشت الکترولیت افزایش و محتوی کلروفیل کاهش یافت، اما اعمال ترکیبات مقاومت به سرما از طریق حفظ محتوی کلروفیل و غشا سلولی، شدت واکنش های تخریبی را کاهش داد.
    کلیدواژگان: طول گیاهچه، کلروفیل، وزن خشک گیاهچه، نشت یونی
  • مریم مختاری، سینا فلاح *، اکرم رحیمی چگنی صفحات 1045-1057
    اگرچه کشت زودهنگام محصولات بهاره برای استفاده از شرایط معتدل بهاری و همچنین رشد رویشی مناسب اهمیت زیادی دارد ولی وجود دماهای پایین در ابتدای دوره رشد ممکن است رشد گیاه را با تنش سرما مواجه نماید. این آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل شامل شش غلظت متیل جاسمونات (صفر، 1، 5، 50، 100 و 150 میکرومولار) و سه سطح دما (8، 11 و 14 درجه سانتی گراد) در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی در شرایط کنترل شده در دانشگاه شهرکرد در سال 1395 اجرا شد. در روز یازدهم صفات مورفولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی اندازه‎گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین طول ریشه‎چه در غلظت 50 میکرومولار متیل جاسمونات و دمای 11 درجه سانتی گراد با 55. 6 درصد افزایش نسبت به شاهد حاصل شد. در دمای 8، 11 و 14 درجه سانتی گراد بذرهایی که با متیل جاسمونات تیمار نشده بودند فاقد ساقه‎چه بودند. در دمای هشت درجه سانتی گراد، غلظت پنج میکرو مولار بیشترین طول ریشه چه، طول ساقه چه و وزن خشک ساقه چه را داشت. در بین تیمارهای متیل جاسمونات، بیشترین میزان فعالیت آنزیم‎های گایاکول پراکسیداز و کاتالاز نیز در غلظت پنج میکرومولار مشاهده شد. در دمای 11 درجه سانتی گراد، غلظت پنج میکرومولار به علت افزایش طول ساقه چه، وزن خشک ریشه چه، میزان فعالیت آنزیم کاتالاز نسبت به سایر غلظت‎ها برتری داشت و ازلحاظ طول ریشه چه و فعالیت آنزیم سوپر اکسید دیسموتاز در رتبه دوم قرار گرفت. در دمای 14 درجه سانتی گراد، غلظت 50 میکرومولار دارای بیشترین وزن خشک ریشه چه، وزن خشک ساقه چه و میزان فعالیت آنزیم های سوپراکسیددیسموتاز، گایاکول پراکسیداز و کاتالاز بود. در دمای 14 درجه سانتی گراد، بیشترین میزان طول ساقه چه و شاخص بنیه بذر در پنج میکرومولار مشاهده شد و از این لحاظ غلظت 50 میکرومولار در رتبه دوم قرار گرفت. به طورکلی نتیجه‎گیری می‎شود که کاربرد متیل جاسمونات باعث افزایش فعالیت آنزیم‎های آنتی اکسیدان و درنتیجه تحمل گیاهچه کدوی پوست کاغذی به تنش دمای پایین می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: دمای پایین، سوپر اکسید دیسموتاز، گیاهچه، مالون دی آلدئید
  • ثمین لطفی، مختار قبادی *، سعید جلالی، هنرمند، محمد اقبال قبادی صفحات 1059-1072
    برای ارزیابی قابلیت آزمون تنش اسمزی در پیش‏بینی وضعیت سبز شدن گیاهچه ‏های عدس در مزرعه، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 94-1393 در قالب دو آزمایش جداگانه در آزمایشگاه و مزرعه در دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه انجام شد. در آزمایشگاه، آزمون تنش اسمزی به صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملا تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارها شامل هشت توده بذر عدس (محلی 1389، محلی 1393، قزوین 1389، قزوین 1393، بیله سوار 1389، بیله‏سوار 1393، کیمیا 1389 و کیمیا 1393) و چهار سطح تنش اسمزی (صفر، 3-، 6- و 9- بار) بودند. در مزرعه نیز هشت توده بذر عدس در قالب طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار کشت شدند و خصوصیات درصد سبز شدن نهایی، میانگین سبز شدن روزانه، متوسط زمان لازم برای سبز شدن و سرعت سبز شدن گیاهچه اندازه‏گیری شدند. نتایج آزمون اسمزی نشان داد که با کاهش پتانسیل اسمزی، ویژگی‏های مرتبط با درصد و سرعت جوانه‏زنی، طول و وزن خشک ریشه‏ چه و ساقه ‏چه کاهش یافتند. همبستگی بین صفات اندازه‏ گیری شده در دو آزمون مزرعه ‏ای و تنش اسمزی نشان داد که درصد سبز شدن گیاهچه در مزرعه بالاترین همبستگی را با صفت‏ های متوسط جوانه‏ زنی روزانه و درصد گیاهچه نرمال در آزمون تنش اسمزی در پتانسیل 6- بار (به ترتیب با ضرایب 0. 634 و 0. 689) داشت. سرعت سبز شدن گیاهچه در مزرعه نیز بالاترین همبستگی را با صفات متوسط جوانه‏ زنی روزانه، سرعت جوانه‏زنی و درصد گیاهچه نرمال در آزمون تنش اسمزی با پتانسیل 6- بار (به ترتیب با ضرایب همبستگی 0. 753، 0. 765 و 0. 667) داشتند. بر اساس نتایج حاصل از این آزمایش به نظر می‏رسد که از آزمون تنش اسمزی در پتانسیل اسمزی 6- بار می توان برای پیش‏بینی سبز شدن گیاهچه عدس در مزرعه استفاده نمود.
    کلیدواژگان: آزمون بذر، استقرار گیاهچه، پتانسیل اسمزی، جوانه‏زنی
  • بهمن جعفری، غلامرضا محسن آبادی* ، عاطقه صبوری صفحات 1073-1087
    این پژوهش با هدف برآورد دماهای کاردینال و تعیین اثر دما و پتانسیل اسمزی بر جوانه زنی بذرهای گلرنگ (رقم گلدشت) در آزمایشگاه زراعت دانشکده علوم کشاورزی دانشگاه گیلان، در سال 1395 انجام شد. آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با چهار تکرار انجام شد. تیمارها شامل هفت سطح دمایی (5، 10، 15، 20، 25، 30 و 35 درجه سانتی گراد) و پنج سطح پتانسیل اسمزی (صفر، 0. 2-، 0. 4-، 0. 6- و 0. 8- مگاپاسکال) بود. تجزیه واریانس داده ها نشان داد که سطوح مختلف پتانسیل اسمزی، دما و برهمکنش آن ها بر درصد جوانه زنی، سرعت جوانه زنی و شاخص بنیه تاثیر معنی داری (0. 01≥P) داشت. مقایسه میانگین نشان داد که با کاهش پتانسیل اسمزی، درصد جوانه زنی و دامنه دمایی مطلوب جوانه زنی بذرهای گلرنگ کاهش یافت. همچنین کاهش پتانسیل اسمزی سبب کاهش سرعت جوانه زنی و شاخص بنیه در تمامی تیمارهای دمایی شد، به گونه ای که بالاترین سرعت جوانه زنی (19. 8 بذر در روز) و شاخص بنیه (1. 96) به ترتیب در تیمار شاهد در دماهای 20 و 25 درجه سانتی گراد مشاهده شد. همچنین برای توصیف رابطه بین سرعت جوانه زنی و دما از مدل های بتا، درجه دوم، منحنی، دندان مانند و دوتکه ای استفاده شد. بر اساس معیارهای سنجش مدل، مدل های درجه دو و دوتکه ای به ترتیب با ضریب تبیین 0. 82 و 0. 96 برتر بودند. بر این اساس دماهای کاردینال شامل دمای کمینه بین 2. 2 تا 4. 2 درجه سانتی گراد، بهینه بین 23. 15 تا 23. 98 سانتی گراد و بیشینه جوانه زنی بین 42. 2 تا 43. 89 سانتی گراد برآورد شد. بر اساس نتایج، از مدل های برتر و پارامترهای برآورد شده آن ها می توان در مدل های سبز شدن گیاهچه در مزرعه استفاده کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: پلی اتیلن گلیکول، درصد جوانه زنی، سرعت جوانه زنی، گلرنگ، مدل های رگرسیونی
  • سلیم فرزانه *، بهنام کامکار، رئوف سیدشریفی، سعید واحدی صفحات 1089-1106
    این تحقیق در سال‏ 1393 به منظور بررسی عکس ‏العمل هیبریدهای منوژرم چغندرقند تولیدشده در شرایط آب و هوایی مختلف به تنش خشکی و مقایسه هیبریدهای حاصل از تلاقی لاین‏ های مختلف چغندرقند تحت شرایط آب و هوایی متفاوت ازنظر جوانه ‏زنی و رشد گیاهچه در آزمایشگاه تکنولوژی بذر اداره اصلاح و تهیه بذر چغندرقند اردبیل تحت شرایط آزمایشگاهی به‏ صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار، انجام گردید. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل بذر هیبرید‏های چغندرقند متشکل از 20 سطح (هیبریدهای حاصل از تلاقی 4 پایه پدری SHR. 1-P. 12،F-8662، FC709-2/24 وS1-88227 و 5 پایه مادری 436×7112، SB36×7112، 231×261، SB37×28874 و 419×SB36 که در دو منطقه ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی اردبیل و ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی مطهری (کمال آباد) واقع در کرج تولیدشده بود) و پتانسیل مختلف اسمزی با پنج سطح (0، 2-، 4-، 6- و 8- بار) بودند. در این تحقیق مولفه های جوانه زنی (حداکثر، سرعت و زمان تا شروع جوانه زنی) ، درصد بذر سبز شده، درصد گیاهچه غیرنرمال، طول ریشه چه و هیپوکوتیل و وزن خشک گیاهچه بررسی شدند. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که تاثیر منطقه تولید بذر، تنش خشکی و همچنین تفاوت هیبریدهای مختلف چغندرقند بر روی درصد جوانه‏ زنی، سرعت جوانه‏ زنی، زمان تا شروع جوانه‏ زنی، درصد بذر سبز شده، درصد گیاهچه‏ های غیرنرمال، طول ریشه ‏چه، طول هیپوکوتیل و وزن خشک گیاهچه معنی‏ دار است. علیرغم اینکه در بذرهای تولیدی در ایستگاه کرج درصد جوانه‏ زنی به مراتب پایین‏تر بود ولی نکته مهم و قابل ‏توجه در این تحقیق این بود که سرعت جوانه‏ زنی در بذرهای تولیدی در ایستگاه تولید بذر کرج نسبت به بذرهای تولیدشده در اردبیل بیشتر بود. با کاهش پتانسیل آب درصد جوانه‏ زنی، سرعت جوانه ‏زنی، درصد سبز شدن، طول ریشه‏ چه و هیپوکوتیل و وزن خشک گیاهچه در بذرهای هیبریدهای مختلف تولیدشده در هر دو منطقه کاهش یافت و زمان تا شروع جوانه ‏زنی و درصد گیاهچه‏ های غیر نرمال افزایش یافت. ولی مقدار کاهش در بذرهای حاصل از مناطق مختلف تولید بذر متفاوت بود و در بذرهای تولیدشده در اردبیل مقدار کاهش در مولفه های جوانه‏ زنی و رشد گیاهچه نسبت به بذرهای تولیدشده در کرج کمتر بود؛ بنابراین بذرهای تولیدشده در منطقه کرج در مرحله جوانه ‏زنی نسبت به تنش خشکی از حساسیت بیشتری برخوردارند. در بین بذر هیبریدهای تولیدشده در هر دو منطقه، هیبرید 7112*436×SHR01-P. 12 بیشترین و هیبرید 419*SB36×S1-88239 کمترین درصد جوانه‏زنی را داشتند و هیبرید 261*231×SHR01-P. 12 و 28874*SB37×SHR01-P. 12 به ترتیب از بیشترین و کمترین سرعت جوانه ‏زنی برخوردار بودند.
    کلیدواژگان: اردبیل، درصد سبز شدن، سرعت جوانه ‏زنی، کرج، هیبرید
  • قادر رستمی، محمد مقدم *، رسول نریمانی، لیلا مهدیزاده صفحات 1107-1123
    به منظور بررسی اثر نوع پرایمینگ بذر بر برخی خصوصیات جوانه زنی، مورفولوژیکی، فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی ریحان تحت تنش شوری، دو آزمایش مجزا به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملا تصادفی با سه تکرار در آزمایشگاه و گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد اجرا شد. فاکتور اول پرایمینگ بذر در چهار سطح (نیترات پتاسیم 3 درصد به مدت 6 ساعت، اسید سالسیلیک 0. 5 میلی مولار به مدت 12 ساعت، هیدروپرایمینگ با آب مقطر به مدت 24 ساعت و بذور بدون پرایمینگ) و فاکتور دوم سه سطح تنش شوری با استفاده از کلرید سدیم (0، 50 و 100 میلی مولار) بودند. بیشترین سرعت جوانه زنی در تیمار پرایمینگ با آب مقطر ثبت شد. وزن تر و خشک گیاهچه، طول ساقه چه و ریشه چه نیز تحت تاثیر پرایمینگ قرار گرفت. در آزمایش گلدانی صفات رویشی گیاه با افزایش میزان تنش شوری کاهش معنی داری نشان دادند. همچنین، بیشترین میزان کلروفیل a برگ در گیاهان بدون تیمار شوری (شاهد) و تنش شوری 50 میلی مولار در گیاهان حاصل از بذور پرایم شده با آب مقطر به ترتیب به میزان 7. 21 و 6. 33 میلی گرم/گرم وزن تر برگ به دست آمد. بالاترین میزان فعالیت آنتی اکسیدانی عصاره برگ (80. 66 درصد) و فنل کل (0. 87 میلی گرم/گرم وزن تر) در گیاهان حاصل از بذور پرایم شده با آب مقطر به ترتیب تحت تنش شوری 50 و 100 میلی مولار مشاهده شد. علاوه بر این، بالاترین محتوای رطوبت نسبی برگ (71. 55 درصد) در گیاهان حاصل از بذور پرایم شده با نیترات پتاسیم در شرایط بدون تنش شوری مشاهده شد. به طورکلی نتایج نشان داد در شرایط تنش شوری متوسط (50 میلی مولار) و بدون تنش (شاهد) ، هیدروپرایمینگ بذر سبب بهبود صفات مورفولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی ریحان گردید.
    کلیدواژگان: جوانه زنی، محتوای کلروفیل، شاخص های رشد، فعالیت آنتی اکسیدانی، هیدروپرایمینگ
  • داریوش تقوی* ، محمد صدقی، علی عبادی، امید سفالیان، آیدین حمیدی صفحات 1125-1130
    به منظور مطالعه اثر مدت زمان پیش سرمایی بر روی ویژگی های جوانه زنی بذر ارقام سویا، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با پنج سطح پیش سرمایی (شاهد، 10، 20، 30 و 40 روز) و سه رقم (CLEAN، JK و LINFORD) در آزمایشگاه علوم و تکنولوژی بذر دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی در سال 92 با سه تکرار به اجرا درآمد. نتایج نشان داد که اثر متقابل تیمارهای آزمایشی بر روی همه صفات مورفولوژیکی جوانه زنی در سویا به جز وزن خشک ساقه چه معنی دار بود. بلندترین ساقه چه به طول 20. 22 سانتی متر ازرقم کلین با 30 روز پیش سرمایی به دست آمد. با افزایش مدت زمان پیش سرمایی درصد و سرعت جوانه زنی افزایش یافت و بیشترین درصد جوانه زنی از تیمار 40 روز پیش سرمایی در رقم لینفوردبه مقدار 100 درصد به دست آمد. بیشترین وزن خشک ریشه چه از رقم لینفورد با 30 روز پیش سرمایی به میزان 0. 2050 گرم به دست آمد. افزایش مدت زمان پیش سرمایی موجب افزایش مقدار استفاده از ذخایر بذر گردید و بیشترین مقدار استفاده از ذخایر از رقم کلین با 40 روز پیش سرمایی به مقدار 2. 082 گرم بر گرم به دست آمد. صفت درصد جوانه زنی با صفات سرعت جوانه زنی، طول ساقه چه، طول ریشه چه و مقدار استفاده از ذخایر بذر همبستگی مثبتی در سطح احتمال یک درصدداشت.
    کلیدواژگان: درصد جوانه زنی، رقم، ساقه چه، سرعت جوانه زنی، سرما
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  • Sedigheh Fabriki, Ourang*, Sorayya Mehrabad Purbenab Pages 791-802
    Introduction
    Perception of the genetic diversity in domesticated and wild relatives of a plant species is important for their use in breeding programs. Considering that a large part of wheat cropping fields in Iran is located in arid and semi-arid areas, and that plants adapt to environmental stresses with different strategies, such as changes in antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, it is necessary to study more about the resistant species and the recognition of their mechanism of tolerance.
    Materials and methods
    In order to investigate the effect of drought stress on the content of photosynthetic pigments, fresh and dry biomass of roots and shoots and antioxidant enzymes activity in five ancestral and cultivated species of Aegilops and Triticum (Aegiliops tauschii ،Aegiliops speltoides ،Triticum aestivum ، Triticum urartu و Triticum durum), a factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at three levels of normal irrigation (100% FC), medium stress (FC 50%) and severe stress (FC% 25).
    Results and discussion
    By mean comparing, the highest activity of CAT, SOD, APX and GPX was observed in severe stress compared to non-stress condition, with an increase of 80, 34, 84 and 29%, respectively. The results showed that the species T. aestivum and T. urartu in terms of SOD, Ae. tauschii for CAT, T. durum for APX and Ae. Speltoides in terms of GPX are considered as candidate species for drought tolerance breeding due to the highest activity of mentioned enzymes in both stresses. Total chlorophyll decreased in moderate and severe stresses by 11. 5 and 66%, respectively, however, the two species Ae. speltoides and T. durum showed the lowest reduction compared to normal condition. The carotenoid, which is a non-enzymatic antioxidant, decreased with increasing of drought severity. Not only this reduction was not occurred in T. durum, but also it increased with drought severity. Positive correlation (0. 60) was observed between the amount of carotenoid and GPX activity under stress conditions in contrast to non-stress condition. Root dry weight showed a positive correlation (0. 81) with APX enzyme under stress conditions. However, in non-stress condition, this correlation was not significant.
    Conclusions
    The highest activity of studied enzymes was observed in severe stress compared to non-stress condition. T. aestivum and T. urartu in terms of SOD, Ae. tauschii for CAT, T. durum for APX and Ae. Speltoides in terms of GPX are considered as candidate species for drought tolerance breeding due to the highest activity of mentioned enzymes in both stresses. Total chlorophyll decreased in moderate and severe stresses by 11. 5 and 66%, respectively, however, the two species Ae. speltoides and T. durum showed the lowest reduction compared to normal condition. The carotenoid, which is a non-enzymatic antioxidant, decreased with increasing of drought severity. Not only this reduction was not occurred in T. durum, but also it increased with drought severity.
    Keywords: Antioxidant, Ascorbate peroxidase, Catalase, Drought stress, Superoxide dismutase
  • Hamze Hamze, Ali Asghari*, S. Abolghasem Mohammadi, Omid Sofalian, Soleiman Mohammadi Pages 803-816
    Introduction
    Grain growth in wheat depends on current photosynthesis and stem water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC). In semiarid regions with terminal drought, grain filling in wheat crops may depend more on stem WSC content than on current assimilates. Reduction in grain yield under drought is attributed to shorter duration of linear grain growth despite increased contribution of stem reserves to grain yield. The amount of stem reserves is measured either by changes in stem dry weight (indirect method) or by stem WSC content (direct method). Genotypic variation in the rate and duration of linear grain growth and in percent contribution of stem reserves to grain yield has a little evaluated in wheat.
    Materials and Methods
    The objectives of this study were estimated heritability and the relationship among phenological characteristics and allocation of photosynthetic materials yield in recombinant inbred lines of spring wheat under normal and terminal water defect. Plant materials used in this experiment, include 148 bread wheat recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross between Yecora Rojo and genotype No. 49. Lines were produced at Riverside University and through of Center of Excellence Molecular Breeding, University of Tabriz was placed at the disposal of this research. Studied lines with parents were planted on research farms of Mahabad University and Miyandoab Agricultural Research Center in 2014-2015. In both experiments used alpha lattice design with two replications under normal and water defect conditions. Irrigation in stress and non-stress treatments was done after 90 mm evaporation from class A pan, depending on the temperature and evapotranspiration until heading stage. In water deficit stress treatment, irrigation was stopped at heading stage. Measuring of these traits were done sampling before and anthesis stage.
    Results and Discussion
    Under both conditions positive and negative transgressive segregation were observed for grain yield, day to flowering, day to physiologic mature and grain filling period, allocation of photosynthetic material to stems, remobilization and remobilization portion in grain yield. Under normal moisture conditions, remobilization and in water difict conditions, grain yield had the highest phenotypic and genotypic variation. In normal condition the highest and the least broad and narrow sense heritability was estimated for the allocation of photosynthetic material to stems by 84.81 and 42.30% and allocation of photosynthetic material to leaf by 30.86 and 15.73% respectively. in water defect condition, days to headage showed the highest broad and narrow sense heritability by 90.86 and 45.43% and allocation of photosynthetic material to leaf by 52.38 and 26.19% showed the lowest amount The highest genetic gain in both conditions was related to grain yield, day to flowering, day to physiological mature, grain filling period, of allocation photosynthetic material to stem and photosynthesis remobilization. Furthermore In both conditions, grain yield showed a positive and significant correlation with days to heading, allocation of photosynthetic material to stems and spike and remobilization rate, and showed a negative and significant correlation with ratio of allocation photosynthetic material to spike and stem. Based on regression and path analysis treats in normal condition allocation of photosynthetic material to stems, remobilization portion in grain yield, remobilization rate and allocation of photosynthetic material to stems and spike and remobilization rate(R2= 0.87) and in water defict condition, remobilization portion in grain yield, remobilization rate (R2= 0.86) had a significant effect on the grain yield variations.
    Conclusions
    In this study, the remobilization rate had a direct and positive effect and remobilization portion in grain yield on grain yield had a direct and negative effect on the grain yield and identified as most effective traits. Therefore, it can be concluded that genotypes that have the ability to remobilization higher photosynthetic materials can have higher grain yield under both normal and water stress conditions and selecting such genotypes will help us achieve high-yielding genotypes.
    Keywords: Bread Wheat, Correlation, Heritability, Remobilization rate
  • Mehdi Kakaei * Pages 817-833
    Introduction
    Drought is undoubtedly one of the most important environmental stresses limiting the productivity of crop plants in the world. Drought can be defined as below normal precipitation that limits plant productivity. In drought stress conditions, plants close their stomata to avoid further water loss. Decreasing internal CO2 concentration and inhibition of ATP synthesis lead to a decrease in the net photosynthetic rate under drought stress.
    Materials & Methods
    A field experiment was conducted in 2017 at the Research Farm of the University of Payame Noor University center of Asadabad. The experiment was arranged as split plot design with three replications. Drought stress treatments (A1 (normal irrigation), A2 (cutting irrigation after flowering), A3 (cutting irrigation after podding) and A4 (drought condition) and genotype effect (Green Ghazvin, Asadaba Local, Kermanshah Local, Kimia, Bile Savar and Ghachsaran) were allocated to the sub-plots. Seeds of lentil were obtained from Deputy Head of the Research Institute of dry Land Sararood, Kermanshah Iran. Each plot was included 6 rows of with 2m long and 20 cm distance. The traits of Pod length, Pod width, Height at podding stage, Height at harvesting stage, SPAD on the pod stage, SPAD at flowering stage, Leaflet length, number of seeds per pod, number of seeds per plant, weight of 100 seeds, single plant dry weight, grain performance, day flowering and Relative Water Content were measured. Also, Study of the morphological characteristics and molecular markers for genetic diversity determination is one of the basic steps in the most breeding programs that which was considered in this experiment. The analysis of variance, mean comparison, Mantel test, Jaccard' s similarity matrix and cluster analysis was used for identifying the best genotypes and traits in the current experiment, also identification of genetic distance between studied genotypes under two conditions of drought stress and moisture. By using the grain protein pattern of the studied genotypes and the zero assignment (absence of protein band) and 1 (presence of protein band) with the help of NTSYS software 2.02 e, cluster analysis with method UPGMA was performed. Correlation between morphological and molecular traits was assessed using Mantel test with software XLSTAT 2017.
    Results & Discussion
    Analysis of variance results showed that in genotypes of all traits, except than traits, the number of grains in the pod and relative content of water were significant at 1% probability level. At drought levels, other than height traits in poding stage, SPAD at flowering stage, number of seeds per pod, weight dry single plant and relative water content of leaves of all traits were significant. To determine the correlation between agronomic and molecular traits, Mantel-Haenszel test was used and a significant correlation was observed at the probability level of 5% of agronomic traits in normal moisture conditions with molecular data, and a significant correlation was observed at the probability level of 5% of agronomic traits in normal moisture conditions with molecular data.
    Conclusion
    Identifying and detection of the traits with high mean in all condition Moisture is a suitable strategy for indirect selection of grain yield. According to the results, the effect of drought stress on genotypes was determined. The genetic distance of genotypes was also determined based on Jaccard's similarity coefficients.
    Keywords: Electrophoresis of protein, Genetic diversity, Jaccard similarity coefficient, Mantel test, Split plot
  • Amir Hossein Hosseinnia, Ahmad Nezami*, Mohammad Kafi, Saeed Khavari Khorasani, Javad Rezaei Pages 835-846
    Introduction
    Most of the croplands of Iran are located in arid and semiarid regions that water sources are limited. In recent years irregular consumption of water sources and continuous droughts led to incidence of water crisis in most regions of the country. Therefore, performing a management program is essential for reducing water deficit effects. In line with this approach, water deficit is mentioned as a useful way for researchers. Maize is one of the most important food sources for people and animal around the world. Hence, area under cultivation of maize is continuously increased due to more diversity, extensive compatibility, high yield and shorter growth period rather than other cereals. Maturity period is one of the important features before a maize hybrid is selected for cultivation. Selecting suitable hybrid with condition of the region, appropriate growth, reproduction and production can be expected. In order to water deficit and excess consumption of water in late maturity hybrids of maize, the necessity of investigating the growth, yield and water consumption in maize hybrids should be taken into account. Material and Methods: In case of evaluation of water deficit effects on yield and yield components of maize hybrids, a split plot experiment carried out based on randomized complete block design with three replications during 2014-2015 growing season. Main plots belonged to three irrigation levels (providing 100, 80 and 60 percent of water requirement (wr)) and sub plots belonged to six different maize cultivars including late (KSC704, KSC705), medium (KSC400, KSC500), and early (DC370, KSC260) maturity groups. Plots dimensions was 3×10 meters and heap width were considered as 75 centimeters. Irrigation was performed based on 100% wr up to stability of plants (four leaves stage) and subsequently experimental treatments were exerted. Calculated rate of irrigated water was measured by water meter with accuracy of one-tenth liter and separate irrigation was exerted with control of entrance faucets for each treatment.
    Results and Discussion
    Results illustrated that the yield and yield components of all cultivars decreased significantly by deficit irrigation. The interaction between irrigation and hybrid showed that reduction of water requirement (from 100 to 60% wr) lead to 24% decrease in plant height of KSC705 (late), while the reduction of plant height in KSC370 (early) was reported as 26% in 2015. In 2014, diminish of irrigation from 100 to 60% wr caused 11% decrease of row per ear, however, with water deficit of 80 to 60% wr no statistical difference was observed in row per ear in 2015, water deficit from 100 to 80 percent water requirement led to 10% reduction in rows per ear and also 17% decline in rows per ear was indicated as a result of water deficit from 100 to 60% wr in this year. In the second year, in line with water deficit from 100 to 60% wr, kernels per row decreased by around 13%. In medium and early maturity maize hybrids kernels per row was about 7 and 13% lower than late maturity hybrids, respectively. In the first year, water deficit had no effect on 300 kernel weight, while water deficit from 100 to 60% wr led to 25% reduction of 300 kernel weight in the second year. 300 kernel weight in the late maturity hybrid of KSC704 was 19 and 28% higher compared to KSC500 (medium maturity) and KSC260 (early maturity), respectively. In appropriate conditions of irrigation, positive and significant correlation have been observed between 300 kernel weight and seed yield. Water deficit from 100 to 60% wr caused 20% of yield reduction in KSC705 (late) and KSC400 (medium) hybrids in the first year, however, water deficit from 100 to 60% wr had no significant reduction in the yield of early hybrid. In the second year, water deficit from 100 to 60% wr in KSC705 (late maturity), KSC400 (medium maturity) and DC370 (early maturity) led to 24, 28 and 24% decline in the yield, respectively. In 2015, the effect of hybrid on harvest index was significant and harvest index decreases in KSC705 hybrids (late) compared to KSC500 (medium) and KSC260 (early) was estimated as three and 6.5 percent, respectively.
    Conclusions
    High yield in late maturity hybrids KSC704 and KSC705 was affected by the periority of traits such as plant height, rows per ear, number of kernel per rows, weight of 300 kernel, harvest index and biological yield. Severe water deficit revealed that this priority was not significant among hybrids. It can be concluded that late maturity hybrids is recommended for regions without water limitation and also moderate maturity hybrids is considered for conditions with limited water.
    Keywords: 300- kernel, Maturity groups, Water requirement
  • Hossein Zahedi*, Akbar Alipour Pages 847-861
    Introduction
    Barley is one of the most adapted cereals cultivated in favorable weather conditions, in fertile soils with high water retention potential, as well as in soils with acidic properties of between 7 and 8. This plant is more resistant to wheat than drought and therefore in a climate where water limits the production of cereals, barley can produce the highest yield, and in rainfed conditions, barley performance is higher than wheat and rye. The phenomenon of dryness in Iran is one of the most important factors limiting agricultural production. A large part of the cultivated land is located in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. In these areas, yields are drastically reduced due to lack of water resources. The use of water stress strongly reduces the components of yield and biological functions and grain. The use of nanofertilizers leads to increased nutritional efficiency of nutrients, reducing soil toxicity, minimizing the negative effects of excessive use of fertilizer and reducing the frequency of application of fertilizers. Fertilizer particles can be scaled with membranes Nano-coating that facilitates the slow release of nutrients. Covering with nanoparticles, makes it possible to regulate the release of nutrients from the fertilizer capsule, which causes the fertilizers to release nutrients regularly and prevent their general fixation.
    Materials and methods
    To evaluate the effect of foliar application of iron and manganese in the form of nanoparticles on yield and yield components of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under drought stress at different growth stages in the plot field experiment with a randomized complete block design with water stress factor in barley varieties of basil in the main plot factor of iron and manganese fertilizers with manure micro nano iron and manganese (as usual) in the sub-plots and three replications 95-94 conducted in Tarbiat Modarres University. Foliar fertilization of iron and manganese nano-silicates (in the usual manner) with the application of manganese nitrogen fertilizer application of 11 levels, including concentration of one per thousand manure of iron nano-chelate, three per thousand manure of iron nano-chelate, one and a half per thousand nanoseconds Manganese chelate three per thousand manganese nanoclat manure, one per thousand manure of nano chelate of iron and one and a half per thousand of nano manure Manganese chelate, one in a thousand manure of nano-chelate of iron and three in a thousand manganese nano-manganese manure, one and a half per thousand manganese nano-manganese manure and three in a thousand manure of iron nano-chelate, three in a thousand manure of iron nano-chelate and three in a thousand manure nano Manganese clath, without spraying (control), pure water dispersion and recommended iron and manganese nano chelate fertilizer, as a substrate and And irrigation regimes at three levels: 1) No stress and irrigation time when the amount of water available for use in the plant was at 50% FC level; 2) Water deficit at irrigation and vegetative stage was performed when the amount of plant water available on the surface 30% FC of the field was in the vegetative stage, and 3) dehydration in the reproductive and irrigation stage was performed when the amount of plant water available at the level of 30% FC in the reproductive stage was the main factor. Findings:
    The results showed that application of nano-iron and manganese levels in vegetative and reproductive stages, increased the yield, especially in the vegetative growth stage, while the control foliar application (without spraying) had the lowest yield. The interaction of nano-iron and manganese and different levels of water deficit stress was significant on all measured traits. The results showed that withholding irrigation at reproductive stage, reduced the yield and the use of nanoparticles cause to increase the yield and yield components. Therefore, the harmful effects of water deficit on plants can be reduced by foliar application of nano-iron and manganese micronutrients.
    Keywords: Biological yield, Grain yield, Reproductive growth, Vegetative growth
  • Rezvan Kordzangeneh, Seyed Keyvan Marashi * Pages 863-872
    Introduction
    Water deficit in soil is a common phenomenon in plant cultivation and can have significant negative effects on their growth. Potassium is an element that increases the resistance of plants to dehydration, salinity stress. If the amount of potassium is reduced, the apertures will not function properly and will disrupt the photosynthesis process and the rate of growth of the crop.The use of biological fertilizers composed of bacteria and fungi can help to optimize the use of fertilizers. These fertilizers, by dissolving the mineral compounds of the soil, facilitate the absorption of the elements by the plants. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of the combined use of potassium chemical and biological fertilizers in order to modify the effects of soil moisture deficiency on yield and yield components of wheat.
    Materials and methods
    In order to modify the effects of soil moisture shortage on yield and yield components of wheat, an experiment was carried out based on factorial with completely randomized block design with three replications during 2015-2016 in Ahvaz region. The first factor was irrigation regimes on basis of evaporation from evaporation pan at three levels include: 60 mm (common area), 90 mm and 120 mm. The second factor including combination of chemical and biological of potassium include, 1-completely through potassium sulfate fertilizer (without bio-fertilizer) (control), 2-75% potassium sulfate+Potabarvr2, 3-50% potassium sulfate+Potabarvr2 and 4-25% potassium sulfate+ Potabarvr2.The application of irrigation treatments started at the beginning of the tillering and continued the final harvest. To fertilize the seeds with bio-fertilizer Potabarvar 2, the seeds were first wet, then spread on plastic surfaces, and with Pb-2 biofertilizer, 100 grams per hectare per hectare were seeded on the basis of the manufacturer's recommendation. Potassium fertilizer was used as the basis for the treatment of 100 kg of pure potash per hectare from the source of potassium sulfate as a base and before planting.
    Results
    The results showed that the effect of irrigation was significantly different on ear number per square meter, grain number per spike, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index. The effect of combined application of fertilizer on all traits was significant except harvest index. The maximum number of spikes per square meter, grain number per spike, 1000 grain weight, and harvest index belonged to irrigation based on 60 mm evaporation pan and the lowest was 120 mm evaporation pan. Also, the maximum number of spikes per square meter, number of seeds per spike, 1000 grain weight and harvest index were 75% potassium sulfate + Potabarvr2.In regard to grain yield , the maximum was obtained under 60 mm evaporation and 75% potassium sulfate + Potabarvr2 by 5970 kg/ha. The minimum grain yield was under 120 mm evaporation and 25% potassium sulfate + Potabarvr2 by 2994 kg/ha.
    Conclusion
    The overall results of this study showed that: 1- With increasing moisture stress, traits such as grain yield, yield components, harvest index and biological yield decreased. Reduction in grain yield was higher than biological yield, indicating greater sensitivity of reproductive organs to vegetative organs under moisture stress conditions. 2. With the application of potassium sulfate, conditions can be established for plant establishment and ultimately increased yield. The best yield and yield traits were observed in 75% potassium sulfate + Potabarvr2. The use of bacteria seems to have affected the plant by increasing the potassium bioavailability or by producing growth regulating hormones. On the other hand, due to the fact that in all three irrigation regimes, grain yield increased by 75% potassium + Potabarvr2 sulfate in comparison with non-use of biological fertilizers (control) (all through potassium sulfate). Therefore, this fertilizer combination can be recommended in the moisture stress and without stress conditions in the region.
    Keywords: Biological fertilizer, Grain yield, irrigation regimes, Potassium sulfate
  • Arazgholi Khojamli *, Ali Nakhzari Moghaddam, Mahdi Mollashahi, Leila Ahangar Pages 873-882
    Introduction
    Currently, the population growth and low protein content of cereals, has attracted the attention of people to legumes nitrogen fixing bacteria in their roots, are effective on soil fertility and after harvest of these products, large amounts of nitrogen will be added to the soil (Majnoon hosseini, 1993). Among legumes, chickpeas (Cicer arietinum) with cultivated area about 11 million ha and production of 650 kg/ha (kochaki et al., 2004), has more adaptations than the climatic conditions of the country, especially with the most dry farming areas of Iran compared to other legumes (Bagheri et al., 1997). Generally, legumes are highly sensitive to water deficit stress (Labidi et al., 2009). Gan et al. (2004) have mentioned that chickpea seed yield decreased by 50% when stressed during pod formation and 44% when stressed during flowering. In different crops as well as in chickpea, differential genotypic response to drought stress as a result of variation in physiological parameters has been reported (Gunes al., 2008). Drought stress is the most important challenges in production of chickpea in Golestan province. On time using of water in the most sensitive stage of plant growth will result in higher production yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and supplemental irrigation on quantity and quality traits and nitrogen percent of Azad cultivar of chickpea.
    Materials and methods
    In order to study the effect of nitrogen and supplemental irrigation on yield and yield components of Azad cultivar of chickpea, an experiment as factorial based on RCBD in three replications was carried out in farm of Gonbad Kavous University in 2015-2016. Two factors was nitrogen in three levels of none consumption, consumption of 25 and 50 kg nitrogen/ha and supplemental irrigation in three levels of none irrigation, irrigation at flowering stage and irrigation at flowering + seed filling stages. Row spacing was 30cm and 10 cm between plants in the each row. Each plot contained four rows of 4 meters. To determine the grain yield, border rows and 0.5 meters rows from both sides of the excluded middle and the rest were harvested. To determine yield components 10 plants were randomly collected and traits were measured.
    Results and discussion
    The results analysis of variance (mean squares) showed that effect of nitrogen and supplemental irrigation on traits of number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, 100-seed weight, grain yield, plant dry weight, harvest index and protein yield was significant at 1%. Effect of nitrogen on trait protein percent was significant at 5% and supplemental irrigation was no significant on trait protein percent. The maximum seed yield and protein yield was obtained from consumption of 50 kg N respectively with 3346 and 793/8 kg/ha. The minimum seed yield and protein yield was obtained from non consumption of N respectively with 1880 and 412/9 kg/ha. The maximum seed yield and protein yield was obtained from irrigation at flowering + seed filling stages respectively with 2923 and 649/7 kg/ha and the minimum seed yield and protein yield was obtained from none irrigation treatment respectively with 2199 and 515/9 kg/ha. Irrigation at flowering + seed filling stages produced the greatest amount of yield components. Nitrogen consumption increased all traits. The maximum and the minimum harvest index of chickpea belonged to 50 kg N/ha and none consumption of nitrogen, respectively.
    Conclusion
    The results showed that all traits except protein percent were released under the influence of nitrogen and supplemental irrigation. All traits were increased by nitrogen application. The most amounts of traits related to irrigation at flowering + grain filling stages and then irrigation in flowering stage. High amounts of yield components in this treatments increased seed yield.
    Keywords: Flowering stage, Pod, Protein percent, Seed filling stage
  • Hossein Keiri Estiar, Bahram Mirshekari *, Farhad Farahvash, Ebrahim Khalilvandeh behruzyar, Alireza tarinezhad Pages 883-892
    Introduction
    During recent years, the adoption of soil biotechnology has received noticed for aiming to use the potential of helpful soil organisms to maximize crops instead of trying to improve soil. Today what encourages developed countries to produces and consume bio-fertilizers and bacteria are the environmental side effects caused by the inadvertently imbalanced consumption of chemical fertilizers. Bean is seventh major world food crop that is often affected by adverse environmental conditions such as drought, Despite beans economic importance, few studies have been done on the genetics and genetic resource assessment, Given the importance of water deficit, Thus, the objectives of this study attempted to identify the most appropriate fertilizer treatment for varieties of bean under water deficit stress on the greenhouse experiment by passing through several stages of sulfur and Thiobacillus bacteria application and reviewing the given results
    Materials and methods
    In order investigate the effect of Thiobacillus and Sulfur on photosynthetic pigments in different common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars under water deficit, the greenhouse experiment was carried out in factorial form using a completely randomized design with three replicates at the greenhouse of Research Station of the Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Iran, during the 2016. The studied factors included: (A) cultivars of bean a1) white bean (Dorsa), a2) red bean (Akhtar) and a3) pinto bean (Sadri) in four stages of fertilizer (B), b1) control, b2) 300kg/ha sulfur, b3) Thiobacillus and b4) sulfur + Thiobacillus, Under three water deficit condition (C) c1) control, c2) No irrigation from flowering stage and c3) No irrigation from poding stage. In this study used from two flowerpot (8kg) for each treatments. The following plant growth parameters were measured when about 65-75% of pods were matured: No. pod, No. full pod, 100-grain weight, biomass, grain yield and harvest index. SAS software was used to check the normality of the data, analysis of variance, and means comparison. The mean of the treatments were compared using the Duncan’s test at p< 0.05.
    Results and discussion
    Results revealed that water deficit, especially No irrigation from flowering stage reduced harvest index, yield, biomass, 100 seed weight, number of pods and field pod but No irrigation from poding stage had fewer negative effect on measured traits. This decrease in most cases reduced negative effects of stress by applying the Thiobacillus especially with sulfur. Thiobacillus bacteria provided more suitable condition to improving bioactivities of soil and caused to increasing measured traits through absorbing nutrients by root in compared with control treatment. But whatever increased during the period of stress, subsequently the positive influence of the bacteria and sulfur was lower.
    Conclusions
    In all of traits studied, control has the highest value and after that was stress at poding stage and flowering stage. Water deficit due to flowers loss and reduced number of pods and eventually reduced yield. Among the cultivars Dorsa had the less success to Resistance, and application Thiobacillus + sulfur could not make the most impact for Resistance to stress in this cultivar. Recent studies indicated that using Thiobacillus + sulfur also improving soil physiological structure and also increase available mineral nutrients to coexistent plant. All cultivars showed intense sensitivity to stress (especially during flowering stage) and we can by applying Thiobacillus + sulfur in soil help to increase solubility of minerals and their absorption ability for increased plants resistance to stress.
    Keywords: Akhtar, Biomass, Dorsa, Flowering, Sadri
  • Seyed Masoud Ziaei, Hamid Reza Khazaei *, Ahmad Nezami Pages 893-906
    Introduction
    Water stress is one of the most factor in growth and yield of mung bean in arid and semi-arid region .In arid and semi-arid osmotic stress, especially drought and salinity affect the production and crop yields. In many areas of climate change caused by long periods of temperatures and increased evaporation and transpiration, that changes in morpho-physiologic and biochemical wide drought is created. Mung (Vigna radiata L.) is one of the important plant source of protein (about 25%) numerous. It is the summer and a short growing season (90 to 120 days) for rainfed cultivation occurs in areas with high rainfall. Due to the short growing season of plants suitable for cultivation in many parts of the nitrogen fixation can be considered after wheat. The analysis suggests the difference on the morpho-physiological traits and phenological plant varieties under different humidity conditions .showing that drought stress on traits such as number of branches in all phenological stages, plant height, days to flowering and full treatment had a significant positive impact .The purpose of this study was to determine the genotypes of mung bean drought tolerance, drought tolerance threshold and identifying the physiological indicators of drought tolerance was carried out.
    Materials and Methods
    Field experiment in the spring of 2015 at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad was conducted. Split plot experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design. The main plots soil moisture regime: the lack of stress (80% FC), moderate stress (60% FC) and sever stress (40% FC) during the growing season and subplots five digits and Golden Line includes: Uzbek, Partow, Hindi, Line 73-726 a 73-726 B and who was prepared Safiabad Research center.  
    Results and Discussions
    The results showed that, yield and yield components were significantly affected by deficit irrigation, Genotypes and their interaction. The results showed that, 726-73 a line was more resistant against the deficit irrigation applying in all treatment and produced higher grain yield and yield components and appearance of first flower, number of days from sowing to first pod maturity, number of days to maturity, number of day from appearance of first flower to full maturity were significantly affected by deficit irrigation, varieties and their interaction. The results showed that, high correlation between yield and number of pod per plant, number of seed in pod, harvest index, biological yield, number of branch in plant and length of pod.
    Conclusion
    The mung bean cultivars significant difference was observed in the records of phenological stages, also associated with increased drought stress reduced the duration of phenological records. The important point that seems to phenological stages after flowering to maturity stage could be an important basis for the implementation of corrective actions to improve performance in this plant. Improved soil moisture conditions increase plant performance machine, the low soil moisture conditions (40% FC) performance declined sharply that contrary to the perception in relation to the resistance of plants to drought stress is the machine. Vetch cultivars had the highest grain yield and harvest index was also A73-726 online. land and be a criterion for selection of varieties with higher yield.
    Keywords: After flowering period, Drought stress, Harvest index, Morpho-physiological traits
  • Mohammad Mirzakhani * Pages 907-916
    Introduction
    Water deficiency affects photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration by affecting cellular swelling and opening and closing openings. Also, by affecting enzyme processes directly controlled by water potential, it negatively affects plant growth (Brar et al., 1990). Salicylic acid is a phenolic compound and has an antioxidant effect in regulating the physiological processes of plants. Salicylic acid is known as an important messenger molecule in plant responses to various biotic and non-biological stresses (El-Tayeb, 2005). Salislic acid increases wheat and corn resistance in salt conditions (Gunes et al., 2007). Salicylic acid also increases the resistance of plants to biological and non-biological stresses such as drought stress (Sing and Usha, 2003). The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the susceptibility indices of early maize, medium clay and late corn varieties. For this purpose, stress tolerance indices were used to estimate yield in stress and non stress conditions, so that the most suitable indices or indicators of stress tolerance along with superior genotype were determined.
    Materials and methods
    In order to evaluate the study of stress susceptibility Indies of maize cultivars under water stress and salicylic acid application, this study was carried out in field of Arak Payam Noor university in 2009. Twice split-plot arrangement of treatment in a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Water stress (I0= Control irrigation, I1= Irrigation about 80% plant requirement water, I2= Irrigation about 60% of plant requirement water, were assigned in the main plots, maize varieties (V1= S.C 370, V2= Apex, V3= S.C 704) in sub plots and foliar treatment of salicylic acid in two levels (Sa0= Control, Sa1= 300 ppm) in sub-sub plots. Each sub plot consisted of 4 rows, 5 m long with 50 cm between rows space and 20 cm between plants on the rows. In this study characteristics such as: stem height, panicule length, number of ear m-2, ear height, forage biomass, stress susceptibility index, tolerance, mean productivity, geometric mean productivity, stress tolerance index, yield index and yield stability index were assessed. After analyzing the data, the meanings were compared with Duncan's multiple range tested at a probability level of 5%. Also, all correlation coefficients between studied traits were calculated and their significance was determined by Mstat-c software.
    Results and discussion
    In the analysis of variance table, the effects of treatment of water stress levels and different maize varieties on the biomass traits were significant at 1% probability level. So that among the levels of water stress, the highest amount of forage biomass with mean 40.3 ton ha-1 and the lowest is the average 28.06 ton ha-1 related to intense water stress treatment. In this study, the use of the TOL indicator showed that the Apex hybrid had the lowest value (7.45) and the hybrid S.C 370 with the amount of (9.09) respectively, had the highest and lowest levels of water stress tolerance among cultivars. SC 704 cultivar with average (1.18) the highest tolerance to stress was achieved.
    Results indicated that the treatment effect of water stress on traits such as panicule length, number of ear m-2, forage biomass was significant. The treatment effect of cultivars of maize on traits such as stem height, panicule length, ear height and forage biomass was significant, too. The S.C 704 hybrid was markedly superior performance than other cultivars in stress susceptibility index, mean productivity, stress tolerance index, geometric mean productivity, yield index and yield stability index.
    Conclusions
    According to the results of this study, with increasing water deficit stress, forage yield decreased by about 30%. However, with normal irrigation, the highest silage yield was obtained. Among cultivars, S.C 704 had a remarkable advantage. Also, Salicylic acid increased forage yield, although this increase was not significant.
    Keywords: Growth Regulator, Mean productivity, Stability Index, Yield Stability
  • Nafiseh Mahdi nezhad *, Hadis Mousavi, Baratali Fakheri, Frouzan Heidari Pages 917-929
    Introduction
    The Feverfew plant, Tanacetum parthenium L, is a two or more perennial herb, with a direct stem and longitudinal grooves of 30 to 80 cm in height. Due to the importance of the role of antioxidant enzymes in protecting plant cells against oxidation stress caused by adverse environmental conditions, the activity of a group of these enzymes in the pre-flowering stage under the influence of Water dificit stress and spraying of nanoparticles of silver and Iron nanochelate was studied.
    Materials and methods
    In this research was done to investigate the effects of Nano-iron spray, the chemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles and the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles on antioxidant enzyme activities and total protein of chamomile plant. It was done in the form of a completely random factorial design with three replications in the greenhouse of the agricultural college of Zabol university. The treatments included the first factor, Water dificit stress in two levels (non-stress and moderate stress, %50 of the field capacity) and the second one included nanoparticles in three levels of Nano-iron, the chemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles and the green synthesis with the density of 30ppm and one non-Nano level. To investigate the activity of catalase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and guaiacol peroxidase enzymes, a sampling of completely young and extensive leaves was performed after the last spraying, and according to the available protocols, their activity was measured. The total protein concentration measured by Bradford method and the amount of the parthenolide active substance were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
    Results and discussion
    The results of variance analysis indicate the effect of water dificit stress on all studied properties are significant at 1% level. Foliar application of nanoparticles also had a significant and positive effect on the studied characteristics. In general, it can be stated that nanosilver of chemical synthesis under drought stress conditions has increased catalase and peroxidase (2.4266 and 0.2872 respectivly) and iron nanochelate under drought stress conditions has increased guaiacol peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase enzymes (0.5452 and 1.2273 respectivly). the total protein content has increased through the spraying of solution of Silver nanoparticle chemical synthesis and iron nano chelate without water dificit stress and the maximum economical performance of chamomile plant (The amount of pathenolide) has increased with green synthesis of nano silver spray under water dificit stress. In general it can be stated that the increased activity of antioxidant enzymes under drought stress are the effects of enzymatic activity of Feverfew to control the production of reactive oxygen radicals which prevents oxidative damage and reduces the growth. On the other hand, it is likely that the decrease in the activity of these enzymes is due to less requirement of cell for antioxidant metabolism after treatment with nanoparticles. Nanoparticles may also be directly involved in the elimination of free radicals and, by purifying these reactive oxygen species, prevent the increase of enzyme activity. Therefore it can be stated that Feverfew plant can eliminate the production of free radicals and provide viability of the plant under the dehydration stress through a strong enzymatic system and the production of oxidative enzymes.
    Keywords: Catalase, Guaiacol Peroxidase, Iron Nano Chelate, Nano Silver, Polyphenol Oxidase
  • Samaneh Kiani, Seyed Ataulah Siadat, Mohammad Reza Moradi Telavat * Pages 931-942
    Introduction
    Water is one of the most important environmental factors that has a significant effect on the growth, development and active ingredients of medicinal plants. Developing plant that has minimum water requirements and maximum production in dehydration conditions is the one of ways to cope with the problem of water scarcity. Medicinal plants and especially their native species due to genetics, morphological characteristics and having some secondary metabolites have higher stress tolerance potential than other herbs and are suitable alternatives for cropping under stressful conditions. Today, the use of various types of organic acids has been used to improve the quality and quantity of crops and horticulture and tolerance to drought stress. Humic acid is a natural organic material that is obtained from the final degradation of soil organic matter by microorganisms. Humic acid stimulates the growth of aerial parts and root plants. Application of Humic acid increases the amount of roots and improves the root system. Fennel is a herbaceous, aromatic and perennial grasses of umbrella and grown in warm areas of the country. In Khuzestan, due to planting in autumn, the plant reproductive stage begins with the onset of heat, precipitation discontinuity (mid-March) and dryness, so we must determine the levels of irrigation and provide solutions to reduce the effect of drought stress on the production. The comparison of genetic material and introduction of superior ecotypes are the solution to obtain adaption ecotypes. Therefore, the present study was carried out with the aim of studying the growth and yield characteristics, as well as the percentage and essential oil yield and irrigation efficiency of essential oil production in fennel ecotypes under irrigation levels and foliar spraying of humic acid in Ahwaz weather condition.
    Materials and methods
    This experiment was carried out on factorial split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications in 2016-2017 years at research farm of Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan. Irrigation levels (complete irrigation, irrigation stop from flowering stage, irrigation stop from grain filling stage) and foliar spraying of humicacid (no spraying and foliar spraying 400 mg.l-1) in the form of factorial in main plots and ecotype (Isfahan, Hamadan, Bushehr) were also investigated in sub plots. Number of nodes, stem diameter, second internode length, number of umbrellas in main stem, umbrella number in sub branch, seed yield, essential oil percentage, essential oil yield and water use efficiency were evaluated after harvesting. Statistical analysis including analysis of variance, comparison of averages, using statistical software system 2 / 9SAS, and comparison of mean of data did with LSD test at 5% error probability level.
    Results and discussion
    The results showed that irrigation stop, ecotype and foliar spraying of humic acid had a significant effect on the traits. Foliar spraying of humic acid increased the length of the internode and the number of umbrella in the sub branch. The Isfahan ecotype with 6.22 nodes was the highest and the Hamadan ecotype with 4.75 nodes had the lowest number of nodes. The highest stem diameter was obtained under complete irrigation and foliar spraying of humic acid (1.93 cm). Increasing drought stress decreased the length of the second internode, while it was the highest in complete irrigation conditions (11.36 cm). Foliar spraying of humic acid increased by 20% in umbrella number in the sub branche, and Bushehr ecotype with 61.25 in complete irrigation conditions had the largest number of umbrella in the sub branch. Also, the least umbeller in the main stem was obtained in Bushehr ecotype under foliar spraying of humic acid conditions (4.82) and the lowest in the Hamedan ecotype with no spraying. The results showed that the highest grain yield was related to Bushehr ecotype with 1720.12 kg / ha. The highest yield and essential oil efficiency were obtained in Bushehr ecotype under complete irrigation and foliar spraying of humic acid.
    Conclusions
    Based on the results of this study, water shortage tension due to irrigation stop in each stage of reproductive development of fennel can have adverse effect on grain yield, but the effect of stress in flowering stage is much higher than grain filling stage. The results of the experiment showed that irrigation stop at the reproductive stage of fennel had a decreasing effect on all studied traits. The use of organic fertilizer such as humi cacid reduced lightly the effect of water stress. Also, Bushehr ecotype is recommended for cultivation in the studied area due to having more umbrellas in main stem and sub branch, higher grain yield, higher water use efficiency along with foliar spraying of humic acid
    Keywords: Flowering, Irrigation efficiency, Number of nodes, Number of sub branches, Seed filling
  • Fatemeh Malek maleki*, Nosratollah Abbasi, Ebrahim Sharifi Ashoorabadi, Mehrshad Barary, Mohammad Javad Zare Pages 943-957
    Introduction
    Thymbra spicata L. is a genus of Thymbra plant in the family Lamiaceae (Kizi, 2010). The essential oil of the plant is widely used in the industries cosmetics and hygiene. It is also used as an antiseptic for pathogenic pathogens. The decoction (hot aqueous extract) of the plant is used as an anti-cold and antimicrobial drug (Sarac et al, 2009; Inan et al, 2011; Kizil et al, 2015). The results of some studies have demonstrated that the stress caused by water shortages decreases the growth of different parts of the plant, including reduction in leaf area, height, dry weight, stomatal closure, photosynthesis reduction, amino acid accumulation, chlorophyll depletion, degradation of enzymes and proteins, and changes in protein structure (Gorgini Shabankareh et al, 2016). Moreover, in a study of the effect of water stress on morpho-physiological and phytochemical characteristics of Thymus kotschyanus Boiss, it was reported that when water stress increased, the morphological traits (height, leaf area, root length and dry weight of the plant), essential oil content and composition, and water consumption efficiency were reduced (Bahreininejad & Razmjoo, 2014).
    Materials and Method
    The experiment was conducted as a split-plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, during 2016 - 2017. The main plots consisted of three levels of normal irrigation, mild stress, and severe stress (irrigation after 40, 80 and 120 mm cumulative evaporation from a class A pan evaporation), and subplots included two ecotypes of Thymbra (Maleshahi and Sumar). Thymbra was first cultivated in greenhouse conditions in February 2015. Then the seedlings were transferred to the field in May 2016. During the first year of the experiment, irrigation was done regularly every 7 days by Flooding irrigation method until the proper placement of the plants in soil. Then, drought stress was applied according to the defined level of evaporation from pan evaporation.
    Measurement of plant height: 10 plants per plot were measured randomly and the average values were recorded.
    Measurement of leaf area index: In order to measure the leaf area index of samples, a digital Leaf area meter (CI-203CA conveyor attachment) was used.
    Dry leaf and plant yield: The samples were taken from an area of one square meter of plant and placed in an oven for 48 hours at 75 ° C, then dry weight was measured.
    Percentage and yield of essential oil: To extract the essential oil, the samples were dried in shade and at 40 ° C. Next, their dried leaves were ground. Then, using a precision digital scale, 40 g of leaf powder of each sample was separated and the essential oil was extracted using water distillation method by Clevenger apparatus.
    Photosynthetic pigments: Photosynthetic pigments including chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoids were measured by using Lichtenthaler method (1987).
    Results and Discussion
    Dry leaf and plant yield: The interaction effects of year and water stress, water stress and ecotype, and year and ecotype, were significant on dry leaf yield at 1 and 5%, respectively. The highest dry leaf yield was obtained from mild water stress levels and normal irrigation in the second year of planting. The highest dry leaf yield was obtained from Maleshahi treatment. The Interaction effects of year, water stress, and ecotype on plant dry yield were significant at 5% probability level. The highest measure was obtained from the second year at normal irrigation and mild stress levels and in Malekshahi ecotype.
    The yield of essential oil: The results of combined analysis of variance showed that the essential oil yield was affected by simple effects of year, water stress and ecotype at the probability level of 1%, and the interaction effects of water stress and ecotype at 5% probability level. It was also observed that the simple effect of water stress and ecotype on essential oil percentage was significant at 1% probability level. The highest essential oil yield was obtained from mild water stress and Malekshahi ecotype, and the lowest was observed in severe water stress and Sumar ecotype. In terms of essential oil percentage, mild water stress with an average production of 3.17% was superior to normal irrigation and severe stress. Between the studied ecotypes, Malekshahi with an average production of 3.38% produced a higher than Sumar.
    Photosynthetic pigments: Water stress, ecotype and year had a significant effect on chlorophyll a, b, total, and carotid. As the water stress level increased, the amount of these pigments decreased. Chlorophyll a was more sensitive to dry stress than other pigments.
    Conclusion
    Increase in water stress, due to the reduction of Turgor pressure and cell growth, resulted in a decrease of plant height, leaf area index of plants. Also, because of the decline of leaf area and photosynthetic pigments, the amount of photosynthesis and thus the yield of a dry plant, leaf and the yield of essential oil in the plant were decreased.
    Keywords: Dry yield, Irrigation, Photosynthetic Pigments, Thymbra spicata L
  • Jamshid Samanipour, Mohammd Javad Babaie Zarch, Tayebeh Hajirezaei, Vahid Ziaeian Ahmadi, Majid Jami Al, Ahmadi* Pages 959-969
    Introduction
    Grass pea is an annual plant which produces adequate yield in unfavorable conditions. South Khorasan is one of the areas where grass pea cultivation has been spread, but due to rainfall rate and high evaporation and transpiration in this region, plants are facing drought stress; On the other hand, Amaranthaceae family weed (pigweed and tumble pigweed) also among the most important weed in farm fields in this region of Iran. Since the studies of multi-species competition provide more detailed information about relationships circumstance between plants, the aim of this study is to evaluate the competitiveness of pigweed, tumble pigweed and grass pea under drought stress using experiments with replacement series.
    Materials and methods
    The experiment was carried out in a factorial based on RCBD with three replications. Experimental treatments consisted of two levels of water stress (80 and 50% of soil water field capacity), different weed interference ratios with grass pea (tumble pigweed + pigweed- grass pea) including (0-100, 75-25, 50-50, 25-75 and 100-0%), as well as different two weed interference ratios with each other (tumble pigweed - pigweed) containing (0-100, 50-50 and 100-0). Optimum density of eight plants per pot was fixed. Plants were cultivated after soil preparation and addition of chemical fertilizers and at four leave stage, the desired density was reached. At the end of the experiment, all plants were harvested from each species separately and weighed after drying. Finally, for results analyzing of the experiment, relative yield indices, total relative yield (LER) were used and relative competition Intensity index and aggressiveness index were used.
    Results and discussion
    The results showed that grass pea, pigweed and tumble pigweed dry matter, decreased with reducing soil water content of 80 to 50 % of field capacity by 33, 30 and 12 % respectively. Also, the results showed that predicted yield of tumble pigweed was close to the actual yield. The results of relative yields showed that in sowing ratio of 50-50% grass pea and pigweed, 50-50% of grass pea and tumble pigweed, also 50-50% of grass pea and both two weed together in 80% treatment of soil water field capacity, the relative yield of grass pea were 0.33, 0.36 0.39 respectively, that with drought stress increasing to 50% of soil water field capacity, increased by 36, 50 and 31% reached to 0.45, 0.54 and 0.51 respectively. Changes in relative yield curve of grass pea under 80% treatment of soil water field capacity irrigation, in competition with tumble pigweed, pigweed and both weeds together was convex; which indicates that with enough water in the soil, grass pea competitiveness is less than Amaranthaceae family weed. The results of relative competition Intensity index showed that numerical value of this index for grass pea, tumble pigweed and pigweed, in all sowing ratios is a positive value, which shows higher inter-specific competition than intra-specific competition in different sowing ratios. Also the results showed that in the sowing ratio of 50% grass pea with 25% tumble pigweed and 25% pigweed in 50% treatment of soil water field capacity, Grass pea aggressiveness index against both weed separately and together was positive value, which indicates a relative superiority of grass pea under drought stress in competition with these two weed.
    Conclusion
    In generally, the results of this study showed that water stress reduced all three plants growth but, decline in tumble pigweed was lower. The results also showed that the competition formed between these three species was Inter-specific and have negative effects on all three plants. Although the aggressiveness index indicates that the grass pea was beaten in most sowing ratios, but with the increase of drought stress and water deficit, due to inter-specific competition between weed, competition between weed and grass pea has been reached to lowest level.
    Keywords: Competitiveness, Pulses, Relative yield, Tumble pigweed
  • Ardalan Zolfagharan *, Bijan Ghahraman, Abolghasem Haghayeghi, Mohammad Jolaini Pages 971-979
    Introduction
    Various studies have investigated the response of crops and pasture plants to water for non-saline waters and their reaction to salinity in full irrigation. A set of such studies can determine water-yield or salinity-yield relationships. However, quantitative research has been done to study the effects of salinity and drought stress. However, we are proposing perpendicular system as a new alternative to learn wheat yield under simultaneous water and salinity stresses.
    Materials and Methods
    Response of grain and straw of wheat, Back Cross Roshan 6611 cultivar, to combined effects of quantity and quality of water was traced under crossed sprinkler line source irrigation. The field area was 3232 m2 which was located in the west of Birjand city in southeast of Iran. The soil was sandy loam (=1.41 gr/cm3) and two different sources of water, normal (EC=1.5 dS/m) and saline (EC=5.5 dS/m) were adopted for two line sources, respectively. Crops located in the center of the field, were fully irrigated without any stress. While the other crops far beyond irrigation lines, were under water stress. Water salinity was differ among different points of the field and varied between 1.5 and 5.5 dS/m, based on the quantity of water received. After each irrigation procedure, the volume and salinity of water collected in 256 cans, which were placed in 2'2 square meters, were measured. At the end of the growing season, one square meter around the cans was taken to measure yield and yield components. General form of yield function for different salinities and irrigation water is Y=f (AW, EC) in which Y is the wheat yield in kg/hectare, AW is irrigation water depth during growth period in cm and EC is mean salinity of irrigation water in dS/m. Five types of production function (Linear, Cobb-Douglas, Quadratic, Laty-Dinar, and Transcendental) were evaluated using field data. Slide Write software was used for calculating R2, F-statistics, t-statistics and constant parameters of the equations. All statistics were tested at significant levels of 1% and 5%. The best function was selected based on goodness of fit and significance of factors.
    Results and Discussion
    The results showed that yield prediction of wheat and straw was better than other functions under the influence of combined conditions of drought and salinity with Cobb Douglas function. Datta et al. used second polynomial non-linear function among three linear, power and Second polynomial functions. Rosso and Baker concluded that Second polynomial function estimates the relationship between yield, salinity and water better than Maximum and Hoffman function. Kiani used transducer function for result analysis. The marginal rate of technical substitution indicated that each one of the factors can be substituted for the other one for a wide range in order to achieve equal amount of yield (grain/straw). These results are consistent with results of Rosso and Baker, Dota et al. and Letti and Dinar. Also, the results showed that in lower performances, the effect of water content on reduction of crop was higher than that of salinity.
    Conclusions
    1-Regarding this research, reduction of grain and straw weight due to the reduction of irrigation water and increase in water salinity follows Cobb-Douglass function and outperforms other functions in predicting changes of grain and straw weight due to the effect of changes in two abovementioned factors.
    2-Results showed that changes in grain and straw weights are more sensitive to changes of irrigation water than water salinity.
    3-Using substitution rate curve, it is possible to substitute salinity and water content in order to achieve same yield.
    Keywords: Drought stress, Marginal rate, Salinity, Sprinkler irrigation, Wheat
  • Mohammad Hossein Banakar *, Gholamhassan Ranjbar , Vali Soltani Gerd, e, Faramarzi Pages 981-991
    Introduction
    Madder (Rubia tinctorum L.) is one of the crop plants that has been utilized as a salt tolerant crop and it has been cultivated by farmers for many years in different parts of the country. With regard to salt tolerance, madder is a salt tolerant crop which has a threshold salt tolerance of 4 dS/m a 2.3% of the slope of yield reduction for each unit of salinity. Although madder cultivation was used to extract useful compounds from its roots in many saline areas, especially in pistachio orchards, little research has been done on the agronomic aspects, including proper planting method. The aim of this research was determination of the best planting method for maximum madder yield and high water use efficiency in comparison to traditional method under saline conditions.

    Materials and methods
    This research was conducted in Sadooq Salinity Research Farm to investigate different planting methods for madder production and compare them to the traditional method in the form of complete randomized block design with three replications, during 2011-2015. Treatments were traditional method (planting as a clump covering with sandstorm), planting as a clump covering with soil, planting over the ridge, planting at beside slopes of a ridge, planting at bottom of a furrow and planting as a row in a flat bed. For all treatments, the amount of seeds was 300 Kg/ha and all plots irrigated with saline water of 10 S/m with 10 Cm in depth, and continued at this level during the growing season. To control soil salinity, soil sample was taken during the growing season and average soil salinity of saturated extract of the root zone was determined. At the late time of growing season, in September, madder roots were removed from the soil and dry weighed.

    Results and discussion
    Results of this experiment showed that in the method of planting over the ridge, the average soil salinity of saturated extract of root zone increased gradually with depths. Results of the average soil salinity of saturated extract of root zone during three years showed that the value of salinity was minimum for planting at bottom of a furrow and also planting as a row in a flatbed methods (10.99 dS/m), While it was significantly high, in the method of planting over the ridge (15.91 dS/m). Results showed that the maximum fresh and dry yield was related to rowing planting method (185.23 and 49.77 ton/ha, respectively) and the least was for planting over the ridge (13.10 and 3.41 ton/ha, respectively). As a whole, madder cultivation with rowing planting method, made an increase of 2.5 fold in root dry yield compared to traditional method. The highest water use efficiency (0.79 kg/m3) was obtained from rowing planting method, as well. It seems madder cultivation by rowing planting method as lines of 20 centimeters of each other, could improve root yield and water use efficiency and also better control of soil salinity under saline conditions. Therefore, based on the results of this research, rowing madder planting as 20 centimeters lines is recommended for higher yield, high water use efficiency, lower soil salinity and so on, under saline conditions.
    Keywords: Alizarin, Dyeing industry, Furrow, ridge planting, Medicinal plants, Saline soil, Saline water
  • Younes Kheirizadeh, Raouf Seyed Sharifi *, Razieh Khalilzadeh Pages 993-1004
    Introduction
    Salinity is one of the major abiotic environmental stresses, which affect almost every aspect of plant life and significantly reduces crop yield in affected areas. Thus it is a serious threat to agricultural productivity especially in arid and semiarid regions. Several strategies have been developed in order to decrease the toxic effects caused by high salinity on plant growth, among them use of bio fertilizers such as mycorrhiza and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) plays important role in yield improvement of plants. PGPR can facilitate plant growth indirectly by reducing plant pathogens, or directly by facilitating the uptake of nutrients from the environment, by influencing phytohormone production (e.g. auxin, cytokinin and gibberellins) and production of siderophores. Mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between plant roots and fungi. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi promote salinity tolerance by utilizing various mechanisms such as accumulation of compatible solutes and production of higher antioxidant enzymes. Zinc is an essential micronutrient for humans, animals and plants, which act either as the metal component of enzymes or as a regulatory co-factor of a large number of enzymes. A number of researchers have reported the essentiality and role of zinc for plant growth and yield. Zinc is required for chlorophyll production and plays an important role in biomass production. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bio fertilizers and zinc on grain yield, remobilization and leaf area index of triticale in response to biofertilizers and nano zinc oxide under soilsalinitycondition. Material and method: A factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications in research greenhouse of faculty of Agricultural and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili. Factors experiment were included soil salinity in four levels (non-salinity, salinity 20, 40 and 60 mM NaCl), biofertilizers in four levels (no application of biofertilizers, application of mycorrhiza, application of Azotobacter + Psedomunas, co-inoculation with PGPR+mycorrhiza) and nano zinc oxide in three levels (without nano zinc oxide, application of 0.4 and 0.8 g L-1). Mycorrhiza fungi (mosseae) was purchased from the Zist Fanavar Turan corporation and soils were treated based on method of Gianinazzi et al. (2001). Psedomunas putida strain 186 and Azotobacter chrocoococum strain 5 were isolated from the rhizospheres of wheat by Research Institute of Soil and Water, Tehran, Iran. Result and conclusion: Results showed with increasing salinity decreased yield and leaf area index but remobilization from shoot organs and stem increased. Means comparison showed that the highest of grain yield and leaf area index were obtained at co-inoculation with PGPR+mycorrhiza, foliar application with 0.8 g L-1 nano zinc oxide and non-salinity. The highest remobilization from stem and shoot organs were obtained in salinity of 60 mM, no application of biofertilizers and nano zinc oxide. Results showed that salinity 20, 40 and 60 mM, respectively 8.9%, 22.1% and 32.3% reduced from grain yield and use of biofertilizers and nano zinc oxide compensated 40.1%, 49.7% and 40% respectively from yield reduction.
    Conclusion
    Based on the results, it was concluded that bio fertilizers and nano zinc oxide application can be recommended for profitable triticale production under salinity condition.
    Keywords: Microelements, Mycorrhiza, Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, Salinity stress
  • Marzieh Kalhor, Maryam Dehestani, Ardakani*, Mostafa Shirmardi, Jalal Gholamnejad Pages 1005-1021
    Introduction
    Salinity is a major factor reducing plant growth and productivity worldwide; it affects about 7% of the world’s total land area and is the major environmental factor limiting plant growth and productivity. Saline soil can be defined as soil having an electrical conductivity of the saturated paste extract (ECe) of 4 dSm−1 (4 dSm−1 ∼40mM NaCl) or more. The detrimental effects of high salinity on plants can be observed at the whole-plant level such as the death of plants or necrosis of plant organs and/or decreases in productivity. Many plants develop mechanisms either to exclude salt from their cells or to tolerate its presence within cells. During the onset and development of salt stress within a plant, all the major processes such as photosynthesis, protein synthesis, and energy and lipid metabolism are affected.
    Calendula officinalis L. belongs to the Asteraceae (Compositae) family; it is an annual with bright or yellow orange daisy-like flowers which are used for medicinal or culinary purposes.
    Organic fertilizers develops favorable physical, chemical and biological environments in the soil. They stimulates plant root growth, increase nutrient uptake, decreases evaporation from the soil, increases soil water-holding capacity, reduces surface water runoff, facilitates drainage, regulates soil temperature and provides a rich substrate for soil microbes.
    Materials and methods
    This study was conducted to determine the effects of soil salinity and organic amendments on some growth characteristics, concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and catalase enzyme activity in pot marigold plant (Calendula officinalis L). In a factorial experiment and completely randomized design (CRD), five levels of organic amendments (control, 0.5 and 1 g.L-1 algae extract, 20% v/v cow manure and 20v/v of pot volume vermicompost) and three levels of salinity (3.5, 7.5 and 10.5 dS.m-1) with three replications per treatments were applied. In this experiment, media without organic amendment was considered as control.
    Results and discussion
    Results showed that increasing soil salinity levels progressively decreased the growth characteristics and nutrient concentration. Salinity causes growth reduction due to the low osmotic potential of the medium and by a specific ion effect as a secondary cause in several vegetable crops. The results of present study showed that the organic media can improve plant height. This can be due to increased media moisture storage and enhanced nutrient absorption. The maximum leaf area, plant height, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations obtained in cow manure treatment and EC= 3.5 dS/m. While, the highest chlorophyll content and the lowest RWC was observed in cow manure treated plants in media with EC= 7.5 dS/m. In pot marigold, an increase in salinity significantly decreased shoot and root fresh and dry weight. Excess soluble salts in the root zone restrict plant roots from withdrawing water from surrounding soil, effectively reducing the plant available water, i.e. causes drought for the plant. The loss of photosynthesis in salt stress conditions resulted in the loss of dry weight production at the leaf level of pot marigold. Cow manure significantly increased leaf area in pot marigold as compared to the control.
    All treatment significantly increased growth characteristics of pot marigold compare to control. The positive effect of cow manure to nutrients absorption could be because of it was rich of N, P, K compare to the others. Plant height, chlorophyll, RWC and potassium concentration of leaves showed positive correlation to other characteristics. The catalase enzyme was also showed positive correlation to other traits except fresh and dry weight of root and N and K concentration.
    Conclusion
    According to the results, it is cleared that in normal condition, pot marigold plant could tolerate salt stress until 7.5 dS/m but by suitable media culture its threshold tolerate will be increased until 10.5 ds/m. Also it was revealed that cow manure compare to other treatments could increase plant tolerate to salt stress and growth characteristics.
    Keywords: Cow manure, Growth characteristics, Sea algae, Vermicompost
  • Alireza Hasanfard, Ahmad Nezami*, Mohammad Kafi, Jafar Nabati Pages 1023-1034
    Introduction
    Faba bean as one of the most important legumes is an annual and cool-season plant which plays an important role in feeding human and livestock due to its protein content. Since unfavorable environmental conditions negatively affects plant growth and development, survival, productivity and natural distribution, the ability of faba bean to tolerate this conditions is of high paramount important. Although autumn sowing of faba bean results in effective use of precipitation, no need for irrigation and grain yield improvement in comparison with spring sowing, but cold stress is one of the main growth limiting factors in this season. Cold acclimation in plants is an effective process for improving cold tolerance and determining winter survival capacity. Evaluation of survival percentage and regrowth traits of plants after freezing stress is a very important criterion in cold related studies. Therefore, the present experiment was conducted to determine damage threshold of freezing stress in two faba bean landraces through survival percentage and other regrowth traits.
    Materials and Methods
    This study was carried out as a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with four replications under controlled conditions in research greenhouse of the research center for plant sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Experimental factors included two faba bean landraces (Borujerd and Neyshabur) and 7 freezing temperatures (0, -4, -8, -12, -16, -20 and -24°C). Plants were cold acclimated in natural environment till to 4-6 leaf stage, before freezing stress was imposed in a thermogradient freezer. Then plants were transferred to greenhouse to be recovered. Treated plants were evaluated for survival percentage and characteristics related to regrowth such as stem height, leaf number, leaf area and leaf, stem, shoot, and root dry weight 21 days after freezing stress. Analysis of variance was performed by MINITAB ver 17 and means were compared by LSD test at 5% probability level.Graphs were drawn by Excel.
    Results and discussion
    Results indicated that freezing temperatures significantly affected survival percentage and other regrowth traits in a way that all the traits were decreased as freezing temperature decreased. This was more severe in temperatures lower than -12oC. All the plants were killed in -16oC. It seems that the effectiveness of cold acclimation for freezing tolerance was up to -12°C. More reduction was found in Neyshabur landrace in almost all regrowth traits in the range of Zero to -12oC compared to Borujerd and reduction of 24cm2 in leaf area and 106, 77, 184 and 101 mg.plant-1, respectively in leaf, stem, shoot and root dry weight was observed, indicating higher sensitivity of this landrace to freezing stress. A significant positive correlation was found between stem height and leaf area with shoot dry weight (r=0.98**, r=0.96**) and root dry weight (r=0.96**, r=0.91**), respectively, indicating the consistent and coordinated changes between the two mentioned traits with plant dry weight. So that, plant dry weight was decreased as stem height and leaf area were decreased at lower temperatures and these traits in -16oC were not evaluated due to the death of all the plants which indicates that the plants were not the suitable recovery at low temperatures.
    Conclusions
    Despite survival percentage and other regrowth traits of faba bean were declined under freezing stress, but the reduction rate was different depending on landrace and temperature. Generally, in the present study, faba bean tolerated freezing stress up to -12oC with slight damage. So it could be concluded that in areas susceptible to freezing stress, if the planting date of faba bean is set properly, in a way that, low temperatures up to -12°C occur when plant is infour to six leaf stages minimal damage will be observed. Also, if high correlation would be found between controlled and field experiments, Borujerd landrace could be introduced as a more appropriate landrace compared to Neyshabur due to its lower reduction of regrowth traits in temperature range from Zero to -12oC.
    Keywords: Autumn sowing, Correlation, Dry weight, Survival
  • Mehdi Tajbakhsh, Prshang Khalili *, Samira Maleki Pages 1035-1044
    Introduction and purpose: Damage caused by the cold during the crucial stage of plant growth and development is one of the important factors that reduce the performance of the agricultural plants in the world. Frostbite causes damage in the tissues, cells and organs of these plants. The reduction of the product due to a decrease in the average temperature of 1°C estimated at about 40 percent. Cucurbita moschata L. with the scientific name of pumpkin belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family and from plants that are sensitive to low temperatures. Finding a suitable and economical way to protect plants from the frostbite, is one of the most important causes of damage and reduced production of these valuable products, which has particular importance in the field of production and agricultural economics. In this regard, the new Arman brand of organic compound has been introduced as a cold-resistance compound. Also, Salicylic acid is a hormone that plays an important role in resistance to biological and non-biological stresses, and Affects plant growth, germination of seeds, membrane structure, chlorophyll content, effloresce and fruit arrivals. The use of cold-resistance compounds in growth stages that have the highest probability of injury to frostbite stress, can reduce the percentage of damage. Material and methods: To study the effect of some cold resistance (in four levels (control (spraying distilled water), salicylic acid 0.25, salicylic acid 0.5, Arman1 (1:20)) on the pumpkin characteristic at - 1, 1, 3, 5 and 7 °C, the experiment was performed in factorial randomized completely block design with three replications in the research greenhouse of Urmia University in 2016-2017 cropping years. The seeds were cultivated in pots at depths of 2-3 cm and grew for 2 weeks in a greenhouse (25 ± 2 °C). Foliar application was performed in 2-3 leaf stage. One day after foliar application, plants were transferred to freezer, and plants were exposed to thermal treatments (1-, 1, 3, 5 and 7 ° C) for 4 hours. After performing stress, the pots were placed at 4 °C for 24 hours and then plants were evaluated. Evaluated traits in current study were including chlorophyll , chlorophyll measured with SPAD,ionic leakage, seedling dry weight (dry weight of root and shoot), Seedling length (root and branch). To analyze of data we used of SAS software and mean comparisons based Duncan test in a significant level five percent.
    Results and discussion
    The results showed that the effect of temperature on all studied traits of pumpkin (chlorophyll a, b,ionic leakage, chlorophyll (SPAD), seedling weights, root dry weight, root length and seedling length) was significant. The highest chlorophyll b, SPAD, seedling weights, root length and seedling length were obtained at 7 °C, which was not a stress temperature, but with decrease of temperature, change process in this characters were descending, so that the lowest amount of traits were related to -1°C. chlorophyll synthesis is one of the sensitive processes and cold temperatures caused disorder in chlorophyll production and caused damage in chloroplast reactions. The negative effect of cold stress on the photosynthesis and chloroplast, decreases the power of photosynthetic system in energy production and CO2 assimilation which reduces the production of carbohydrates. The reduction of shoot dry weight and roots of plants under stress condition proves this subject. Frosting stress through changes in permeability increases the leakage of cellular solutions. The researchers stated that cold stress have caused increases in electrolyte leakage due to lipid peroxidation of the cell membrane and organelles. Peroxidation of lipids, which leads to the destruction of biological membranes, indicates oxidative stress in plants which is caused by various stresses such as cold stress. Root growth reduced by reducing the temperature, reduces the absorption capacity of water and minerals by the root, that followed by the emergence of secondary effects caused Nutritional restriction and disrupting the plant growth. With attention to the negative effects of the cold on Pumpkin growth and with regard to the results, it seems that applied cold resistance compound has caused maintain the stability of the membrane in front of the leak of the cell. Conclution : In this experiment, salicylic acid 0.25 Mm and arman 1 treatments maintained the amount of pigments that probably due to the effect of salicylic acid on the production of free radicals as a result that prevented the destruction of chlorophyll, with using defensive mechanism could held the amount of chlorophyll that is better than the sensitive variety in the production and the negative effects of ROS species prevented, and with more energy and photosynthesis, it can increase tolerance to cold stress. So, application of salicylic acid 0.25 Mm and arman 1 improve the relative qualities of the above traits. Therefore, use of compounds in cold stress conditions is recommended.
    Keywords: Chlorophyll, Ionic leakage, Dry weight of seedling, Length of seedling
  • Matyam Mokhtari, Sina Fallah*, Akram Rahimi Pages 1045-1057
    Introduction
    Although early sowing the summer plants in the spring season is important for the use of moderate conditions as well as proper vegetative growth, but the incidence of low temperatures at the beginning of the growing season may be caused the problem for good establishment of seedlings. In temperate regions, chilling stress especially where early sowing was done, is very harmful for most summer plants. Seed germination is the most sensitive phase to chilling stress. Seed germination is slowed down or decreased in cold-sensitive species at temperatures below 20 °C, resulting in poor establishment and is generally prevented from germinating at temperatures below 15 °C. In order to use more of the spring growing season, improving the germination of summer plants is important at lower temperatures. Since one of the ways to reduce the low temperature damage is the upgrade of the antioxidant system of seedlings, in this study the effect of different methyl jasmonate concentrations on germination and antioxidant system of hull less seed pumpkin were studied under chilling stress.
    Materials and Methods
    A factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design under control conditions at Shahrekord University in 2017. Treatments were included six concentrations of methyl jasmonate (0, 1, 5, 50, 100 and 150 μM ) and three temperature levels (8, 11 and 14 °C). After eight days, the temperature gradually increased to reach the optimum temperature of the hull less seed pumpkin (25 ° C). On the 11 day, after separation of normal and abnormal seedlings, 20 normal seedlings were selected from each petri dish and then traits such as radicle length, plumule length, radicle dry weight, plumule dry weight, seed vigor index, soluble protein, content of malondialdehyde , superoxide dismutase enzyme activity, guaiacol peroxidase enzyme, catalase enzyme were measured. Data were analyzed by SAS V9 software. Means comparisons, were done by least significant difference (LSD) test at the 1% probability level.
    Results and Discussion
    The results showed that the maximum radicle length (76.45 mm) was recorded at 50 μM concentration and 11 °C temperature (on an average 55.6% over the control). At 8, 11, and 14 °C, the unprimed seeds had not plumule. At 8 °C, the highest radicle length, plumule length, plumule dry weight were odserved in 5 μM methyl jasmonate. The greatest guaiacol peroxidase and catalase activity were recorded in 5 μM methyl jasmonate as well. At 11°C, the plumule length, radicle dry weight, and catalase activity in 5 μM methyl jasmonate were more than the others methyl jasmonate concentrations. However, radicle length and superoxide dismutase activity of 5 μM methyl jasmonate was second rank. At 14 °C, the highest radicle dry weight, plumule dry weight, superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase and catalase activity were obtained in 50 μM methyl jasmonate. The greatest radicle length and seed vigour were observed in in 5 μM methyl jasmonate and the in 50 μM methyl jasmonate was second rank. Methyl jasmonate, due to the polyacetylation nature at the physiological pH, can strongly adhere to the anionic position in the cellular components and cause the membrane to stabilize and thus contribute to the environmental stresses in the plant's response.
    Conclusion
    Seedling tolerance to low temperatures was proved by methyl jasmonate treatments. Based on the results of this experiment, it can be said that the use of methyl jasmonate increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes and, therefore, the resistance of the seed germinator to the low temperature stress. Therefore, appllication this substance, we can modify the effect of probable fever at the beginning of the growing season.
    Keywords: Low temperature, Malondialdehyde, Seedling, Superoxide dismutase
  • Samin Lotfi, Mokhtar Ghobadi *, Saeid Jalali, Honarmand, Mohammad Eghbal Ghobadi Pages 1059-1072
    Introduction
    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.) is one of the most important pulse crops in the world. High protein content in lentil seed (about 20-28%) makes it as a good food source for developing countries and low-income people. In the west of Iran, such as Kermanshah Province, lentil is an important pulse crop of rain-fed systems, traditionally grown in rotation with wheat and barley. Many seed tests have been proposed to evaluation of seed vigor, such as standard germination test, cold test, electrical conductivity test, hiltner test, tetrazolium test, controlled deterioration test, accelerated aging test, osmotic stress test, etc. To osmotic stress test, the seeds germinate at a specific osmotic potential. Osmotic potential is prepared by various chemicals such as sodium chloride, glycerol, sucrose, polyethylene glycol (PEG) or mannitol. Some of these chemicals enter the seed during germination. But PEG has the ability to reduce the osmotic potential of the solution without entering the seed. Therefore, it is often used for osmotic stress test to prepare the solution. Regarding the fact that smotic stress test to predict seedling emergence in the field for common lentil cultivars has not been carried out under dry land conditions of Iran. Therefore, in the present study, the relationship between osmotic stress test and emergence and establishment of lentil seedlings in the field was investigated.
    Materials and Methods
    This research was carried out in two experiments in the laboratory and the field at Razi University during 2015. In laboratory, osmotic stress test was done as a factorial based on CRD with three replications. Treatments included eight lentil seed lots and four osmotic stress levels (0, -3, -6 and -9 bar). Eight lentil seed lots belonging to the four cultivars Kimia, Bilesavar, Qazvin and Local which were different in seed age were considered for testing. PEG-6000 solution was used to prepare osmotic potential. The seeds germinated at 20 ± 1 °C. During germination, various traits related to seed vigor were investigated. In the field, eight above mentioned lentil seed lots were planted as rainfed in RCBD with three replications. Each plot consisted of four rows at intervals of 25 cm, seed spacing 2.5 cm and sowing depth 4-5 cm. The seeding date was March 2014. The first rainfall after planting was considered as seeding date. By observing the first emergence of seedlings in the field, the seedlings were counted daily in each plot, and counting continued until the number of seedlings was fixed. In the field, indices related to the seedling vigor were studied.
    Results and Discussion
    Analysis of variance for osmotic stress test showed that the effects of seed lot, osmotic potential and their interaction were significant on most traits. Mean comparisons showed that with decreasing of osmotic potential from 0 to -6 bar, the final germination percentage, germination rate and other characteristics related to seed vigor decreased. Analysis of variance and mean comparisons in field experiment showed that the lentil seed lots were different in terms of the traits final emergence percentage, mean daily emergence, mean time to emergence and seedling emergence rate. In orthogonal comparisons of laboratory and field tests, new seed lots had higher germination and emergence characteristics than stored seed lots. Correlation analysis showed that in the osmotic potential 0 bar traits of the use of seed storage, root and stem dry weight; at -3 bar traits of the mean daily germination and the use of seed storage; at -6 bar traits of the mean daily germination, germination rate, normal seedling percentage and the use of seed storage had positive and significant correlations with the seedling emergence percentage in the field. In the osmotic potential 0 bar, traits of the germination rate, seed vigor index, stem length, root and stem dry weight; at -3 bar traits of the final germination percentage, mean daily germination, germination rate and normal seedling percentage; at -6 bar traits of the final germination percentage, mean daily germination, germination rate, normal seedling percentage and seedling vigor index showed higher correlations with the seedling emergence rate in the field.
    Conclusion
    The highest positive and significant correlations were observed between seedling emergence percentage in the field with the osmotic stress test associated with mean daily germination and normal seedling percentage in -6 bar. Also, the highest positive and significant correlations were observed between seedling emergence rate in the field with the osmotic stress test associated with mean daily germination, germination rate and normal seedling percentage in -6 bar. Therefore, it seems that osmotic stress test at -6 bar can predict the emergence of lentil seedlings in the field under rainfed conditions.
    Keywords: Germination, Osmotic potential, Seed test, Seedling establishment
  • Bahman Jafari, Gholamreza Mohsenabadi*, Atefe Sabouri Pages 1073-1087
    Introduction
    Safflower (Carthamus tinctoriusL.) is annual and oil crop belong to Aster-aceae family that planted all over the world (Isigigure et al., 1995). Seed germination is a complex physiological process and one of the most important part of plant life cycle that affected by environmental factors. Temperature and moisture are the most important of these factors. Seed planting in optimum temperature resulted in maximum germination, uniformity and seedling establishment. Knowing minimum, maximum and optimum tem-perature of seed germination is necessary to appointment suitable planting date. In the oth-er way, environmental factors for seeding are not always favorable for seed germination. Osmotic stress is the most important factor that reduces growth and crop yield. Most re-ports showed that decline of osmotic potential cause a change cardinal temperature of seed germination. Hence the aim of this study is determination of cardinal temperature of safflower and the effects of different levels of temperature and osmotic potential on seed germination characteristics.
    Materials and methods
    The experiment was conducted as factorial in a completely ran-domized design with four replications, in agronomy laboratory, agricultural college, the University of Guilan in 2015. Experimental factors were including temperature (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ̊C) and osmotic potential (0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6 and -0.8 MPa). Different osmotic potential prepared based on Michael and Kaufman (1973) method using with PEG 6000 and double distilled water. Germination percentage, germination rate and vigor index was calculated in the end of germination period (14 days). To estimation the cardinal tem-perature and needed biological hours for germination, five nonlinear regression models (polynomial quadratic, segmented, beta, dent like and curvelinear) were used. RMSe, R2, r and coefficient regression (a, b) related to amount of observed and predicted germination rate were used for finding the best model. Choosing the best model was conducted in two stages. At First, a model selected that amounts of parameters a, b were not significant dif-ferences with zero and one respectively. In the second stage, the model that had maximum R2 and minimum RMSe introduced as the selected model.
    Results
    The results showed that, minimum (%4) and maximum (%92) germination per-centage were observed in interactions of -0.8 MPa with 30 ̊C and 15 ̊C with control (dis-tilled water) respectively. Overall, the seed germination rate decreased with declining os-motic potential. The temperature levels of 25 and 35 ̊C had maximum and minimum ger-mination rate in all osmotic potential levels respectively. The treatment of osmotic poten-tial in comparison to the temperature on vigor index had the worse effect, nonetheless in all temperature levels reducing osmotic potential, was showed significant decrease. Based on model parameters measurement, only segmented and quadratic models had suitable fitness. Although segmented model had better fitness than quadratic model for safflower germination rate to temperature response. The preferable regression model estimated min-imum seed germination temperature (2.2 to 4.2 ̊C) optimum temperature (23.12 to 23.98 C) and maximum temperature (42.2 to 43.89 C). Decreasing in osmotic potential from control until -0.8 MPa causes decreasing minimum temperature in both models. The opti-mum temperature in -0.8 MPa osmotic potential increased nearly one degree in segmented model but in quadratic model this temperature is declined 3.25 ̊C degree. Also the effect of decreasing osmotic potential on maximum temperature was much observable than its effects on minimum and optimum temperature. So that maximum temperature in -0.8 MPa osmotic potential comparison control (zero MPa) in segmented model 9 ̊C and in quadratic model 6.3 ̊C was decreased. Overall, safflower seeds, protected their germination parame-ters suitably in sub optimal temperature in comparison with supra optimal temperature (in the same osmotic potential levels). Extreme decreasing of these parameters in high tem-perature (35 ̊C) expression the susceptibility of this crop to high temperature.
    Conclusions
    Expect preferable regression models and estimated parameters (minimum, maximum and optimum temperature) in preparation and assessment of seedling appear-ance models in field and determination of planting date in every area are used. Safflower is a tolerant plant to drought stress under suboptimal temperature, but is very sensitive at higher than 30̊C temperature. Therefore, it is a good candidate to be planted in suitable planting date even relatively low soil moisture condition.
    Keywords: Germination presantage, Germination rate, Polyethylene glycol, Regression models, Safflower
  • Salim Farzaneh*, Behnam Kamkar, Raouf Seyed Sharifi, Saeid Vahedi Pages 1089-1106
    Introduction
    In many herbaceous species, the seeds are different in terms of germination capacity inside and between species and also inside the mass. Some of these variations may have a genetic origin, but many of them are related to the phenotypic characteristics of the seeds, which is caused by the local conditions in which the maturity of the seeds has taken place. These conditions include the combination of the microclimate that the seed experiences according to its position on the mother plant, also due to environmental conditions of the plant (environmental temperature, daytime, water availability, etc.). Some of the physiological and agronomic characteristics of plants play a role in their drought tolerance, and these characteristics are used to select drought-tolerant genotypes. One of the most important characteristics of drought tolerance is seed germination and seedling development under conditions of inaccurate moisture. Due to the proper establishment of seedling in the field and the production of vigorous seedlings indirectly related to the higher yield of the plant. This research was conducted to investigate the reaction of sugar beet monogerm hybrids produced in different climatic conditions to drought stress in the germination stage and seedling growth and to compare the hybrids obtained through crossing between advanced lines under different climatic conditions.
    Materials and Methods
    This research was conducted in 2014 as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Laboratory of Seed Technology at Ardabil Sugar Beet Processing and Preparation office under laboratory conditions. . Experiment was carried out as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The factors included 20 hybrids seed (hybrids derived from the cross of five promising diploid cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines (7112×SB36, SB37×28874, 7112×436, 419×SB36 and 261×231) and four diploid, pollinator lines (SHR.1-P12, F-8662, FC709-2/24 and S1-88239) which was produced in two regions of Ardebil and Karaj. and drought stress levels (control, -2, -4, -6 and -8 bar). Germination parameters were estimated in pleated filter paper and seedling growth parameters (root, shoot and weight) were evaluated in paper towels.
    Results and Discussion
    The results of the experiment showed although the percentage of germination in seed produced at Karaj station was far lower, but the important point in this research was that the germination velocity in seed produced at Karaj seed production station was higher than the seeds produced in Ardebi. Germination percentage, germination rate, percentage of emergence, root length and hypocotyl and seedling dry weight in different hybrids produced in both regions decreased with decreasing of water potential and the time to germination and abnormal seedling percentage increased However, the amount of reduction in seeds from different areas of seed production was different, and in seeds produced in Ardebil, the reduction in germination and seedling growth was lower than the seeds produced in Karaj. Among the hybrids produced in both regions, hybrid 7112*436×SHR01-P.12 had the highest and hybrid 419*SB36×S1-88239 had the lowest germination percentage, and the hybrid 261*231 × SHR01-P.12 and 28874*SB37 × SHR01-P.12 had the highest and lowest germination rates, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this experiment showed that germination percentage and seedling growth indices in the seeds produced in Karaj region were significantly lower than the seeds produced in Ardebil. Moreover, the tolerance to drought stress was also observed in seeds produced at the station Karaj was lower. Among the seeds of hybrids produced in both regions (Ardebil and Karaj) under severe drought stress, hybrid of 7112*436 × SHR01-P.12 had the highest germination percentage and seedling growth, and among the hybrids produced in each two regions of seed production and in all moisture treatments, hybrids 261*231 × SHR01-P.12, 261 * 231 × F-8662, 261 * 231 × FC709-2 / 24 and 261 * 231 × S1-88239, have the highest germination rates .
    Keywords: Ardabil, Emergence percentage, Germination velocity, Hybrid, Karaj
  • Ghader Rostami, Mohammad Moghaddam *, Rasoul Narimani, Leila Mehdizadeh Pages 1107-1123
    Introduction
    Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is one of the most important herbs of the Lamiaceae family, which is used as a medicinal herb, spices and fresh herbs . Salinity is an environmental factor limiting the growth and plant production ability . Delay in germination, decrease in the rate and percentage of germination and delay in emergence of radicle and plumule are the effects of salinity stress in the germination stage, which subsequently causes decrease of seedling growth. S Seed priming is one of the best biological methods for seed resistance during early germination and growth stages. Seed priming with different osmotic compounds increased the plant's compatibility with salinity and reduced the effects of ionic toxicity in salinity conditions. These studies were carried out to investigate the effect of seed priming on seed germination, morphophysiological and biochemical indices and increase salinity tolerance in basil seedlings for selecting the best treatments.
    Materials and methods
    In order to investigate the effects of types of seed priming on the some germination, morphophysiological and biochemical characteristics of basil under salinity stress, two individual experiment was conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design with 3 replications in the laboratory and greenhouse of Agriculture Faculty, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. First factor included seed priming (sodium nitrate (3%) for 6 h, salicylic acid (0.5 mM) for 12 h, hydro priming with distilled water for 24 h and without priming). The second factor included NaCl stress at three levels (0, 50, and 100 mM). In first experiment, petri dishes were washed and heated at 120 °C for 2 hours to disinfect. After seed priming, they dried in a darkness condition. Then, in each petri dish, two layers of Watam's filter paper with 25 healthy seeds were placed. To apply salinity, 5 milliliters of various concentrations of NaCl (0, 50 and 100 mM) was added to each petri dish and the edge of them was covered with parafilm. Then, petri dishes were placed in germinator (25 °C, darkness and 85% relative humidity). Germination percentage and rate, average germination time, seedling vigor index, length of radicle and length of shoot, fresh and dry weight of seedling were measured. In second study, after applying different priming treatments, the seeds planted in cemetery at 1 cm depth of soil and at 4 points in the middle of the mowing period. After emergence of the seeds, the two-leaf thinning was performed so that at each point a healthy seedling (four plants per pot) was selected from among them. Application of salinity stress with irrigation water was carried out for 4 weeks (until flowering) when the plant reached stage 8.
    Results and discussion
    The results of first study showed that seedling growth factors were affected by priming treatments. Priming had a positive effect on germination percentage at high concentration of salinity. The results showed that seeds priming with hydro-priming, at the highest concentration of salinity (100 mM) had the highest germination percentage. The highest seed germination rate was recorded in priming with hydro-priming. Fresh and dry weight seedlings were also affected by priming. Priming in salinity stress condition improved these traits in basil seedlings. Salinity reduced the length of radicle and plumule, but priming with potassium nitrate and salicylic acid had a significant effect on the length of radicle and plumule compared to the control, respectively. Therefore, it seems that in primed seeds, due to the progression of seed activities for germination, the duration of exposure to limiting factors in salt stress conditions is reduced, and the seed will be less affected by stress due to greater readiness for rooting out. In other words, the ability to absorb more water in primed seeds than seeds without priming has a positive effect on germination indices. Our findings of second experiment indicated that morphological traits were significantly decreased with increasing salinity stress. Also, the highest chlorophyll a (7.12 and 6.33 mg/g fresh leaf) was obtained in control (without salt stress) and 50 mM salinity stress for plants which raised from seed priming with distilled water, respectively. The highest levels of antioxidant activity of leaf extract (80.66%) and total phenolic content (0.87) were observed in plants of obtained from primed seeds with distilled water under salinity stress of 50 and 100 mM respectively. The highest relative water content (71.55%) was observed in non-stressed treatments from plants which raised primed seeds with potassium nitrate.
    Conclusions
    Regarding the importance of germination stage in plant cultivation and also the environmental stress such as salinity, improving this growth stage in stressful conditions will have an effective role. So, priming of basil seeds will provide suitable metabolic in seeds and improve germination percentage and other growth factors. Seed priming also moderately reduce the harmful effects of salinity and improved some of the basil morphological, physiological and biochemical traits under salt stress conditions through its positive effect on germination and plant growth. In general, the results of this study showed that basil seeds priming with hydroperiming improved germination and growth traits of seedlings under salt stress conditions and applied them to improve germination basil is recommended under these conditions. Moreover, salt stress reduced basil plant growth, and hydroperiming somewhat reduced the damage and improved plant growth. Therefore, it can be stated that under moderate salinity stress condition (50 mM) and without salt stress (control), the growth of basil especially which raised from hydroperiming seeds (distilled water), improve.
    Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Chlorophyll content, Germination, Growth indices, Hydro priming
  • Dariush Taghavi *, Mohammad Sedghi, Ali Ebadi, Omid Sofalyan, Aydin Hamidi Pages 1125-1130
    In order to study the effect of pre-chilling period on seed germination characteristics of soybean cultivars, a factorial experiment was carried out based on CRD (completely randomized design) with five levels of pre-chilling (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days) and cultivars including Clean, Linford and Jk with three replications at the Seed Science and Technology Laboratory of the University of Mohaghegh Ardabili in 2013. Results showed that interaction effects of treatments were significant on all morphological traits of germination in soybean except plumule dry weight. The greatest plumule length (20-22 cm) belonged to the Clean cultivar with 30 days pre-chilling. Germination percentage and rate increased by increasing pre-chilling period and the greatest germination percentage (100%) was related to 40 days pre-chilling in Liford cultivar. The maximum dry weight of radicle (0.205 g) was obtained with Linford cultivar and 40 days pre-chilling. Increasing the pre-chilling period increased the seed reservoir using rate and the greatest amount of seed reservoir using rate (2.082 g) was observed with 40 days pre-chilling in Clean cultivar. Germination percentage showed positive correlation at%1 possibility with germination rate, plumule length, radicle length and reservoir using rate.
    Keywords: Chilling, Cultivar, Germination percentage, Germination rate, Plumule