فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:4 Issue: 1, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/09/26
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Davoud Khorasani, Zavareh , Fatemeh Nouri*, Homayoun Sadeghi, Bazargani Pages 3-4
    In recent years, disaster management has been the focus of attention since disasters have been associated with huge destructions and consequences. Basically, disaster management techniques aim at the prevention and mitigation works as well as promotion of resilience.
    Haddon’s matrix was proposed as a conceptual model to understand the event and provide preventive measures in the field of injury prevention. This matrix is a combination of epidemiological triangle, including host, agent, and environmental factors at three levels of prevention, including pre-event, event, and post-event. In spite of frequent application of Haddon’s strategies in prevention of various injuries; hitherto, application of Haddon matrix in disaster management has been rarely investigated. However, its potential capability for managing disasters calls for its further introduction which is the main focus of our study.
  • Leila Daddoust*, HamidReza Khankeh , Abbas Ebadi , Robab Sahaf , Maryam Nakhaei , Ali Asgary Pages 5-14
    Background
    Determining social vulnerability of elderly people is a prerequisite for risk analysis in natural disasters. Understanding and comprehension of different dimensions of elderly social vulnerability by using international experiences is a must to determine and ultimately measure this phenomenon. In this study, we tried to understand the dimensions of elderly social vulnerability in natural disasters based on international experiences.
    Materials and Methods
    An integrative review of literature was conducted to clarify the elderly social vulnerability concept in natural disasters. We used keywords such as “elderly”, “social vulnerability”, and “natural disasters” in texts and titles in electronic databases of Medlib ،Iran Medex, Magiran, SID, Irandoc, Web of Science, Google Scholar CINAHL, ProQuest, Ovid, Ageline, Scopus, Embase, and Pub Med. At last 25 articles were found issued from 1986 to 2018. Their inclusion criteria were written in Persian or English language and had search keywords in their texts, titles, or and keywords. Commentary or editor letters were excluded. Each article was examined according to subjects, definition of social vulnerability, theoretical aspects, outcomes and antecedents of social vulnerability. For analyzing, controversial content analyses was used.
    Results
    The results of the concept analysis showed that social vulnerability is a complex, dynamic, challenging, multi-dimensional and pre-existing condition that is dependent on individual characteristics as well as economic status. It is influenced by the culture and elderly people’s place of living.
    Conclusion
    Reducing social vulnerability of older adults in natural disasters is not possible without paying enough attention to this issue and increasing their empowerment. Therefore, extensive research to identify this concept in related contexts and carry out qualitative research will be very effective in defining this concept and providing the appropriate tools for its measurement.
    Keywords: Elderly, Social Vulnerability, Natural Disasters, Integrative Review
  • Maryam Basabr , Hamidreza Khankeh*, Asghar Dalvandi , Gholamreza Ghaedamini Harouni Pages 15-21
    Background
    Job satisfaction and its effective factors are important issue in productivity improvement. The main purpose of this study is to determine the job satisfaction of nurses in pre-hospital and hospital emergency rooms of Mashhad health system.
    Materials and Methods
    The present study was descriptive-analytic with cross-sectional design carried out on nurses working in 168 pre-hospital emergency bases and 12 emergency departments of public hospitals of Mashhad affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in 2017. A total of 232 nurses working in pre-hospital and hospital emergency units were selected and studied. A reliable and valid questionnaire including personal and professional information was used for collecting data based on the standardized Brayfield and Ruth Job Satisfaction test. Data analysis was performed by 1-sample t test, 1-way t test, two Independent samples, and linear regression analysis in SPSS V. 18.
    Results
    A total of 232 nurses answered to questionnaires. The average quality level of job satisfaction based on Brayfield and Ruth test was 62.6% in pre-hospital emergency nurses and 62.4% in nurses of emergency hospital. It was also found that the variables of age, gender, educational level, service record, working hours, income level and marital status were significant determinants of job satisfaction, so that these variables were altogether explain about 30%(F=13.5, P<0.001) of job satisfaction.
    Conclusion
    Based on the findings of this study, nurses' workplace is not associated with their job satisfaction. Also, job satisfaction is affected by many demographic variables, which change due to time and place and social conditions.
    Keywords: Job satisfaction, Nurses, hospital emergency, pre-hospital emergency
  • Mehdi Beiramijam , Shahnaz Salawati Ghasemi , Masoomeh Khaleghverdi , Kazem Bizhani , Ali Afshari*, Majedeh Nabavian Pages 23-28
    Background
    Prehospital emergency care services are one of the vital health services in many countries that provide first and immediate medical care to the patients and injured people at the scene and during transfer to healthcare centers. This study was conducted to investigate and compare the use of prehospital emergency services in urban and road emergency bases of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences.
    Materials and Methods
    In a descriptive-analytic study, all missions (ambulance requests) conducted at urban and road emergency bases were studied and compared over three years. The study tool was a checklist compiled of questions from PCR (Patient Care Report). PCR contains written information about the patient's demographic characteristics, mission time, mission address, mission reasons, emergency base and mission code (ambulance identification code), and so on. Finally, the collected data were analyzed using descriptive (mean and variance) and inferential statistics (t test and Chi-square).
    Results
    The results of the study indicated that every year, urban bases missions increased about 600 and rural bases missions about 450. Road traffic incidents, falls, cardiac emergencies and poisoning were the most common causes for ambulance call at urban and road emergency bases. In addition, urban and road bases missions were significantly different with regard to the cause of missions in all cases (except heat stroke) (P<0.01).
    Conclusion
    Understanding the number and pattern of prehospital emergency services in urban and rural areas plays a significant role in the proper planning of prehospital emergency care. The study showed that the need for emergency prehospital emergency services is increasing and policymakers should be considered this issue.
    Keywords: Prehospital emergency care services, Ambulance request, Urban emergency base, Rural emergency base
  • Amir Karami , Abdollah Dargahi , Mehrdad Farrokhi , Mohsen Poursadeghian , Reyhaneh Ivanbagha , Parvin Mostafaei , Leila Tabandeh* Pages 29-36
    Background
    Natural disasters are out of human control, often leading to loss of life and property, and particularly affecting public health. Natural disasters influence human lives in different ways. They may have severe, obvious, or hidden consequences. Therefore, the present study aimed at examining the environmental health condition of the cities affected by 2017 earthquake in Kermanshah Province.
    Materials and Methods
    This was a cross-sectional study. The environmental health experts gathered and analyzed the study data regarding the environment health condition of public places, food safety, solid waste management, types and number of water supplies, number of healthcare facilities and local health centers, etc.
    Results
    According to the results, the lowest and highest number of damaged villages in Kermanshah Province were located in Sarpol-e Zahab (205 villages) and Ghasreshirin (29 villages), respectively. In addition, Eslamabad-e Gharb and Salas-e Babajani had the highest and lowest urban and rural populations, respectively. A total of 138564 people were affected by the earthquake. The improved water sources in the affected areas included 51 low-risk water sources, 171 moderate-risk water sources, 2 high-risk water sources, and 0 very high-risk water sources. In addition, 5059 m3 water was chlorinated by the environmental health experts and 1805 households were under the coverage of methoxymethyl chloride. Moreover, public healthcare centers (1059 intact and 605 damaged), 4564 food safety centers (3204 intact and 1360 damaged), and 20 solid waste management centers (16 intact and 4 damaged) were available in the area after the earthquake.
    Conclusion
    Overall, the results indicate that the environmental health activities in the areas affected by the earthquake were adequate in terms of providing healthy drinking water, garbage and wastewater management, distribution of healthy foods, and so on. Thus it can be used as a good model to response the needs of the survivors from the future natural disasters and crises.
    Keywords: Earthquake, Environmental health, Risk, Natural disaster, Food safety
  • Heshmatolah Asgari*, Mohammad Reza Omidi , Nabi Omidi Pages 37-42
    Background
    Educational planning and managing critical situations of accidents and disasters are among the most important issues. Triage, which means the classification of patients and injuries based on specific situations and needs, is one of the important tasks of hospitals at times of disasters. In this study, triage knowledge and practice of nurses working in hospitals affiliated to Ilam University of Medical Sciences are evaluated.
    Materials and Methods
    This is a cross-sectional and analytic study conducted in 2017. The statistical population comprised all nurses working in Ilam Medical Sciences hospitals. Using Cochran’s formula, 174 people were sampled and 160 of them completed the study questionnaires and returned them. The main tool of collecting data was a researcher-made questionnaire based on Canadian triage scale. Validity of the questionnaire was assessed by 10 members of the Ilam University of Medical Sciences. The reliability of the questionnaire was between 0.83 and 0.89 using Cronbach α coefficient. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS.
    Results
    The Mean±SD duration of nurses’ working in the emergency department was 5.2±3.4 years, of which 46.2% had an experience of using triage. The Mean±SD score of nurses’ knowledge and practice of triage were respectively 10.44±2.11 and 9.22±2.14 out of 15. There was no significant relationship between work experience, gender and age with knowledge and practice of triage, but there was a significant relationship between knowledge and practice of nurses about triage with nursing educational degree.
    Conclusion
    The level of nurses’ knowledge and practice of triage in hospitals of Ilam University of Medical Sciences is moderate.
    Keywords: Nurses, Events, Triage
  • Hamidreza Shabanikiya , Amin Adel , Habibollah Esmaily , Akbar Javan, Biparva* Pages 43-48
    Background
    Driving fines are one of the tools to reduce driving violations, and consequently, injuries due to car accidents. In 2010, a new set of laws and fines were passed with the aim of deterring driving violations. Since the second half of March 2013, the new laws and fines were enforced throughout the country. To compare the number of accident victims referred to the hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences before and after the implementation of the new traffic offenses law.
    Materials and Methods
    This was a descriptive-analytic study. The study population consisted of all accident victims referred to the emergency department of hospitals of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences from March 2014 to September 2017. Sampling method was total enumerative method. For data collection, a checklist was used. After obtaining the necessary permissions, the researcher completed the checklist by referring to the hospitals and the Deputy of Treatment of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The relevant data were extracted from the Hospital Information and MedCare Systems. In addition to comparing the average number of victims before and after the implementation of the new law, the average number of victims were compared in terms of the body part injury, the site of the accident before and after the implementation of the law. The obtained data were analyzed by using descriptive and analytical statistics including t test.
    Results
    The average monthly number of casualties before the implementation of the new law was 3053 and after the implementation it increased to 3492 people. This difference was statistically significant (P≤0.05). Although this increase was observed in the average number of the victims in all four body parts groups, after the implementation of the law, only the difference between the average number of victims with multiple body injuries was statistically significant (P≤0.05). In addition, the average number of the accident location in all four groups of the accident locations increased after the implementation of the law. However, only the difference between the average number of the accidents occurred on suburban roads before and after the implementation was statistically significant (P≤0.05).
    Conclusion
    On the whole, increasing driving fines does not seem to have a significant impact on reducing road traffic injuries. A more detailed investigation of this challenge is recommended to identify possible causes of the ineffectiveness of fines.
    Keywords: Accidents, Traffic, Injuries, Laws
  • Reza Hashempour , Hasan Hosseinpour Ghahremanlou , Sina Etemadi*, Mohsen Poursadeghiyan Pages 49-54
    Background
    Quality of work life depends on a combination of variables in the work environment that has an important impact on organizational commitment, work participation, and job performance. Therefore, measuring two variables of quality of work life and organizational commitment is important for all employees of organizations, including emergency nurses, who are important members of the health service community. This study aimed to determine the relationship between quality of work life and organizational commitment among Iranian emergency nurses.
    Materials and Methods
    A descriptive and correlational study was conducted in 2016. The study population included all emergency nurses working in one of the hospitals of Kerman Province, Iran. The data collection tool was the personal and occupational questionnaire, Walton quality of work life questionnaire, and Allen and Meier organizational commitment questionnaire. Data analysis was performed by using descriptive tests, the Pearson correlation and ANOVA statistics tests in SPSS 23.
    Results
    The results showed that the quality of work life has a positive and significant relationship (r=0.49, P=0.017) with organizational commitment. More specifically, quality of work life is related to emotional commitment (r=0.44, P=0.001), normative commitment (r=0.40, P=0.003) and continuous commitment (r=0.33, P=0.015).
    Conclusion
    Since the higher quality of work life brings more commitment for employees, managers can improve the essential components of working life quality of nurses by adopting appropriate solutions, and providing the necessary conditions for improving the quality of service provision and productivity.
    Keywords: Quality of work life, Organizational commitment, Job satisfaction, Hospital, Nurse
  • Mansooreh Azizzadeh Forouzi , Om Salimeh Roudi RashtAbadi , Aazam Heidarzadeh*, Lila Malkyan , Mohammad Ghazanfarabadi Pages 55-61
    Background
    One of the topics in health psychology is the positive effects of psychological trauma on people encountered a trauma and determining the facilitating factors of these positive effects. The present study was conducted to evaluate the relationship of posttraumatic growth with religious coping and social support among earthquake victims of Bam City, Iran, in 2015.
    Materials and Methods
    The present study was a correlation study in which 230 participants from Bam were selected using cluster sampling method. The relevant data were collected using Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), Religious Coping Scale (RCOPE), and Multiple Scale of Social Support (MSPSS). Then the obtained data were analyzed in SPSS performing central tendency and dispersion tests, t test, variance analysis and correlation coefficients.
    Results
    The total Mean±SD scores of posttraumatic growth, religious coping, and perceived social support were 3.66±0.61, 3.53±0.54 and 5.37±1.24, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the total scores of posttraumatic growth and religious coping (P=0.0001, r=0.43).
    Conclusion
    According to the results of the present study, improving religious coping and perceived social support could increase posttraumatic growth and provide better conditions for living and decreasing society’s problems.
    Keywords: Posttraumatic growth, Religious coping, Social support, Earthquake victims