فهرست مطالب

پژوهشهای جغرافیای انسانی - پیاپی 105 (پاییز 1397)
  • پیاپی 105 (پاییز 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/09/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
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  • حسین حاتمی نژاد، کرامتاللهزیاری، شهرام پارسا (پشاه آبادی) *، مهسا حاجی صفحات 513-535
    هزاره سوم میلادی هزاره شهرنشینی است. این پدیده علی رغم دستاوردهای بزرگ برای بشر، مسائل و مشکلاتی از جمله افت شدید کیفیت زندگی را برای شهروندان به دنبال داشته است. کیفیت زندگی مقوله ای چندبعدی و پیچیده است و این مفهوم برای افراد و گروه های مختلف و متناسب با شرایط زمانی و مکانی، معانی متفاوتی دارد. در پژوهش توصیفی-تحلیلی حاضر، کیفیت زندگی ساکنان محله سیروس تهران برمبنای سطح رضایتمندی آن ها از 7 شاخص (حمل و نقل، امکانات و خدمات، واحد مسکونی، امنیت، هویت و تعلق خاطر، زیبایی، تنوع و خوانایی، کیفیت محیط زیست و آلودگی) و رضایت کلی آن ها از زندگی ارزیابی شد. برای نمونه گیری، 5 درصد از خانوارها انتخاب شدند و جمع آوری داده ها با پرسشنامه و مصاحبه صورت گرفت. تحلیل داده ها نیز با استفاده از آنالیز واریانس و آزمون t تک نمونه ای صورت گرفت. براساس نتایج این پژوهش، هرچند کیفیت زندگی در این محله، متوسط به پایین (97/2) ، و رضایت ساکنان از کیفیت زندگی پایین تر از حد متوسط است، میزان رضایتمندی آن ها از عناصر اصلی سازنده کیفیت زندگی شهری در محدوده مورد مطالعه و زیرمعیارهای آن (زیست محیطی، اجتماعی-روانی و کالبدی) نتایج متفاوتی را به دنبال دارد؛ به طوری که کمترین میزان رضایت (بیشترین آزردگی) علی رغم اجرای پروژه های نوسازی در محله سیروس، به شاخص های هویت و تعلق خاطر (روانی-اجتماعی) با میانگین 64/2 (پایین تر از حد میانگین) مربوط است. در این میان، تاکید صرف به اهداف کالبدی و بی توجهی به اهداف اجتماعی در قالب پروژه نوسازی (ناشی از رویکرد سنتی برنامه ریزی) چهره کنونی حقایق جاری را نمایان کرد. به علاوه در میزان رضایتمندی یا آزردگی ساکنان، مدت اقامت، سن و نوع شغل تاثیرگذار بود.
    کلیدواژگان: رضایتمندی، کیفیت زندگی، کیفیت محیط، محله سیروس
  • نرگس حجی پناه، سید هادی زرقانی *، امید علی خوارزمی صفحات 537-554
    با توجه به اهمیت روزافزون دولت محلی و کارکرد موثر و مقبولیت آن در میان کشورهای جهان، در این پژوهش نقش عوامل اجتماعی-فرهنگی در شکل گیری دولت محلی در ایران بررسی شده است. همچنین به دلیل نقش موثر تفکر سیستمی در حوزه های مختلف برنامه ریزی و مدیریت، تفکر سیستمی اساس مطالعه حاضر است. نوع پژوهش توصیفی-تحلیلی است و با استنباط از هر دو روش کمی-کیفی صورت گرفته است. در بخش کمی، جامعه آماری صاحب نظران بحث دولت محلی هستند که براساس برآورد پژوهشگر، 40 نفر انتخاب شدند. در قسمت کیفی، 7 نفر از صاحب نظران بحث دولت محلی به روش گلوله برفی برای مصاحبه انتخاب شدند. برای بررسی تاثیر عوامل اجتماعی-فرهنگی در شکل گیری دولت محلی در ایران از آزمون t تک نمونه ای، و به منظور اولویت بندی تاثیر هریک از عوامل فوق، از آزمون فریدمن استفاده شد. همچنین ترسیم دیاگرام های علی و معلولی براساس تفکر سیستمی در نرم افزار Vensim صورت گرفت. با توجه به نتایج پژوهش، براساس مطالعات بخش کمی، در بعد اجتماعی-فرهنگی، گویه های تنوع قومی-زبانی، احساس مکانی و گرایش های محلی گرایی، و میزان مطالبات ملی و محلی در اولویت است و بیشترین تاثیر را در شکل گیری دولت محلی در ایران دارد. در بخش اطلاعات کیفی نیز مصاحبه شوندگان بیشتر بر گویه های تنوع قومی-زبانی، احساس مکانی و گرایش های محلی گرایی تاکید کرده اند. درنهایت اینکه تاثیر عوامل اجتماعی-فرهنگی در شکل گیری دولت محلی در ایران زیاد است و وضعیت این بعد، تا حدودی مطلوب به نظر می رسد.
    کلیدواژگان: ایران، بعد اجتماعی-فرهنگی، تفکر سیستمی، دولت محلی
  • مظفر صرافی *، نصیبه هاشمی صفحات 555-572
    شهر، سازمان اجتماعی مستقر بر پهنه ای طبیعی است که ساکنان آن برای برآوردن بهینه نیازهایشان، مناسبات اجتماعی-اقتصادی برقرار می کنند و محیط انسان ساختی را برای نیل به توسعه به مفهوم عام به گشت زندگی برپا می دارند. در فرایند رشد شتابان شهری مشکلاتی بروز می کند که معنای حقیقی توسعه نیست. درنتیجه کارشناسان و برنامه ریزان، با شاخص های مختلف به سنجش توسعهشهری توجه کرده اند. این شاخص ها اغلب با ماهیت اقتصادی مطرح شدند، اما به دلیل کاستی های تقلیل گرایانه آن ها و اهمیت یافتن دیدگاه های پایداری و اجتماع محور در سنجش توسعه، شاخص های نوینی مدنظر قرار گرفت. برنامه اسکان بشر سازمان ملل متحد در گزارش سال 2013، شاخص نیک بختی شهری (City Prosperity Index) را معرفی کرد. شهرهای ایران در دهه های اخیر با توسعه ای شتابان و ناپایدار مواجه بودند. به نظر می رسد این مقوله می تواند در تحلیل وضعیت و ارائه اولویت های مداخله برای رسیدن به توسعه همه جانبه یاری رسان باشد؛ از این رو، پژوهش حاضر برمبنای شاخص نیک بختی شهری، شاخص بازنگری شده ای با عنوان نیک بختی شهری ایرانی مطرح می کند. در این شاخص، با افزودن بعد سلامت که با ارزش ها و نیازهای کنونی جامعه شهری ایران متناسب است، توسعه شهرهای بالای 100 هزار نفر منطقه شمال غرب کشور (سه استان آذربایجان شرقی، آذربایجان غربی و اردبیل) سنجیده می شود. برای این منظور، 65 نماگر در 6 بعد نیک بختی شهری ایرانی تدوین شد. سپس سنجش میزان نیک بختی با مدل RALSPI صورت گرفت. براساس یافته های پژوهش، نابرابری زیادی میان شهرهای منطقه شمال غرب کشور وجود دارد که به استثنای تبریز، بقیه در سطح پایینی قرار دارند. در پایان، اولویت های مداخله در هر شهر برای ارتقای سطح توسعه مشخص شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: آذربایجان، اردبیل، توسعه شهری ایران، شاخص نیک بختی شهری (CPI)، مدل RALSPI
  • کاوه نادری *، بهروز بادکو، مسلم حدیدی، سیامک آزادی، پری نجفی، بیتا حامد صفحات 573-589
    راهبردهای توسعهشهری در هر شهر متاثر از گردشگریاست و ضروری است در برنامه ریزی های توسعهشهری به آن توجه شود. درواقع دستیابی به توسعه پایدار، مستلزم نگاهی جامع و راهبردی و توجه به عوامل موثر در توسعه از جمله گردشگری است. هدف پژوهش حاضر کمی و کیفی، ارزیابی راهبردی و ارائه راهبردهای بهینه بخش گردشگری استان کرمانشاه است. در روش کمی، هدف پژوهش کاربردی و نوع آن نوع توصیفی تحلیلی است. بخش کیفی براساس مصاحبه های عمیق و به منظور استخراج دیدگاه صاحب نظران در حوزه های مختلف گردشگری صورت گرفت. نمونه آماری کل جامعه مورد بحث، 56 نفر بود با بررسی های اسنادی و کتابخانه ای، اطلاعات مورد نظر جمع آوری، و از پرسشنامه و مصاحبه استفاده شد. براساس نتایج، 15 راهبرد برتر توسعه گردشگری استان کرمانشاه، در سه حوزه گردشگری تاریخی، فرهنگی و اکوتوریسم قرار دارد. در میان حوزه های دوازده گانه گردشگری، چهار حوزه در گروه راهبردهای رشد و توسعه، پنج حوزه در گروه راهبردهای تثبیت و بهبود وضعیت موجود و سه حوزه در گروه راهبردهای دفاعی قرار دارند. براین اساس تدوین TDS (برنامه های توسعه گردشگری) در قالب CDS (برنامه های توسعه شهری) به صورت یکپارچه به منظور جامعیت و افزایش تحقق پذیری آن پیشنهاد می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: اولویت بندی، توسعه، راهبرد، گردشگری، کرمانشاه
  • رعنا شیخ بیگلو *، سعیدرضا اکبریان رونیزی صفحات 591-608
    خزش و گسترش اراضی شهری بر عرصه های روستایی، از پیامدهای افزایش جمعیت شهرها به شمار می آید. الحاق روستا به شهر یکی از نتایج خزش شهری است که آثار اجتماعی، اقتصادی و کالبدی گوناگون مطلوب یا نامطلوب را بر عرصه های روستایی ادغام شده در شهر برجای می گذارد. شهر شیراز از جمله کلان شهرهای کشور است که در سال های اخیر، از نظر فیزیکی گسترش یافته است. توجه به جوانب مختلف خزش شهری و الحاق روستا به شهر می تواند در ترسیم چشم انداز دقیق تری از توسعه فیزیکی آتی شهر موثر واقع شود؛ از این رو در پژوهش حاضر به بررسی خزش شهری و آثار و پیامدهای اقتصادی، اجتماعی-فرهنگی و محیط زیستی-کالبدی الحاق سکونتگاه های روستایی به کلان شهر شیراز از دیدگاه ساکنان پرداخته شد و جمع آوری داده های مورد نیاز پژوهش، با مطالعات کتابخانه ای و پرسشنامه صورت گرفت. جامعه آماری پژوهش، سرپرستان خانوار ساکن در 12 روستای الحاق شده به شهر شیراز هستند و حجم نمونه براساس روش کوکران، 315 نفر است. تحلیل داده ها با استفاده از آزمون های آماری کای دو، ویلکاکسون، فریدمن و ضریب هم بستگی پیرسون، اسپیرمن و فی کرامر صورت گرفت. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که از دیدگاه پاسخگویان، آثار منفی الحاق روستاهای مورد مطالعه به شهر شیراز در ابعاد اقتصادی و اجتماعی-فرهنگی، به طور نسبی بیش از آثار مثبت آن است. همچنین، تفاوت معناداری میان این آثار در قالب سه بعد مذکور مشاهده شد. در میان متغیرهای فردی شامل جنس، سن، شغل، تحصیلات و مدت سکونت در روستا، رابطه رضایتمندی با همه متغیرها به جز متغیر جنس، معنا دار است.
    کلیدواژگان: الحاق روستا به شهر، توسعه کالبدی شهر، حباب شهرنشینی، خزش شهری، شیراز
  • علی شمس الدینی *، عماد صفاریان، محمدرضا نکویی بخش صفحات 609-625
    دسترسی به مسکن مناسب از اساسی ترین نیازهای انسانی است که با افزایش جمعیت شهری، شهروندان کم درآمد را با مشکلات عدیده ای مواجه کرده است. به منظور برقراری عدالت اجتماعی و دسترسی اقشار شهری کم درآمد به مسکن در کشور، دولت نهم پروژه ساخت 1 میلیون و 500 هزار واحد مسکونی را در قالب طرح مسکن مهر اجرا کرد؛ از این رو در پژوهش توصیفی-تحلیلی حاضر و با مطالعه ای کمی، ساکنان مسکن های مهر شهرک پردیس واقع در شهر کازرون انتخاب شدند تا ضمن ارزیابی عملکرد مسکن مهر، چالش های این مسکن از دیدگاه آن ها شناسایی شود. ابزار اصلی پژوهش، پرسشنامه محقق ساخته است. همچنین جامعه آماری 104 خانوار در شهرک، و حجم نمونه 100 نفر از سرپرستان خانوارها هستند. برای تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها از آماره های توصیفی (فراوانی، میانگین، انحراف معیار و ضریب تغییرات) ، آزمون مقایسه میانگین و تکنیک تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی در قالب نرم افزار SPSSاستفاده شد. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد میزان رضایتمندی شهروندان از سکونت در مسکن های مهر واقع در شهرک پردیس با میانگین 73/2، پایین تر از حد متوسط است. براساس نتایج بررسی چالش های مسکن مهر، پنج چالش شناسایی شد که بیانگر حدود 73 درصد واریانس متغیر وابسته پژوهش است: مکان گزینی نامناسب (7/29 درصد) ، ضعف خدمات رفاهی-کالبدی مجتمع (5/14 درصد) ، مشکلات اجتماعی-اقتصادی (9/11 درصد) ، ضعف عوامل مدیریتی (4/9 درصد) و مشکلات محیطی (4/7 درصد). همچنین، نتایج نشان می دهد از میان 9 راهکار پیشنهادی شهروندان برای غلبه بر مشکلات مسکن مهر، سه راهکار زیر مهم ترین راهکارهای شهروندان برای کاهش مشکلات مسکن مهر در محدوده مورد مطالعه هستند. تاسیس مراکز خدماتی اساسی در نزدیکی شهرک (93 بار تکرار) ؛
    نظارت دقیق تر بر کیفیت مصالح استفاده شده در ساخت مسکن های مهر توسط پیمانکاران (86 بار تکرار) ؛
    اختصاص دادن سرویس عمومی برای رفع مشکلات رفت وآمد شهرک نشینان به مرکز شهر (76 بار تکرار).
    کلیدواژگان: اقشار کم درآمد، برنامه ریزی مسکن، شهرنشینی، کازرون، مسکن مهر
  • رضا امیدی فر *، علیرضا قلعه ای، محمد حسنی، میرنجف موسوی صفحات 627-644
    مطالعه نابرابری آموزشی و حذف یا کاهش آن موضوعی است که پژوهشگران و دولت ها به آن توجه دارند؛ از این رو در پژوهش حاضر، به بررسی نابرابری و رتبه بندی دانشگاه های شهر تهران پرداخته شد. در این پژوهش دانشگاه ها در دو دسته شاخص های اسنادی و غیراسنادی، و تلفیق شاخص ها ارزیابی شدند. جامعه آماری شامل دانشجویان دانشگاه های شهر تهران بود. برای نمونه گیری نیز از روش طبقه ای با انتساب مناسب استفاده شد. همچنین 383 نفر برای نمونه انتخاب شدند و پرسشنامه میان آن ها توزیع شد. نوع پژوهش توصیفی-تحلیلی است که جمع آوری اطلاعات آن به صورت میدانی و کتابخانه ای صورت گرفت. هدف پژوهش نیز کاربردی است. برای سنجش مولفه ها از پرسشنامه استفاده شد و اعتبارسنجی روایی شاخص ها با نظر استادان و متخصصان مربوط صورت گرفت. پایایی اجزای پژوهش به روش آلفای کرونباخ بررسی شد که آلفای آن 951/0 بود. به منظور تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از نرم افزار spss، و برای رتبه بندی دانشگاه ها از نظر شاخص های پژوهش، از مدل تاپسیس استفاده شد. براساس یافته ها، دانشگاه تهران در اغلب شاخص ها رتبه اول را دارد. دانشگاه های تهران از نظر برخورداری از شاخص های مختلف با هم متفاوت هستند. دانشگاه های جامع، دانشگاه تهران، تربیت مدرس و شهید بهشتی، با مقادیر تاپسیس 963/0، 519/0 و 235/0 به ترتیب در جایگاه های اول تا سوم قرار دارند. دانشگاه های فنی مهندسی، صنعتی شریف، امیرکبیر، علم و صنعت و خواجه نصیرالدین طوسی با مقادیر تاپسیس 525/0، 438/0، 387/0 و 232/0 به ترتیب رتبه های اول تا چهارم را دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: تاپسیس، توسعه پایدار، دانشگاه، رتبه بندی، نابرابری آموزشی
  • داریوش ظفری *، میر ستار صدر موسوی، محمدرضا پورمحمدی صفحات 645-659
    کلان شهر تبریز نمونه ای از مدل های توسعه شهری است که در پی تحولات ناشی از اصلاحات اراضی و ایجاد قطب رشد و مراکز صنعتی در دهه های اخیر به کلی متحول، و گرفتار ساختاری متخلخل و بیمارگونه شده است. نوع این پژوهش کاربردی-توسعه ای، توصیفی-تحلیلی است که در آن مطالعه موردی، و تکنیک های اسنادی-کتابخانه ای و میدانی به کار رفته است. ابزار جمع آوری داده ها، پرسشنامه، مشاهده، مصاحبه، آمارنامه های مرکز آمار ایران، اطلاعات حاصل از نقشه های تحلیلی تولیدشده در محیط GIS، اسناد موجود در شهرداری های مناطق و طرح های توسعه شهری تبریز است. در این پژوهش از مدل ها و روش کمی مانند آزمون خی دو و وی کرامر، همچنین از سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی GIS، نرم افزارهای Arcwiev و SPSS استفاده شده است. جامعه آماری پژوهش تمام شاغلان بخش اقتصاد غیررسمی در مادرشهر تبریز هستند. حجم نمونه 390 نفر و شیوه نمونه گیری به صورت تصادفی خوشه ایو چندمرحله ای از مناطق ده گانه تبریز است. داده های پژوهش حاضر با بهره گیری از روش های آمار توصیفی و استنباطی و با نرم افزار SPSS تجزیه و تحلیل شده است. براساس یافته های پژوهش، فعالیت ها در بخش غیررسمی، تنوع زیادی دارند. همچنین عمده ترین دلیل ورود افراد به این بخش، اشتغال نداشتن در بخش رسمی اقتصاد و نبود سرمایه کافی و تخصص و سواد است. مهم ترین مشکلات شغلی این گروه، کمبود سرمایه و نداشتن مکان ثابت و مناسب است. بیشتر شاغلان این بخش، مالیات پرداخت نمی کنند. همچنین میزان اشتغال در بخش غیررسمی در بین جمعیت مهاجر بیشتر است.
    کلیدواژگان: اقتصاد غیررسمی، پایداری شهری، شغل غیررسمی، کلان شهر، کلان شهر تبریز
  • بختیار فیضی زاده، صالحه کاظمی *، سمیرا شرفی صفحات 661-678
    الگوی توسعه محله های شهری به موازات رشد و گسترش شهر، دستخوش تحولات زیادی در گذر زمان شده است. این تغییرات در شهرهایی که پیشینه تاریخی دارند مشهودتر است؛ به گونه ای که می توان تفاوت بارزی میان محله های قدیمی که بدون برنامه ایجاد و پس از شکل گیری مشمول طرح و برنامه شده اند با محله های جدید از پیش برنامه ریزی شده مشاهده کرد. یکی از فنونی که می تواند در بررسی این تفاوت و مقایسه تطبیقی الگوی محله ها قدیمی و جدید در مطالعات شهری استفاده شود، فناوری سنجش ازدور و پردازش شیءگرا است. پردازش شیءگرا نوعی پردازش تصویر است که به دلیل استفاده از اطلاعات هندسی، محیطی و محتوای تصاویر می تواند دستیابی به دقت بالا را در فرایند طبقه بندی شیءگرا میسر کند. هدف از این مطالعه، مقایسه تطبیقی الگوهای بافت مدرن و سنتی شهر اصفهان با استفاده از فرایند پردازش شیءگرا و نرم افزار eCognition است. برای نیل به این هدف دو محله شهری انتخاب شد و مراحل پژوهش روی آن ها صورت گرفت. در راستای استخراج الگوهای بافت شهری، انواع تکنیک های پردازش شیءگرا شامل اطلاعات هندسی، بافت، ضریب تراکم، نامنظمی اشکال و… به کار گرفته شد تا الگوهای شیءپایه تصاویر ماهواره ای برای شناسایی بافت سنتی و مدرن استخراج شود. پس از شناسایی الگوریتم های مناسب، طبقه بندی فازی با الگوریتم نزدیک ترین همسایه اعمال شد سپس ارزیابی نتایج با مطالعات میدانی صورت گرفت. ارائه روش هایی نوین برای شناسایی و طبقه بندی بافت شهری در نتایج پژوهش حاضر می تواند راهگشای انواع مطالعات باشد تا الگوهای بافت در محیط های شهری به سرعت شناسایی شود.
    کلیدواژگان: الگوریتم های مکانی و طیفی، الگوهای بافت شهری، پردازش شیءگرا، شهر اصفهان، قطعه تصویر
  • مسعود صفایی پور، مرتضی عبیات *، مصطفی عبیات صفحات 679-701
    درک بهتر پدیده های جغرافیایی و شناخت علمی مکان های جغرافیایی مستلزم داشتن اطلاعاتی جامع از مناطق مورد نظر است. همچنین، آگاهی از وضعیت توزیع فضایی سطوح توسعه، پیش نیاز طرح ها و برنامه های توسعه روستایی محسوب می شود؛ از این رو، مسئله اصلی پژوهش حاضر، «تحلیل فضایی سطوح توسعه روستایی در گستره استان خوزستان» است. اطلاعات مورد نیاز پژوهش از نوع داده های ثانویه است که با طراحی چک لیستی با عنوان شناسنامه روستا با مراجعه به سالنامه آماری استان خوزستان در سال 1390 تکمیل شد. در پژوهش حاضر، برای سنجش وضعیت توسعه روستایی در استان، از روش وزن دهی آنتروپی شانون و فنون تصمیم گیری چندشاخصه جبرانی مانند تاپسیس، الکتر، ویکور و پرومته استفاده شد. همچنین، با به کارگیری چهار روش میانگین رتبه ها، بردا، کاپلند و پست در قالب مجموعه ادغامی، نتیجه ای واحدی از سطح بندی توسعه روستایی در استان به دست آمد. درنهایت، نتایج سطح بندی شهرستان ها به تفکیک تمامی شاخص ها، با استفاده از نرم افزار ArcGIS10. 4. 1، به صورت نقشه ارائه شد. کلی ترین نتیجه پژوهش، ناهماهنگی و گسست فضایی میان مناطق استان در توزیع جغرافیایی سطوح توسعه روستایی است. این مسئله در سطح استان، از نظر نماگرهای مورد بررسی در موضوعات مختلف قابل ملاحظه است. بیشتر شاخص های توسعه در نیمه های شمالی، مرکزی و غربی استان خوزستان متمرکز شده است؛ به گونه ای که سه ناحیه در مرتبه اول، شش شهرستان در مرتبه دوم، هفت ناحیه در مرتبه سوم، شش ناحیه در مرتبه چهارم و پنج ناحیه در مرتبه پنجم توسعه قرار گرفته اند.
    کلیدواژگان: استان خوزستان، تحلیل فضایی، شاخص های توسعه روستایی، فنون تصمیم گیری چندشاخصه جبرانی، مجموعه ادغامی
  • سید عباس رجایی *، حسنعلی فرجی سبکبار، عباس درودی نیا ، رامین قربانی صفحات 703-725
    امروزه رشد مالکیت و گرایش روزافزون مردم به خودروهای شخصی در شهرها، سبب افزایش حجم ترافیک و آلودگی های زیست محیطی شده است؛ از این رو در دیدگاه های معاصر شهرسازی، رویکرد «توسعه حمل ونقل محور» با گرایش به گسترش حمل ونقل عمومی و توسعه شهرها بر مبنای آن، یکی از راهکارهای مقابله با این جریان است که موفقیت سامانه حمل ونقل عمومی در آن، منوط به پذیرش و اجرای الزاماتی است. بدین منظور، سامانه اتوبوس های تندرو شهر تهران از نظر انطباق با الزامات فیزیکی این رویکرد و اهداف کیفی آن مطالعه شد. پژوهش حاضر کاربردی-توسعه ای، و توصیفی-تحلیلی است که پس از تشریح مفاهیم، به منظور بررسی میزان انطباق دو خصوصیت فیزیکی توسعه فشرده و اختلاط کاربری ها، با استفاده از تکنیک خوشه بندی فازی، با خطوط ترکیب شد. سپس نقشه های پهنه بندی آلودگی برای بررسی ارتباط میان اهداف کیفی، یعنی زیست پذیری (آلودگی هوا) با استفاده از روش های خوشه بندی فازی و میان یابی ترسیم، و با نقشه الزامات مطابقت داده شد. براساس نتایج بخش اول، مناطق 10، 12، 13، 14، 15، 16 و 20 کمترین میزان انطباق را با الزامات فیزیکی دارند. در بخش دوم هم مشخص شد که کیفیت هوای مناطق 10، 11، 12، 13، 14، 15، 16 و 20 در بحرانی ترین وضعیت قرار دارد. پس از مقایسه دو نقشه مشاهده شد وضعیت کیفیت هوای مناطقی با کمترین مطابقت، در نامناسب ترین حالت قرار دارد. به طورکلی می توان گفت فراهم نبودن الزامات رویکرد در اطراف خطوط مانع از تحقق اهداف شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: پهنه بندی آلودگی هوا، حمل ونقل محور، رویکرد توسعه سامانه اتوبوسهای تندرو، روش خوشه بندی
  • علی دانایی *، مجید ولی شریعت پناهی، مسعود مهدوی صفحات 727-747
    کیفیت زندگی، مفهوم پیچیده شرایط زندگی و وضعیت جمعیت در یک ناحیه است. این مفهوم دربرگیرنده ابعاد ذهنی و عینی است که شاخص هایی مانند رضایت، شادمانی و امنیت را شامل می شود و در برخی موارد، رضایت های اجتماعی نیز نام می گیرد. در پژوهش توصیفی-پیمایشی حاضر، شاخص های کیفیت زندگی در ابعاد اجتماعی، فرهنگی، کالبدی، محیطی و اقتصادی در روستاهای دهستان بهمئی گرمسیری جنوبی در شهرستان بهمئی از توابع استان کهگیلویه و بویراحمد بررسی شد. پس از مطالعه اسنادی، مطالعات میدانی در 8 روستای نمونه (بالای 60 خانوار) صورت گرفت. همچنین 243 پرسشنامه (با استفاده از فرمول کوکران) به صورت نظام مند میان سرپرستان خانوار توزیع شد. اطلاعات جمع آوری شده، دسته بندی و در نرم افزارهای SPSS و GIS پردازش (تحلیل توصیفی و استنباطی) شد. یافته ها نشان می دهد که براساس دیدگاه سرپرستان خانوار جامعه نمونه از نظر کیفیت آموزش، کیفیت سلامت و امنیت و کیفیت روابط اجتماعی و همبستگی در بعد اجتماعی و فرهنگی شرایط قابل قبولی دارند، اما کیفیت اوقات فراغت (بعد اجتماعی) ، کیفیت محیط مسکونی و کیفیت زیرساخت ها در بعد کالبدی، کیفیت محیط فیزیکی در بعد محیطی و کیفیت درآمد و اشتغال در بعد اقتصادی شرایط مطلوبی ندارند و پایین تر از حد متوسط ارزیابی شده اند؛ بنابراین، می توان گفت کیفیت زندگی در این روستاها با شرایط نرمال و مطلوب زندگی فاصله دارد و عامل مهمی در کندی روند توسعه روستایی و فاصله گرفتن از توسعه پایدار در محیط مورد مطالعه به شمار می آید.
    کلیدواژگان: بهمئی، توسعه روستایی، شاخص های کیفیت زندگی، کیفیت زندگی، نواحی روستایی
  • محمود واثق *، مرجان بدیعی ازنداهی، لطف الله نبوی، احد محمدی صفحات 749-771
    مسئله قانونمندی در جغرافیا از دیرباز موضوع مجادلات بسیاری بوده و در سطحی گسترده تر در حوزه فلسفه علوم طبیعی و اجتماعی مطرح شده است. در حوزه علوم اجتماعی، همواره دو رویکرد در زمینه قانونمندی این علوم وجود دارد. در برخی مکاتب با اتکا به رویکرد رئالیستی، بر همانندی علوم طبیعی و اجتماعی اصرار شده است، اما مکاتب ایدئالیستی، علوم اجتماعی را متفاوت از علوم طبیعی می دانند و قانونمندی این علوم را انکار می کنند. در علم جغرافیا، مکاتبی مانند محیط گرایی، رفتارگرایی، فضایی و سیستمی، با تکیه بر رویکرد طبیعت گرایی، دانش جغرافیا را دانشی قانونمند می دانند. درحالی که پیروان مکاتبی از جمله امکان گرایی، استثناگرایی و مکاتب رادیکال (انتقادی و پست مدرن) به این قانونمندی اعتقادی ندارند. هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر، بررسی مسئله قانون در جغرافیا از منظری متفاوت با توجه به دو رویکرد فوق است. همچنین قانونمندبودن یا نبودن دانش جغرافیا در این مطالعه تحلیل می شود. از دیدگاه ما، از آنجا که جغرافیا جزء علوم اعتباری است نه حقیقی، قانونمندی مبتنی بر فراوانی مصادیق نیست. برخلاف دیدگاه جغرافی دانان طبیعت گرا، حتی اگر یک گزاره جغرافیایی، گزاره ای شخصی محسوب شود و میان موضوع و محمول آن رابطه علی باشد، آن گزاره در حکم قانون و قاعده ای کلی خواهد بود که قابل تعمیم به همه مکان ها و فضاهاست. نتایج پژوهش حاضر نشان می دهد جغرافیا در زمره علوم قانونمند است که این مسئله با اتکا به رویکرد رئالیستی و به کمک تحلیل های منطقی و معرفت شناختی در مطالعه حاضر مشخص شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل های معرفت شناختی، قانون علمی، قوانین حقیقی، قوانین اعتباری، جغرافیای سیاسی
  • مهدی حسام *، اسماعیل آقایی زاده، منصور رضاعلی صفحات 773-790
    تولید زباله در شهرها یکی از مهم ترین چالش های مطرح در برنامه ریزی شهری است که برای دستیابی به شهر سالم و به تبع آن شهر پاک مطرح می شود. پدیده زباله از ابتدا با موضوعات مهمی از جمله چگونگی جمع آوری، بازیافت، نحوه دفع، مکان یابی دفع و… همراه است که هریک از آن ها نیازمند بررسی، و به نوعی مکمل یکدیگر هستند. جمع آوری زباله از سطح شهرها، موضوعی مرتبط با پاکیزگی شهری و نخستین حلقه مطرح شده است. این مقوله تاثیری مستقیم در سیمای شهر دارد؛ از این رو سهل انگاری در آن، شهرها را با مشکلات بسیاری مواجه می کند. همچنین علاوه بر مسائل مربوط به فناوری، با مقوله های مختلف اجتماعی، اقتصادی، فرهنگی، مدیریتی و… درگیر است؛ بنابراین، شناسایی و رتبه بندی این مقوله ها می تواند در نحوه برخورد با مسئله مورد نظر مفید باشد. در پژوهش حاضر، تنگناهای موجود در زمینه جمع آوری زباله در شهر رشت با به کارگیری روش کیفی و استفاده از تئوری بنیانی مطالعه شده است. براساسروشنمونه گیریهدفمندونظر، 48 نفرازشهروندانبه عنواننمونهانتخابشدند. گردآوری داده هاواطلاعاتلازم بامصاحبهنیمه ساختاریافته ومشاهداتمیدانیصورت گرفت. مصاحبه هانیز تاحصول مرحلهاشباعتئوریکادامه یافت. برمبنای نظریهبنیانی،داده هادرسهمرحله کدگذاریتحلیلشدند. نتایجحاصلازآن ها،استخراجپنج مقولههسته ایشاملعوامل تاثیرگذار اجتماعی-فرهنگی،اقتصادی، زیرساختی، مدیریتی وقوانین است.
    کلیدواژگان: تئوری بنیانی، جمع آوری زباله، شهر پاک، شهر رشت، شهر سالم
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  • Hossein Hataminejad, keramattolah ziari, shahram pashaabadi *, mahsa haji Pages 513-535
    In this research we are paid to quality of life assessment of resident in Siroos community in Tehran based on residents satisfaction of seven index ( transformation , facility and service , security : identity , beauty , variety and legibility , quality of environment and contamination ) and finally their satisfaction of life. The research method in this survey is analytic – description .the number of samples was 90 .Collecting of data accomplished by questionnaire and interview . we used variance explained and one – sample statistics for data analysis .The results of this research show that although the quality of life in this community is middle-to-low (2/97) and the residents' satisfaction with the quality of life in general is lower than the average. However, residents' satisfaction with the main elements of the quality of urban life in the study area and its sub-criteria (environmental, social, psychological and physical) show different results. So, the lowest level of satisfaction (the most distressed), despite the implementation of renovation projects in Siroos community, was related to the indexes of identity and belonging (psychosocial) to 2/64 (lower than average). Also, the emphasis on physical goals and lack of attention to social goals in the framework of the modernization project (due to the traditional urban planning approach) has occurred in the face of current facts. In addition, in terms of satisfaction or distress of residents, duration of stay, age and type of occupation have affected.
    Introduction
    t.In Iran, although consistent with international developments, global transformations are taking place in the attitudes and policies of city officials and executivesand paying attention to the opinions of residents in recent years is a significant turning point in the traditional duties of the provincial authorities.But surveys show that so far, any policy and planning to raise the level of quality of life and environment in neighborhoods and the city from top to bottom has been based on expert opinions.In other words, the quality of life and environment, the assessment of the locations and the decisions derived from these assessments were mainly performed by experts (partly). If the studies conducted globally suggest a low correlation coefficient between the evaluation of experts and residents in this regard. In the meantime, the Syrous neighborhood of Tehran (17th district in the 12th district of Tehran) has not been the exception and has less to do with residents' attitudes.This research seeks to assess the quality of life of citizens in the Syros neighborhood of Tehran and attempts to scientifically explain the impact of various environmental indicators (noise, pollution, etc.), psychosocial indicators and physical indicators (services and facilities, etc.) in terms of residents in three levels of the neighborhood, Residential unit and city and recommendations for improving quality of life based on residents' opinions and expert reviews.
    Methodology
    The methods used in this research is descriptive - analytical and objective terms, given that aims to provide guidelines for improving the quality of life is applied.The instrument of measurement in this research is questionnaire, interview, observation and statistical data.The statistical population in this research is all residents of Siroos community in the 12th district of the municipality (with a population of 7,175 with about 1944 households), 5% of households (97 households) were selected for sampling.The sampling method used in this research is simple random and samples were selected from people aged 15 years and older.In this study, one-way t-test and one-sample t-test were used to assess the quality of life of residents of the neighborhood, and also to measure the residents' satisfaction from the 5-option Likert scale.
    Results and discussion
    The results of life quality assessment in the Siroos community indicate that although the quality of life in this middle-to-low neighborhood (2/97) is, the residents' satisfaction from quality of life in general is lower than the average. However, residents' satisfaction with the main elements of the quality of urban life in the study area and its sub-criteria (environmental, social, psychological and physical) show different results.So, the lowest level of satisfaction (the most distressed), despite the implementation of renovation projects in the community of Siroos, was related to the indexes of identity and belonging (psychosocial) to 2/64 (lower than average).In the meantime, the emphasis on physical goals and lack of attention to social goals in the framework of the modernization project (due to the traditional urban planning approach) has occurred in the face of current facts.The effects and consequences of this (purely physical approach) have been one of the reasons for considering the concept of quality of life in urban planning (multifaceted and comprehensive) in recent years.In addition to these physical indicators (transport, with an average satisfaction 3/16, and housing units with an average of 3/29 and services, with an average of 3/3) in terms of satisfaction of residents placed in next time.As well as other psychological indicators - social (security , with an average satisfaction 3/42 and beauty, diversity and readability with an average satisfaction 3/49) and environmental indicators (average satisfaction 3/81) followed in order to.The above situation represents a relatively different but low status (somewhat higher than the average), residents' satisfaction with all the indicators examined.
    Conclusion
    The results of measuring the quality of life in the Siroos community indicate that the residents' satisfaction from quality of life in general is lower than the average (2/97). Regarding the low quality of life in the Siroos community, improving the quality of life is necessary to increase the level of satisfaction of residents. In the meantime, any policy and planning to improve the quality of life in this neighborhood should not only be based on the views and needs of residents, but also be integrated. Therefore, measures to increase the identity and consistency and improve the transportation system are in the first and second priority, and providing the comfort of the residential environment, strengthening existing facilities and services, providing neighborhood security and improving the environmental situation are among the priorities.
    Keywords: Quality of life, Quality of Environment, satisfaction, Siroos community, Iran
  • Narges Hajipanah, Seyed Hadi Zarghani *, Omid Ali Kharazmi Pages 537-554
    Introduction
    The increasing growth of local and public institutions and their necessity in managing the general affairs of the country and the localization process of handling the general affairs in the final decade of the twentieth and the initial decade of the twenty first centuries have changed the status of local government as an indispensable reality in the World (Hafeznia, et al., 2012, p. 148). The geographical places and regions require local autonomy and management for a better management of the affairs, the horizontal and vertical planning of relations with other regions and the establishment of institutions and organizations. Such independencies and the political management of space in the local domain are referred to as the local government or state in the geopolitics literature (Ibid, p. 1). Conceptually, local government or state is a political-administrative structure which is the result of spatial distribution of political power process that is created by the central government. In other words, it is a process which causes decision-making, implementation and supervision of local affairs, in the framework of general policies of central government, to be assigned to the public institutions and organizations (like councils, associations, civil society and the institutions of arbitration and elders) and authorities and governmental associations (like Governor, county, state offices) (Hafeznia , 2010, p. 36). The research conducted in this regard indicates that there are a variety of influential factors in the creation of local governments (Moghimi, 2004). Such influential factors can be classified in five aspects: sociocultural, political, legal- judicial, financial-economic and geographical (Ibid,p.9). for the construction of local government different factors like influential factors in the formation domain, challenges and opportunities, which come to existence with the formation of local governments, should be taken into consideration and considering the role of systemic thinking in this domain is highly essential ( Moghimi, 2012, p. 107-108). Based the above-mentioned ideas, the present study attempts to identify the influential factors in the formation of local government in Iran based on the systemic thinking approach and in a sociocultural framework. In fact, the main objective of the study is modelling the influence of sociocultural factors in the creation of local government within the framework of systemic thinking by using Vensim software.
    Methodology
    The current research study investigates the role of sociocultural factors in the formation of local government in Iran and due to the importance and effective role of systemic thinking in different domains of planning and management this investigation is conducted using this approach. The method of study is descriptive-analytical and inferential and based on the results and objectives can be considered as an applied and exploratory research, respectively. More generally the present study is conducted to identify and prioritize the influential factors and to examine their relationship in the formation of local government in Iran and to recognize the existing challenges in the sociocultural aspect and finally to model the influential factors in a systemic thinking framework for the formation of local governments in Iran. For such purposes, at first based on the library studies and the systemic thinking approach, the influential factors were determined and the relationship between these factors and with the necessity of forming local governments in Iran were examined by using quantitative and qualitative studies and methods. In the quantitative method, the use is made of questionnaire which is based on the Likert scale ranging from 1 very few and 5 very much responses and its reliability has been determined by using Cronbach alpha. The participants of the study were forty scholars in the field of local government and were selected based on the researchers’ estimations. In the qualitative phase, seven experts were selected based on the snowball sampling method. For investigating the extent of effects of the sociocultural factors in the formation of local government in Iran and for prioritizing the extent of effect of each of the components in the sociocultural aspect, the researchers used independent samples t-test and Friedman test, respectively. In order to design the cause and effect diagrams, based on the systemic thinking approach, the Vensim software was sued.
    Results and Discussion
    For the successful formation of local government in Iran, the effective sociocultural factors must be identified and the upcoming challenges should be removed and in such a process systemic thinking which is capable of solving complicated managerial issues has a great potential. In other words, for recognizing the influential factors in the formation of local governments, we should investigate and analyze them as a system. In this study, the attempts have been made to identify and prioritize the influential sociocultural factors and to explore their relationship with each other to shed some light on their effects in the formation of local government in Iran and their modeling in a systemic thinking framework. By studying the literature on the issue, factors such as ethnic-linguistic diversity, the increase in the awareness of people in the rather deprived areas, the religious diversity, people’s attention and tendency towards democracy, increase in the local and national requests, existence of sense of belonging to a place and localizing tendencies, existence of common local assets and needs, increase in the contribution of people and development from the bottom with reviving the local capabilities were extracted as influential factors. The results of interviews conducted added other influential factors: increase in informational networks, the continuation of ethnic-religious domain over the borders, human talents and abilities in each environment and the growth of urban residents. It can be asserted that the set of above mentioned factors are highly influential in the formation of local governments in the sociocultural aspect.
    Conclusion
    The findings of the study reveal that the sociocultural aspect is one of the important and influential aspects in the formation of local government in Iran. In addition, according to the quantitative part (the statistical data of the research) and the qualitative part (the interviews) the research indicates that among the extracted influential sociocultural factors the ethnic-linguistic variety, the existence of spatial senses and localization tendencies and also the existence of national and local demands, due to their high
    Keywords: Iran, sociocultural aspect, local government, Systems thinking, approach
  • Mozaffar Sarrafi *, Nasibeh Hashemi Pages 555-572
    Introduction
    City is a social realm on a natural context which is erected by human beings to fulfil their basic needs along with well-being, comfort and social relations. In the process of hasty urban growth and while the world moves into urban age, an array of problems and difficulties against genuine development. Thus, urban development as one of the most important global challenges is considered and its measurement is a controversial issue among policymakers and planners. During last decades, a variety of Indices to measure the level of development among cities has been proposed and applied. At the beginning, the economic indices were prevalent, since development was correlated with economic growth, especially GDP and income per capita. Gradually the deficiencies of this reductionist view became evident, recognizing other interrelated and imperative aspects. This results in proposing composite indices with social and environmental components as well as economic one. Later with the growing consensus about the unsustainability of existing urban growth, the theoretical umbrella for measuring city development has become sustainable development paradigm. Also, underlining both subjective and objective dimensions on one hand and emphasizing community-driven development on the other hand bring about the need for a holistic and inclusive index to embrace the ultimate outcome of development being happiness and satisfaction and in a more generic term, prosperity. In this regard, following experts’ dialogue at United Nations Human Settlements Program (Habitat), a new index labelled as “City Prosperity Index” (CPI) introduced in 2013 flagship report. The composite index of CPI comprises of five indices in the following dimensions: productivity, infrastructure, quality of life, equity and social inclusion, and environmental sustainability. It is emphasized that all these dimensions should be seen interactive and balanced in a wheel shape. UN-Habitat’s wheel of prosperity symbolizes the well balanced development of the five dimensions of prosperity, the current condition of which is measured through the City Prosperity Index (CPI). The ‘outer rim’ of the wheel absorbs the cumulative forces transmitted through the spokes – the five dimensions of prosperity. It provides some level of direction and symbolically contributes to guide the city towards a more prosperous path. Whereas CPI depicts strength and weakness of cities in each of five dimensions separately, it is considered as a strong tool for policy making to show the priority fields to guide the cities towards genuine development and its outcome prosperity.
    In the same vein, Iranian cities also have experienced fast growth and uneven development during the past decades exacerbating unsustainable development. It seems in light of CPI, a better measurement of development level of cities can be achieved to guide the policy makers for concentrating on most important shortcomings. At the same time, the comparison between cities, urge the backward cities to emulate the upper cities’ policies in these measurement. At the same time, since comprehending development is a culturally sensitive issue, measuring development should be contextualized according to the targeted society. The authors argue that the cultural aspect with more emphasis on the subjective side of grasping development is crucial to Iranian citizens and therefore, we have added a sixth dimension to CPI wheel. In other words, a city may enjoy all the five dimensions of CPI still missing the psychological health and social serenity. The sixth index named health and was added to CPI.
    Methodology
    In this article, we have attempted to revise and apply CPI for cities with more than 100 thousands residents in north-western region of Iran. The research method is descriptive-analytical, using secondary data for the said cities in 3 provinces of Ardebil, East Azerbaijan and West Azerbaijan. To apply Iranian CPI, 65 variables turned into indicators in six dimensions. To classify the cities, RALSPI model which was recently developed by two Iranian scholars (Dr. Taghvaei and Dr. Sheikh-beiglou), was carried out as a method of multi-criteria decision making.
    According to this model, first by applying fussy method, the indices were de-scaled and then for each indicator of Iranian CPI, 2n+1 class of development was determined and the maximum and the minimum scores for each of the 6 indices were calculated. The weight of each variable/indicator was determined by applying AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique and the general score for each of the 6 indices was calculated through dividing the total weights of variables by the maximum possible scores in each group. Finally, the average scores of all 6 indices were calculated as the value of Iranian CPI for each of the cities in this research.
    Results and discussion
    The findings of this research indentify 6 classes of cities ranging from strong to weak performance in terms of Iranian CPI. This means sharp inequality among cities in this region from the viewpoint of prosperity. Tabriz as the capital of East Azerbaijan has the highest score at the first class, Then, Uremia as the capital of West Azerbaijan has categorized in the middle class. Khoy, Maragheh, Ardebil (Capital of Ardebil province), Mahabad, Miandoab, Marand and Boukan, all these cities fell into the lowest class, showing a serious cleavage. The findings indicate the regional disparity and uneven development in this region while the concentration of development facilities in the large cities is evident. Also, having said that only one city classified in each of the high and the middle classes, a kind of polarization process can be seen.
    Conclusion
    The achieved results shows that most number of cities are in the lowest class of Iranian CPI. This cities performs less in dimensions of infrastructure, quality of life and health. So, the first priorities suggests in said dimensions and the other dimensions of productivity, equity and social inclusion and environmental sustainability considers in the next priorities. The study suggests the priorities for policy makers to uplift the situation of these cities. The disintegrating the Iranian CPI of each city into 6 indices and measuring each one separately enable the urban managers to discrete the field of actions towards bringing about prosperity to the cities in the future.
    Keywords: City Prosperity Index, Iran Urban Development, RALSP, Azerbaijan, Ardebil
  • kaveh naderi*, Behroz Badko, Moslem Hadidi, Siamak Azadi, Pari Najafi, Bita Hamed Pages 573-589
    Urban development strategies in each city affected by tourism It should be noted that urban development planning. In fact, the achievement of sustainable development requires a comprehensive view and strategic, as well as consideration of the factors contributing to the development of tourism. The aim of this study is to evaluate the strategic and provide optimal strategies of Kermanshah tourism sector in order to explain its position in city development strategy (CDS) is. The method used in this study, a combination of qualitative and quantitative study. In quantitative way, research has purpose and to methods of descriptive analysis. Based on in-depth qualitative interviews in order to extract various experts in the field of tourism. In order to collect information from a library of survey methods, questionnaire and interview were used. The results show 15 Premier strategy (of 56 strategy) of Kermanshah tourism development in three areas: historical tourism, cultural and ecotourism is. Also among the 12 tourism areas, four areas in the Group's strategy of growth and development, five areas in the Group strategy of stabilization and improvement in the status quo and its three areas, with defensive strategies.
    Introduction
    Iran's cities each have different talents and abilities of the natural landscape, cultural and historical monuments, the growth of tourism and the tourist industry and mining. The historic city of Kermanshah to the rapid growth in recent decades, urban development strategies is the need for consistent and systematic combination of tourism planning and strategic urban development in these cities is difficult. The issues and factors such as the historical context, the architecture, the protection of cultural heritage, traditions and social customs of the people and the mass of tourists and supervision of the state and the international community and public opinion, it is difficult to plan and implement it. Despite the sensitivity of the above can be found in health care planning and the important and constructive. In urban tourism trends and developments city the question arises how to develop tourism in the city? Many experts in the field of classification and typology of various spheres of tourism are named for cities For urban planning in these areas and it is necessary to identify the trends in tourism and tourism management city the specific plans (contingency) has developed strategic management of urban development in a sustainable manner fulfill.
    Methodology
    The research method used is a combination of qualitative and quantitative study. In quantitative way, research has practical purpose in terms of descriptive-analytic method.
    Based on qualitative in-depth interviews in order to extract various experts in the field of tourism. In order to collect data, documents and library studies, questionnaires and interviews were used. In the review of documents and a library, all the texts and studies in the field of tourism in Kermanshah province and its subdivision has been collecting and taking notes. In addition to prioritizing internal and external factors enumerated in each of the twelve districts paired comparison questionnaire and to prioritize areas of tourism twelve paired comparison questionnaire domains And to prioritize strategies extracted in each of the twelve areas of strategic planning QSPM questionnaire was used to quantify matrix. The information gathered through interviews, in order to extract internal factors and external factors, including the strengths and weaknesses opportunities and threats. In each of the twelve districts with experts in this area in two stages (primary and deep) were interviewed.
    In this study, the effects of the external environment in order to identify opportunities and threats that it faces in relation to tourism development And also assess the internal environment to identify strengths and weaknesses in internal and external factors used in the evaluation matrix for the four strategies of the SWOT model is used. Then, in two stages, prioritizing internal and external factors as well as to identify and determine the relative importance of each of the areas of tourism and the method used AHP hierarchy to prioritize the strategies set by QSPM matrix is used.
    Results and discussion
    The ultimate goal of CDS documents outlining a road map and achieved comprehensive development and urban governance Considering it as the only solution to avoid the application of individual or group interests in development and prevent the solution and systematic cross-city to solve the problems, The realization of these goals will only be possible on the one hand all existing potential to employ them in moving the wheels of development, identify and analyze the And on the other hand all the arrangements for providing a hardware and software infrastructure and equipment in order to actually be thought of potential Since each document was developed in order to achieve the goal his performance navigation and the need to use resources in this regard is, One of the requirements of the overall level of development of CDS documents due to the stabilization of the urban economy and empower the levers of development based on internal resources. The city is able to realize its vision to be traced without relying on the credit of the central government, the conditions necessary for revenue and finance needed to achieve and has plans for this practical and realizable plan to be implemented.
    Conclusion
    According to the study, the city of Kermanshah also because of the potential in the field of tourism, one of the priority areas in the country and if proper planning can achieve significant growth in this area. In this regard, one of the most important areas of interest in the sustainable development of urban economy, the tourism area. The importance of this area and the fact that research and tourism development plan for the field component of the program was the development of the CDS document. And the output of these studies have significant impact on the finalization of the strategic priorities in the plan is CDS.
    Keywords: strategy, development, tourism, city, Kermanshah
  • Rana Shaykh, Baygloo *, Saeed Reza Akbarian Ronizi Pages 591-608
    Introduction
    Rapid urbanization, which refers to the rapid increment of people living in urban areas, is an attribute of many developing countries. This phenomenon has occurred in some metropolises of Iran e.g. Tehran, Mashad, Isfahan, Shiraz and Tabriz. Expansion of urban spaces, corrosion of villages and their peripheral lands are outcomes of rapid urbanization (Zia Tavana and Ghadermazy, 2009). If urbanization process -which often accompanied by urban expansion- is not managed prpperly, it would lead to urban sprawl, pollution, environmental discount, and unsustainable production and consumption patterns (United Nations, 2014, 3). Besides, unorganized expansion of cities has several spatial outcomes on peripheral villages e.g. land use and land coverage changes in common territory of villages (Afrakhteh and Hajipour, 2014, 159). Physical expansion of settlements toward each other usually leads to annexation of smaller settlement (village) to larger settlement (city).
    The outcoms of annexation of villages to cities may be positive or negative. Some positive outcomes include improvement of physical infrastructures, development of urban services and increment of constructions, etc. Changes of agricultural lands, conversion of producer population to consumer one, rise of expectations, promotion of consuming and increment of life costs are examples of negative outcomes. When some villages annex to a city, these villages would consequently be part of that city; but in many cases, we can see obvious differences between annexed villages and main city in respect of social, cultural, economic and environmental attributes. In the way of urban sprawl, cities impose main changes and evolutions on peripheral areas -often rural. In fact, new spatial interactions between those two different areas and necessitate these changes. This is a process experienced in many developing countries e.g. Iran (Ghadermarzy et al., 2014).
    Shiraz, an Iranian metropolis, experienced considerable physical expansions in recent years whose physical area increased from 3540 hectare in 1976 to 24000 hectare in 2011. During this periode of time, population increased from 425813 to 1460665. In other words, during 1976-2011, city population increased 3.43 times and its area 6.78 times; this condition is a sign of notable accelerate urban physical development in comparison to population increment i.e. urbanization bubble. In the way of expansion of city toward peripheral lands, adjacent rural areas would gradually annexed to the urban area. As mentioned before, annexation of village to city has various outcomes in social, economic, cultural and physical dimensions. Regarding importance of issue, this paper investigated the effects and outcomes of annexation of rural settlements to Shiraz city area.
    Methodology
    In this paper, we investigated the effects of annexation of some rural settlements to Shiraz metropolis in respect of economic, socio-cultural and environmental-physical dimensions, from the residents’ viewpoints. We collected needed data through library studies and questionnaire. Research population were head of households in 12 villages annexed to city. Sample size based on Cochran method was 315. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. First, we studied demographic evolutions and urban area changes over the periode of 1976-2011 and then, analyzed the data extracted from filled questionnaires using statistical methods.
    The questionnaire included 43 questions about various effects and outcomes of annexation of rural settlements to Shiraz city, with emphasis on economic, socio-cultural and environmental-physical dimensions for which 11, 18 and 14 criteria intended, respectively. Some of these criteria related to positive effects and some other negative. Data analysis were carried out using some statistical tests including Chi-squared test, Wilcoxon, Friedman test, Pearson correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and Phi-Cramer’s V.
    Results and discussion
    Analysis of annexation economic effects showed that from the viewpoint of respondents, negative economic effects of annexation of studied villages to Shiraz city are relatively more than positive ones; In this respect, the mean value of all economic criteria are over test defult mean except the criterion of job stability. We assessed Socio-cultural effects via 18 criteria; mean value of all these criteria are over test defult mean. Evaluation of environmental-physical effects of annexation (via 14 criteria) showed that among these criteria only mean value of “officials’ attention to the physical condition” is lower than defult mean value. In socio-cultural dimension, as the economic dimension, negative effects of annexation is relatively more than positive effects.
    Besides, results showed that there are significant differences between socio-cultural and environmental-physical dimensions, and there is no significant difference between economic and environmental-physical dimensions. Results also revealed that the negative effects of annexation of villages to Shiraz city is relatively more than positive ones in economic and socio-cultural dimensions from the respondents’ viewpoints. Other results showed that among personal variables including gender, age, job, literacy and habitation duration, the relation of satisfactory was significant with all variables except gender. Correlation coefficient of ‘satisfaction’ with two criteria of age and habitation duration is negative, meaning that those respondents who are older or have lived for longer time in annexed villages, declared less satisfaction. It seems that from the viewpoint of old residents of annexed areas, gradual changes happened in patterns of life and activity and relationships system may be a threat for sustained social attachments and place identity.
    Conclusion
    Overall, results showed that from the viewpoint of respondents and in respect of economic and socio-cultural dimensions, negative effects of annexation of studied villages to Shiraz city is relatively more than positive effects; about environmental-physical dimension, there isn’t significant difference between positive and negative effects. Howevere, There is significant difference between effects of the three dimensions i.e. economic, socio-cultural and environmental-physical. We emphasize because of different conditions of various urban areas, the results of this paper cannot be generalizabled for all other cities encountered with this issue without accurate investigation and case studies.
    Keywords: Urban sprawl, Urbanization bubble, urban physical development, Annexation of village to city, Shiraz
  • Ali shamsoddini*, emad saffarian, Mohammadreza Nekoeibakhsh Pages 609-625
    Having a safe and secure shelter has been one of the oldest wishes of any human being and in order to attain suitable houses, human societies have always attempted to improve the quality and quantity of houses by the use of various methods and technologies. According to the fact that residential areas with high quality will transfer the feeling of satisfaction due to the properties that might be physical, social or symbolic to a crowd, there’s no doubt that houses have an essential importance in human beings’ improvement. In the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, United Nations states that all people have the right to reach a standard living condition for their family and themselves. This standard level of living according to the United Nations includes the required food, clothes, house, health care and social services. One of the regions in which Mehr Housing policies have been applied is Kazerun County in Fars Province. At first the settlement of about 5 thousands households was taken into consideration but due to lack of allocation of enough credit, this number decreased to 900 units and currently the project of 104 units has been operated in Pardis Town in Kazerun with the aim of providing services to the citizens. While studies show that researchers have carried out numerous studies to examine citizens’ satisfaction from Mehr Housings and no studies have been carried out so far to coherently evaluate the challenges of Mehr Houses. Aware of this important fact, researchers attempt to explain the following issues in the present study: What is the level of satisfaction of settlers in Mehr Houses of Pardis Town in Kazerun? What are the most important challenges of Mehr Housing in Pardis Town in Kazerun? And what strategies do the settlers in Mehr Houses suggest to overcome the identified challenges?
    Research
    Methodology
    The current research is an applied study in nature and it is a descriptive-analytic study in terms of methodology. Documentary and field studies were used for data collection. Research population included all the heads of households of Mehr Houses in Pardis Town in Kazerun which was 104 subjects and among them, 100 subjects accepted to interview with the researchers and complete the designed questionnaire. It is noteworthy that the aforementioned questionnaire has been designed in four sections. The first section deals with the personal information of the respondents (demographic variables) and general information about the residential units of Mehr Housing Project in Pardis Town; the second section of the questionnaire deals with the variables related to the satisfaction of citizens from residential units of Mehr Housing Project which has been designed in eight indexes of facilities in the complex, accessibility and transportation, physical, environmental, security, economic, social, cultural and management parameters. The third section of the questionnaire was allocated to the variables related to the challenges of Mehr Housing Project and the fourth was section was designed in the form of an open question under this theme: “what is your most important solution to solve the problems of Mehr Housing?” The second and third sections of the questionnaire were designed in a five scales in Likert format
    Findings
    Research results of Pardis Town citizens’ satisfaction from Mehr Housing in the form of the main indexes of the research show undesirable satisfaction of citizens from research indexes (facilities of the complex, accessibility and transportation, physical, environmental, security, economic, social, and cultural and management indexes) because more than half of the respondents’ satisfaction level was at average, low and very low levels for all indexes. Despite this, research results show that the least level of satisfaction among respondents was for three indexes of accessibility and transportation, facilities of the complex and the physical condition of the complex because the level of satisfaction in these indexes was 92 percent, 80 percent and 76 percent at the levels of average, low and very low, respectively. Results: show that 30 percent of the citizens had acceptable level of satisfaction, 22 percent had average level of satisfaction and 48 percent had weak level of satisfaction from settling in Mehr houses in Pardis Town. Also the results of one-sample t-test show that the total average level of satisfaction of respondents from settling in Mehr houses in Pardis Town was 2.73 which was less than the reference number (that is, 3). Therefore, it can be stated that in general the level of citizens’ satisfaction living in Mehr houses of Pardis Town is in an inappropriate condition. Also results of prioritizing the strategies for overcoming the problems of Mehr houses of Pardis Town show that citizens have suggested 9 substantial solutions to overcome the problems. Among the suggested solutions, three solutions of establishing fundamental service centers (schools, hospitals, firefighting stations, parks, etc.) near the town, a closer monitoring of the quality of the materials used for the construction of Mehr houses by contractors and allocation of public services to overcome the difficulties of citizens commuting to downtown with 93, 86 and 76 repetitions were the most important solutions suggested by citizens to reduce the problems of Mehr Housing in the region under investigation.
    Conclusion
    The current research has been conducted in Pardis Town in Kazerun with the aim of studying the level of citizen’s satisfaction from living in Mehr houses and identifying its challenges. The primary research results showed that the level of satisfaction of citizens settling in Mehr Houses located in Pardis Town was in an inappropriate condition. The obtained results are in line with research results of Purmohammadi and Asadi (2014) about Mehr Housing Projects in Zanjan and research results of Rafiiyan et al. (2014) about eleven thousand Mehr residential units project in Mahdasht which showed that the level of citizens’ satisfaction from Mehr Residential Complex is lower than average. On the other hand, research results were not in line with research results of Rezaii and Kamalizadeh (2012) about the satisfaction of the residents from Mehr Residential Complex of Fatemi in Yazd which indicated that the level of citizens’ satisfaction from Mehr houses is average.
    Keywords: urbanization, housing plan, low-income groups of people, Mehr Housing, Kazerun
  • REZA OMIDIFAR*, Alireza Ghaleie, Mohammad Hasani, Mirnajaf Mousavi Pages 627-644
    Introduction
    Development of higher education in the recent years makes it necessary for evaluation of universities to ensure their quality. The importance of the evaluation is that it can determine the realities about the quality. Education assessment is a formal activity to determine the quality and efficiency of curriculum. To measure the efficiency, we have to consider the criteria and indices. The indices and criteria are numerical values representing qualitative attributes in numbers. The numerical indices were used as a mechanism for efficiency analysis to assess the universities. This is the task of the governments to show and eliminate the inequalities in education. Equal education opportunities in schools mean equal access of all to the efficient education for sustainable development. The equal access of all students to educational opportunities can improve educational system to achieve the sustainable development goals. The education for sustainable development is the learning based on some principles with the aim of sustainability in all levels. Thus, the purpose of this present research is to make a ranking of the universities of Tehran City using document and non-document indices for educational goals.
    Methodology
    This is an applied research with survey method and literature review for data gathering. The population of this study is all the students of the universities of Tehran City. Using Cochran formula, we have selected 383 individuals by proportional classes and distributed the questionnaires among them. The tool has Cronbach alpha quotient of 0.951 and its reliability and validity have been confirmed. We have used SPSS for data analysis. The Analytic Network Process model has also been used to prioritize the indices. We have also used TOPSIS model to make the ranking of the universities in Tehran City. In the TOPSIS analysis as a multi-criteria decision making, a m*n matrix has been formed. The indices and universities have been assigned in the columns and rows of the matrices. Following the scale changes, the weights of indices have been determined by entropy. After that, we got positive and negative ideal solutions for each index and criterion. The differences of the universities from the ideal indicate their position relative to each other.
    Results and discussion
    In this research, the universities of Tehran City have been assessed in terms of the indices of higher education. The results of this research have indicated differences among the universities in the enjoyment in the indices. In the integration of the indices, the results have indicated that the Sharif University of Technology, University of Tehran, and Tarbiat Modares University are ranked first, second, and third, respectively. This ranking is mainly consistent with international reports. In two classes of universities of technology and comprehensive universities, the results of this research have indicated that Sharif, Amierkabir, and Science and industry are in the first, second, and third ranks among the universities of technology, respectively, and University of Tehran, Tarbiat Modares, and Shahid Beheshti are ranked in the first, second, and third ranks among the comprehensive universities. The results have stated that the possibilities have the efficiency of 0.88, process indices of education have efficiency of 0.79, and environment and interaction indices have the efficiency of 0.69 as the most effective indices in the ranking. These have also been detailed in direct and indirect effects.
    So far, most of the ranking systems were based on research criteria and education criteria were often neglected for university ranking. The essential ranking is outputs and educational activities. Thus, it is necessary to make more attempts to enhance indices of education quality. In this research, we have considered both the outputs of the universities and the input and process criteria.
    The ranking system of Shanghai and QS are merely considering the universities as a whole. These ranking systems do not consider the individual indices, in details. The innovation of this present research is that the universities have been considered in each individual criterion and they have also been investigated in integration of all criteria. Therefore, this research has investigated the universities in two categories of document and non-document indices. We have measured 10 document indices and 9 non-document indices through a questionnaire survey. The universities have been compared with each other by integration of the indices. Most of the wholesale ranking systems do not take into account the differences between the universities in their nature. In this research, we have examined the universities in terms of their activity in two classes of comprehensive universities and technology universities.
    Conclusion
    Education is considered as the most important means to equalize social differences. The equal education only can be achieved by equal access of all to the education. The ranking of the universities can show education and research achievement of the universities. An approach in the ranking of the universities is awareness of their position relative to other universities of the world. As the universities active in a given mission are compared with each other, their position would better be discerned. This study has assessed the inequalities of the universities of Tehran in two separate groups of technology and comprehensive universities. Different activities of universities make them to present a variety of outputs. Some universities have more attempts in educational purposes and some other in research purposes. So, the outcomes of various universities and colleges may be different with each other and this can affect their ranking. The results of this research have also indicated that the ranking system based on all the individual indices rather than a wholesale index can present more real ranking. This study has also made a ranking to eliminate the inequalities in order to achieve the sustainable development goals. For the ranking, we have analyzed more than 500 components in a variety of indices not just research findings indices.
    Keywords: inequality, university, Ranking, TOPSIS, Sustainable Development
  • Dariosh Zafari *, mir sattar sadr mousavi, mohammad reza pour mohammadi Pages 645-659
    The Present research is an attempt to realize the status of informal economic section in the sustainability of Tabriz megalopolis. The Tabriz megalopolis is a sample of urban development models which is wholly changed due to variation of urban planning in recent decades and involves porous and ill appearance. This investigation attempts to evaluate the economic roots of the problem based on urban sustainability views to provide a proper context for better realizing and judging them when they are applied in urban planning and development fields. This research which is of application – development kind, involves descriptive, analytic and case study methods and documentary -library and field techniques and is used in providing that. Data gathering tools, questionnaires, observation, interview, statistic documents of Iran statistics center, information acquired from analytic maps provided in GIS circumstance, documents existing in local city halls and Tabriz urban development all are employed in this research. The method of research is of descriptive- analytic model, so the quantitative models and techniques like test and V crammer and geographical information system GIS, ArcView and SPSS software have been used. For justifiable and stable inspection of this research, we have used formal – justifiable and contextual and questionnaire retest method, and its final factor amounted to 82 percent. The data of this research have been analyzed by the use of descriptive and inferential statistics methods and SPSS software.
    The data of this research shows a great variety in the activities of informal section. Geographic distribution of these activities in the various areas of Tabriz city is not uniform. The most significant reason which causes the people to take part in this section is the fact that, they could not be employed in the formal economic section, and has not enough capital, proficiency and education (qualification). The most important occupational problems of this group are the inadequacy of capital and lack of fixed and appropriate place of activity. Most of the people occupied in informal economic section, do not pay tax. The rate of occupation in informal section among emigrant people is more than the other groups of people. There is a relationship among informal habitation and informal activity in informal section and urban sustainability. 1. Most of the businessmen in informal economic section of Tabriz megalopolis are men (72.3 percent) and married people (82.3 percent).
    2. The activities of informal economic section in Tabriz megalopolis are very widespread and various, and most of them are clothes sellers (11.5 percent), fruit sellers (10.8 percent), building workers (8.5 percent) carpet knitters (5.4 percent).
    3. The most important kinds of occupations in informal section of this city are:Salesmanship, domestic service giving people (in or out of house), scientific, educational, artistic services, transportation and agriculture.
    4. The businessmen in informal section of Tabriz mostly have high slod (25.1 percent) and elementary school (25.1 percent) and unqualified people (19.7 percent).
    5. Average age of these people is 42 and their average family personel is 4, which are in average limit.
    6. Geographical distribution of informal economic section in Tabriz megalopolis is not uniform. The one and four areas of Tabriz city hall is the focous center of businessmen of informal economic section of Tabriz megalopolis.
    7. Most of the people working in this section are rural – urban emigrants and their inhabitants are mostly in margines of Tabriz city.
    8. The most important reason for the people to enter to this informal section is the fact that entering in formal economic section is impossible for them, and also the lack of enough capital and speciality and qualication.
    9. The location of these businessmen are mostly Abrasan (5.9 percent) Seilab (4.6 percent), Maralan (4.6 percent) and Abbasi (4.4 percent) areas.
    10. The most important occupational problems of this group is the inadequacy of capital, lack of speciality and qualification, and lack of fixed location for performing economic activities.
    11. Most of the working people in this section (31.4 percent) have revenues between 400 to 600 thousands Tomans, which shows these people are below poverty line and are affected by intensive poverty.
    12. The occupational variety in informal economic section in Tabriz megalopolis is more intensive for men than Women.
    Importance and specific location of that (informal economic section) in urban economy is so intensive that could never be ignored.
    The informal economic section have attracted numerous people of Tabriz magalopolis and plays an important role in the economy of that. Conventional approaches to urban development generally are of one-way model and are dependent on political conditions and economic purposes. Nevertheless, since the late decade of twentieth century this subject has taken systematic and multifacial condition to itself.
    The Tabriz megalopolis is a sample of urban development models which is wholly changed due to variation of urban planning in recent decades and involves porous and ill appearance. This investigation attempts to evaluate the economic roots of this problem based on urban sustainability vews to provide a proper context for better realizing and judging them when they are applied in urban planning and development fields. This research which is of application – development kind, involves descriptive, navigative and case study methods and documentary -library and field techniqes and is used in providing that
    Data gathering tools, questionaires, observation, interview, statistic documents of Iran statistics center, information acquired from analytic maps provided in GIS circumstance, documents existing in local city halls and Tabriz urband development all are employed in this research. The method of research is of descriptive- analytic model, so the quantitative models and techniques like test and V cramer and geographical information system GIS, Arcwiev and SPSS softwares have been used. The statistic sample people of this research involves the people working in informal economic section of Tabriz megalopolis and the volume of 390 samples (including 282 men and 108 women), and the sampling method is accidential. The present investigation data are analysed by the use of descriptive, inferential statistic methods and also by the use of SPSS software
    Keywords: informal, Economy, Informal Job, Megalopolis, urban sustainability
  • Bakhtiar Feizizadeh, Salehe Kazemi *, Samira Sharafi Pages 661-678
    Introduction
    Developing of urban neighborhoods in line with the growth and expansion of the city and population growth has undergone many changes in time pass. Such change is more visible in cities environment with historical background. Thus, it can be seen well the difference between the traditional neighborhoods that no plan have been formed and after the formation, planning was done for them with new neighborhoods which were created and formed by plan.
    Remote sensing is known as very effective technology for monitoring urban environments. There are several approaches for processing remote sensing satellite imagery such as pixel based and object based approaches. An Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) is considered as one of the well-established techniques for processing satellite images when applied to monitoring cities environment. In despite of pixel based approach, the OBIA make use spectral information together with spatial characteristics of ground objects. Such specific ability allows to model ground objects effectively.
    OBIA has gained prominence in the field of remote sensing over the last decade. It is credited to have the potential to overcome weaknesses associated with per-pixel analysis such as, for instance, disregarding geometric and contextual information. When it is used within the “geo-domain” or at scales which are related to earth “geo- centric” applications, it is in scientific literature often referred to as geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA). OBIA is a knowledge-driven approach in which a range of diagnostic features for a particular object can be integrated on the basis of expert knowledge. This approach aims to represent the content of a complex scene in a manner that best describes the imaged reality, by mimicking human perception. By incorporating spectral information (e.g., color) and spatial characteristics (e.g., size, shape), together with textural data and contextual information (e.g., association with neighboring objects), OBIA approaches the way that humans visually interpret the information on aerial photos and satellite images. OBIA techniques can be used in the review and observation of the difference and adaptive compare between the traditional and modern quarters pattern of the urban environments. In this regard, OBIA is known as effective and powerful image analysis processing method which leads to obtain high accuracy form satellite images. OBIA make use spatial and spectral information together by means of integration, segmentation and class modeling.
    Methodology
    Current research makes use of OBIA’s capabilities for modeling urban characteristics. The aim of this study is to compare textural- patterns of distressed and modern areas in Esfahan city by applying an object based approach. To achieve this goal, two types of urban neighborhoods namely Nokhajo and Mardavij were selected from distressed and modern areas respectively. The Quick Bird satellite images were acquired for year 2015. In order to perform object based approach, the object based image processing started off by applying multi resolution segmentation based on spatial and spectral patterns of each area. We used shape index, compactness for segmentation under specific scale parameters. The segmentation process was performed several times to obtain more accurate scale parameter. In order to extract the urban texture patterns, the rule based classification was performed by applying OBIA based algorithms and considering physical and spectral characteristics of urban objects. For this to happen, variety of OBIA techniques including: geometrical information, texture, compression ratio, irregular shapes and etc were employed to derive spatial patterns of each part. The outcome of these OBIA based algorithms were used to identify spatial patterns of distressed and modern zones. In doing so, after identifying the appropriate algorithms, fuzzy classification with nearest neighbor algorithm was applied for class modeling process. In terms of fuzzy rule based classification, the process was performed by employing fuzzy membership function as well as fuzzy operators. Membership functions allow you to define the relationship between feature values and the degree of membership to a class using fuzzy logic. By comparing the membership degree achieved from membership function, the “AND” operator was selected to be effective operator for object based fuzzy classification. Accordingly fuzzy rule based classification was performed by employing “AND” operator and applying textural, shape, geometric, statistical, spatial and spectral indices. In order to assess the accuracy of results, the accuracy assessment process was performed based on data which were gathered in field operation. The error matrix and kappa coefficient were derived by comparing the ground truth dataset and results of classifications.
    Results
    Results of this research indicated that OBIA is indeed effective method for modeling urban structure and classifying their based on characteristic of each item. According the results integration of spectral and spatial patterns leads to model urban structure effectively. Our research results also confirmed that textural algorithms leads to detect urban component effectively. Well organized road network system together with distribution of green space and normal density in building were identified as most important indicators in modern part of Esfahan. While, very high density in building, less of green space area with narrow road network systems were observed in distressed section of the study area. According to this statement OBIA represent very effective and powerful methodology for modeling urban structure by means of integration spectral and spatial characteristics.
    Conclusion
    Results of this research are great of important for identifying and classifying urban textures patterns. The archived results can be used in rapid identification of texture patterns in urban environments and is a useful to a variety of urban planning studies. The proposed approach in this research will guide researchers/students to employ effective algorithms in OBIA which leads to obtain more accurate results. Results are also great of important for regional governmental departments such a Municipality of Esfahan for updating land use/cover maps which are base of any decision and planning.
    Keywords: Urban Texture Patterns, Spatial, Spectral Algorithms, Object- Based Image Analysis, Isfahan City, Segmentation
  • Masoud Safaei Poor, Morteza abiyat *, Mostefa Abiyat Pages 679-701
    Introduction
    If researchers and academics, believe that the discussions of urban development and rural development be done as separated from each? Answer such questions can be found in the form of regional development strategies. Therefore, strategies and policies for regional development have an important role in boosting economic activity and the development of deprived areas followed by, reduce differences between regions. Regional allocation of public facilities and funds can be a step forward to achieve balanced development and reducing regional inequalities; otherwise, the continuation of existing trends by focusing economic development in developed areas will lead to divergence and dissonance in national development. In general, regional development is following the creation of conditions and framework conditions suitable for continuous improvement of living standards, reduce unemployment; diversify economic activity, increased investment in the private and public sectors, increased economic prosperity, as a result, social and economic sustainable development. Considering this important, economic growth only goal of the strategy of regional development, but rather, justice, poverty elimination, economic sustainability, are the objectives of the strategy. Much research has been done regarding the assessment of regional disparities in global and national level; however, with the increasing number of case studies from developing countries, are increased reports of failure of the sustainable development approach for the achieve environmental, economic and the ideal community. In rural communities, there are issues and problems, resources and facilities, needs and priorities of their own. For this reason, in the context of national development planning its necessary the village, regarded as a special and specific section. In relation to country Iran, although the managers and decision makers periodically issues have been raised, such as rural planning, rural management, a fair distribution of resources, poverty elimination and much, but seriously has been done, focus for problem solving, because despite the different organizations trustee in the affairs of village can be seen a lot of inequality in rural areas country this matter is holding back at the expense of other areas and increase the gap between regions. So to be determined weaknesses of each of the townships from the different indicators of development at the provincial level. It would be a good base determine for distribution services considered for local managers and the needs of the regions on a comparative assessment and by taking advantage of view of spatial planning was paid to the spatial development each of the townships the maximum optimal use of resources. In this context, to meet the situation township of the province was selected about 76 variables in the form of 8 indicators, using multiple attribute decision making compensation method and integrated collection have been the degree of development of the province.
    Methodology
    This study has been done in terms of goal setting as a functional study and in terms of methodology descriptive, analytical method. In order to achieve the research objectives initially classified rural development indicators nine indicator variable 76 and information about them is collected statistical yearbook 1391 of Khuzestan governor general and additional information from the department of development and planning province and then using multiple attribute decision making compensation method such as: Topsis, Electre, Vikor, Promethee was paid to determine the level township of the province, based on the rate indicators for rural development In the form of Excel software; then for achieve the one result used of integrated collection such as: Aggregate, Borda, Copeland and Post. Eventually, for spatial representation of rural development levels, combined, layer townships of province Khuzestan, with indicators weights in ArcGIS10.4.1, and layers valued and well as the formed overlapped the layers.
    Results and Discussion
    From the integration of different sectors of development indicators with shared overlap function, 27 township of Khuzestan province were grouped into five levels. The first group is includes the townships of Izeh, Dezful and Shoosh, the second group of the townships of Baghmalek, Behbehan, Shooshtar Ahvaz, Ramhormuz and Shadegan, group three the townships of Andika, Andymeshk, Abadan, Dashte Azadegan, Karoon, Bandar Mahshahr and Bavi, group four the townships of Ramshir, Khorramshahr, Lali, Omidiyeh, Hamidieh, Gotvand and group also includes the townships of Masjed Soleiman, Hendijan, Hoveize, Haftgel and Aghajari. Spatial distinguishing between different parts of the province in force remains and most measures of development concentrated in the center, north and east provinces; so that areas benefiting includes first and second levels located mainly in the north and east provinces and deprived areas included four and five levels located in the south and west.
    Conclusion
    In this study, we tried to achieve balanced development of rural areas among the township of Khuzestan province, to be determined the distribution of rural development levels between township and their position relative to each other. The geographical distribution of rural development measures, proof the existence of spatial mismatch between cities in Khuzestan province this mismatch is significant at the provincial level in terms indices studied of population issues of health, education, culture, politics, services, communications and infrastructure. Most measures of development is concentrated in northern central and western parts Khuzestan province; so were the three areas on the first level and very convenient condition, six township on the second level and convenient, seven districts in the third and moderately suitable, six districts in the fourth and inappropriate and five areas in the fifth and in very bad condition and in a sense the warning position. A closer look at the results of the study could be detected separate three areas in Khuzestan province, from other township have abandoned their and continue their rapid grow and develop, located one in the west province (Izeh) and two township in northern province (Dezful and Shoosh). In general, the township, the ranking obtained, earns high ratings and this result of having potential environmental powers as well as long term policies implemented in this field, which is caused development of these areas. Deprived areas which cover five township (Aghajari, Haftgel, Hoveize, Hendijan and Masjed Soleiman), in most criteria of the study were accounted to the lowest level of development.
    Keywords: Spatial Analysis, Rural Development Indicators, Multiple Attribute Decision Making Compensation Methods, Integrated Collection, Khuzestan province
  • Seyed Abbas Rajaei*, Hasan Ali Faraji Sabokbar, abbas doorudinia, Ramin Ghorbani Pages 703-725
    Introduction
    Today, with the increasing tendency of the vehicle to walk to public transport is much reduced from their desire the increase of private cars has increased and environmental pollution; So that the air pollution in many countries of the world, especially major cities in Iran is so important that Forced the government to take seriously the issue and adopt policies and programs for its short and long term; In this way and in a different perspective, it is necessary to think. Including urban planners to design their ideas and their views on this issue has been raised and transit-oriented development approach. This approach in urban planning from the 1970s in USA policymakers and researchers in the field of planning and urban design has been considered. Citizens are encouraged to use public transportation in areas with mixed-use residential, commercial and office near a node or transit stops (bus, subway, etc.) is; that if implemented, this type of planning can bring many benefits, including reduction in transport costs, reduce congestion, sustainability and urban vitality, open shape the development of cities and etc. the cause. In our country, Iran, using public transportation and take advantage of the benefits that have been addressed in the cities, especially big cities. And plans have been implemented in these areas. In Tehran, the large-scale projects such as metro and bus systems were operating Extremist; but the development of such systems requires understanding the effectiveness of various dimensions. The aim of this study is to answer questions about the operation of the bus system Extremist in Tehran to what extent the framework for transit-oriented development approach and its physical properties have been considered. Since then one of habitable transit-oriented development quality objectives in this study is that air pollution is taken into account; Using zoning air pollution in Tehran and its compliance with the requirements of transit-oriented development approach around Extremist bus system to answer the question whether or not there is a connection between the two?
    Methodology
    The aim of this study in terms of development and in terms of descriptive and analytical methods is applied with an approach that outlines the concepts, first, in order to determine the consistency of fuzzy clustering technique using two physical features compact development and mixed land lines were combined. Then, to evaluate the viability of the relationship between quality objectives in this study, air pollution is taken into account; Using fuzzy clustering and interpolation air pollution zoning maps were drawn and transit-oriented development approach around the map requirements Extremist matched to the bus system. Result and Discussion: The results showed that the adaptability transit-oriented development approach in different lines. In the mixing land uses, except in areas north and northeast and southeast of Tehran which has a greater extent than mixing appropriate user In other areas, especially the East, South East and South West between space stations were smaller and the mixing member further includes a separate applications that are enclosed within residential applications, The composition and distribution of inappropriate land use in a way that leads to internalization of trips in the area of development is not development And thus creates demand for travel and the subsequent parking and traffic. The population density is only half the northern, northeastern, southern and western edge is a good population density; This is due to the following areas of immediate gate stations where passengers can easily have access to transportation lines; The most convenient connections between people that can require people with better access to the use of public transport And reduces the desire to travel is by car. In the final map that mixing two layers of integrated land use and population density as is obvious from the north to the south in moving from compliance rate is reduced and areas 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 20 the index population density and mixed use transit-oriented development approach are the least conformity with the requirements. In the second part after the zoning map pollution in Tehran for six key pollutants over the past 5 years; the results were that In terms of air quality zones 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 20 critical situations. After comparing pollution hazard map with the map compliance requirements transit-oriented approach can be seen areas at the very least was available in terms of adaptation to unfavorable air quality.
    Conclusion
    Due to the nature of public transit-based development and positive principles that fans of this type of development that believe that what should be considered in the design of urban systems, urban comprehensive planning in order to create the maximum possible match between urban and land use policy and on the other hand urban transportation systems optimized according to the characteristics of the urban network. Lack of requirements-driven approach to development of transport system of buses Extremist around it has been prevented from achieving the goals of quality and quantity; and in some areas extensively alters the components and parameters of transport system Have a great impact on the amount of pollution produced. Accordingly, different areas of Tehran in terms of transport indicators such as the number of trips generated, the type and amount of passages, per capita lamps, LED density, percent of networks and critical and the supply of parking space and non-homogeneous and therefore have different roles in air pollution are caused by urban transport. It is essential in these plans be given to the nature and requirements of this development pattern and to take advantage of the benefits of this form of development as a successful and effective in reducing traffic congestion and social development of viable cause of action. It is proposed to metropolitan Tehran and other large cities in the hands of these projects and the development of comprehensive plans and detailed Transit-oriented development centers in order to establish successful and effective in reducing traffic congestion and social development of viable cause of action.
    Keywords: Transit-oriented development approach (TOD), Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), clustering method, Mapping, Air pollution
  • Ali Danaei *, Majid Vali Shariat Panahi, Masoud Mahdavi Pages 727-747
    Quality of life, a complicated word in relation to living conditions and demographic situation in the region. Quality of life, Aspects of objective and subjective indicators such as satisfaction, happy and security in the cover and in some cases, also called social satisfaction. This research is aimed to quality of life measures in the social, cultural, physical, and economic environment in rural villages in the southern city Bahmaei Bahmaei of functions Kohgiluyeh and Boyer review. The study was descriptive survey that after studying the documents, 8 villages of more than 60 households were studied. 243 questionnaires (using the Cochran) systematically distributed among heads of households. After collecting information, sorting and statistical processing (descriptive and inferential analysis) was conducted in SPSS and GIS Findings show that According to head of household, sample the quality of education, quality health and safety and the quality of social relations and solidarity in social and cultural conditions are acceptableBut the quality of leisure (social dimension), quality residential environment and quality of infrastructure in the physical, environmental quality of the physical environment and the quality of income and employment in the economic conditions are not favorable and below the national average were evaluated. So we can say that the quality of life in the village normal and desirable living spaces and an important factor in the slow pace of rural development and away from sustainable development considered And an obstacle to the promotion of development indicators in the area of study.
    Introduction
    Quality of life is better living conditions in which balance, coordination, desirability and equality fair has become institutionalized, or fields required for life with health, safety, comfort, peace, joy, creativity and beauty emerged (Ghaffari and omidi, 2008.12) This from the fact that the indices of quality of life range from the which are feeding and clothing to health care, and social environment to be included on the physical environment (Mohammadi et al, 2010, 9) As research in this field has occurred in the city Bahmaei main aim of this study was to analyze the indicators, assessing the quality of life in rural centers Tropical Village Bahmaei city, so that whether rural quality of life measures in a good condition and, on this index with ideal conditions and how much is normal.
    Methodology
    In the survey questionnaire, interview and observation data required for the study were collected. In the field of 243 questionnaires systematically distributed among heads of households. The questionnaire contains 44 questions in the economic, social, cultural, physical and environmental design and the heads of households were asked to questions in the whole five-item Likert (very poor, poor, average, good and very good) respond and their satisfaction the factors affecting the quality of life in 4 cultural-social, physical, environmental and economic including 8 domain (44 items) related to quality of life.Questionnaire construction, validity study of the validity of the approaches consultants and supervisors was conducted to determine the reliability of the results of Cronbach's alpha was used. 8 villages of more than 60 households selected. the encoded data is then transferred to SPSS software. To assess and compare the current situation with the ideal of Wilcoxon test was used then define the data in the GIS software current conditions and ideal conditions the quality of life for geometric topology mapping and are qualitative in each component for map queries.
    Results and discussion
    In the statements of the quality of education (schools new and high quality, easy access with limited time children and adolescents to school and having good teachers and experienced) more positive ratings than negative ratings, and only items, laboratory and teaching equipment Rating negative than positive ratings. in all items of the quality of health and safety, more positive ratings than negative ratings are, in all the statements of the quality of social relations and solidarity of negative ratings are more positive ratings. The quality leisure items, all items of leisure more negative ratings than positive ratings. In the statements of more negative ratings than positive ratings are residential environment. In statements, the quality of home lighting and exposure and heat supply, proper cooling housing units, ratings are more positive than negative ratings. In the statements of infrastructure (communication status, access to convenient transportation, access to credit and finance, banking, e-banking, etc., the drinking water and access to public services) more negative ratings than positive ratings are dangerous, avoid waste and pollution of water resources and prevent degradation and soil erosion are more positive than negative ratings are ratings. On the economic (income, hoping to job security, savings status, job satisfaction and purchasing power more negative ratings than positive ratings are only positives than negatives in items physical condition is due to the fact that a total of ratings are more negative than positive ratings can be argued that the status quo is far from their villages with ideal conditions.
    Conclusion
    By examining the different aspects of quality of life and results information can be given to the social and cultural conditions prevailing nice. Interaction and participation of villagers in the district that has its roots in indigenous cultures in And urban renewal was dominated by residents of the district's attachment to work, social interaction and solidarity, preserve rural traditions continue to be good. And the efforts of the authorities in better services especially in the areas of education, health, security, and is in addition to the villagers. And economic weakness villagers in the village vacuum Leisure pitfalls that lead to social destruction in the village. In the physical residential environment with component analysis results indicated a major part of biomarkers is weak and unsatisfactory And residential space in the most desirable villages in the district's residents On the economic front suspension and weak financial and economic conditions in rural areas is very poor.
    Keywords: Quality of life, Quality of life measures, rural areas, rural development, Bahmaei
  • Mahmoud Vasegh *, Marjan Badiee Azandehie, lotf allah nabavi, ahad mohamadi Pages 749-771
    Introduction
    Discovering theories and laws explaining the patterns and behaviors of natural and human world is the goal of science. In social science realm, there here been two antagonist and different approaches about lawability of this sciences. Some schools based on realistic approach have insisted on assimilating the natural and human sciences on the contrary idealistic school considering humanism, considers social science different from natural science and denies the similarity between the lawability of and social natural sciences. This issue in geography is also from those disputable issues that has already been the subject of many disputations among different geographical schools. Some of them points out the geography as a lawable science such as environmentalism, behaviorism, spatial and systematic. In opposition, possibilism, exceptionalism and radical schools (critical and post-modern) considers the geography as a lawless knowledge. this paper proceeds the issue differently that whether the geography is a lawable science or not? If it is, then how are its laws? According to the analysis of the paper, geography is considered as a lawable science.
    Methodology
    This paper is a fundamental research by the typology and by the purpose is problem resolving (mental and philosophical problem). The analysis of paper is based on logical and epistemological theorems and reasoning’s. The sources used in the paper are documentary and library based. Result and discussion: Scientific law is a kind of generalization with comprehensive reliability and truth. In other words, this kind of law is unbounded universal at time and space including three characteristics such as universal, conditional prediction and experimental falsification. In this field, some of the positivistic geographers following the nature were seeking lawful order and dominating on society and livelihood. In their opinion geography is an objective, observational, quantitative and lawable knowledge. Therefore, its laws and rules can be exploited by the deduction. In this regard, observation without theory has upper priority and geometrical models are most significant. Geography according to this perspective is considered as science seeking for discovering universal rules and principles dominating over environmental elements such as social and natural. The duty of geographer is discovering causative relation between phenomena and representing them based on geographical general and comprehensive laws. In contrast, some geographers doubtfully look at causative and necessary relationships in geography and they have reacted against such attitude. They believe in lawless geography emphasizing on human will and liberty and natural, cultural, historical and ideological differences. These groups among geographical spaces have searched for understanding the meaning of human society. The present paper as regards geography in general and political geography in particular are Credit science, and their studied phenomena and concepts such as state, territory, border, political management of space, government, nation, administrative division, spatial management, political organization of space … and are considered as “rational Credit” and propositions and rational Credit in geography have experimental and testable essence just like natural or physical sciences. Also because in credit science, propositions and laws, it is not necessary to have various truths or be universal, rather, even if the subject of proposition or law is personal it can be considered as a law, as to the point of this paper criterion of being scientific for Credit laws isn’t variety of truths or objective samples, but causal relation between subject and object is its criterion. Therefore, according to the paper geography can be considered as a lawable science.
    Conclusion
    Science is an effort to discover existing order in various phenomena. In other words, the goal of science is discovering theories and rules explaining patterns and behaviors of natural and social world. According to this definition any kinds of science fields and branches studies the order of a part of the world. For example, physics studies existing order in movement of energy and material. Medicine explains and analyses the order of body. Hence, Geography attempts to recognize the existing order in phenomena layout on place and dominated process on patterns (spatial behaviors). Totally, any scientific category is composed of real, objective and tangible subjects that has some characteristics like observationally, experimentality and falsificationality. It is also based on analogical and inductive method or logic or in precisely word, categories are based on compositional mechanism of induction and syllogism. A brief deliberation on theme, structure, subject and methodology in geography will indicate that all the features and characteristics of a scientific knowledge can be found in geography. Therefore, scientific explanation in geography is just like other “lawable sciences”. Of course there is no consensus among geographers about the lawability in geography. As law is a generalized science with comprehensive credit and truth or in other words, unbounded universal are in space and time and the fewest necessary condition for lawability of a scientific phrase is to have a universal generalization. Therefore some geographers due to particularity and specification of places, un-repeatability of human phenomena and role and interference of human wills, values and motivations believe in geography as a lawless science. But since geography is a Credit science, not real, its lawability isn’t necessarily based on plurality and frequency proofs (just like in natural sciences), rather lawability in geography is based on causal relation between subject and object or dependent and independent variables particularly in human and social sciences. Therefore, unlike naturalist geographers point of view, even if a geographical proposition is also personal but there is a causal relation between subject and object, then the personal proposition will be a general rule and law and it can be generalized to all other spaces and places. Therefore according to the analysis of this paper, geography in general and other geography sub-fields like political geography in particular, are considered as lawable sciences.
    Keywords: Scientific Law, Realistic Laws, Credit Laws, Epistemological Analysis, Political Geography
  • Mahdi Hesam *, Esmaeil Aghaeizadeh, Mansour Rezaali Pages 773-790
    Garbage generated in cities is one of the most important challenges in urban planning and in achieving a healthy city and consequently the clean city. Since the formation, garbage is involved with important issues such as collection, recycling, disposing style and location of disposing. The issue of garbage collection from the cities Surface can be studied in relation to urban cleanliness because they are directly affected in the face of the city and negligence in this area creates many problems in cities. In addition to Technical issues, it is involved with social, economic, cultural, and management problems and their identification and rank them can be useful. This paper aims to study the bottlenecks in garbage collection in the Rasht city via qualitative methods using Grounded Theory. Based on purposeful and theoretical sampling, 48 Citizens were selected. Techniques used for data collection and data, focused on semi-structured interviews and field observations. Interviews continued until theoretical saturation stage. Based on the Grounded Theory, data coding was done in three stages and as a result, five nuclear issue are extracted, including factors related to the social and cultural, economic, Infrastructure, management and rules. In addition to Technical issues, it is involved with social, economic, cultural, and management problems and their identification and rank them can be useful. This paper aims to study the bottlenecks in garbage collection in the Rasht city via qualitative methods using Grounded Theory. Based on purposeful and theoretical sampling, 48 Citizens were selected. Techniques used for data collection and data, focused on semi-structured interviews and field observations. Interviews continued until theoretical saturation stage. Based on the Grounded Theory, data coding was done in three stages and as a result, five nuclear issue are extracted, including factors related to the social and cultural, economic, Infrastructure, management and rules.
    Introduction
    The city and urbanization is a prominent social process that has changed the interaction between human and the environment and other people. Therefore, discussion about city is not limited only to its physical development and it must be recognized that city is complex phenomenon and engage with various issues. Garbage generated in cities is one of the most important challenges in urban planning and in achieving a healthy city and consequently the clean city. In fact, urbanization has been led to rapid social and economic development and at the same time emerged many problems such as the concentration of population, traffic jams, lack of housing, lack of resources, loss of biodiversity, the effects of heat islands, noise and air and water pollution. Since the formation, garbage is involved with important issues such as collection, recycling, disposing style and location of disposing. The issue of garbage collection from the cities Surface can be studied in relation to urban cleanliness because they are directly affected in the face of the city and negligence in this area creates many problems in cities. In addition to Technical issues, it is involved with social, economic, cultural, and management problems and their identification and rank them can be useful. This paper aims to study the bottlenecks in garbage collection in the Rasht city via qualitative methods using Grounded Theory.
    Materials and methods
    In this paper grounded theory method is used to identify the obstacles of accessing to clean city in Rasht city. Grounded Theory is a qualitative research method to study of social processes in human interaction. This method, developed by Glaser and Strauss, rooted in the school''s interpretation of symbolic interactionism. This method is a kind of research that examines and describes phenomena in their natural position. It involves a five-step process: first stage, research design (technical literature review and select items), second phase: data collection, third stage: setting and writing data items and concepts, fourth stage: analyze the data (the original investigation) and the fifth stage: design and validate the model. The purpose of the research project is questions and research area. Based on purposeful and theoretical sampling, 48 Citizens were selected. Techniques used for data collection and data, focused on semi-structured interviews and field observations. Interviews continued until theoretical saturation stage.
    Results and discussion
    The findings were analyzed in three coding stages and analysis units. The results of coding, as the first stage of analysis of collected data, including the 114 code was extracted from interviews with citizens. 16 concept expressed from master codes and other codes directly from the person being interviewed. In axial coding process was identified several extensive concept with data analysis and concepts and based it was formed 14 extensive class. Based on the Grounded Theory, data coding was done in three stages and as a result, five nuclear issue are extracted, including factors related to the social and cultural, economic, Infrastructure, management and rules. Therefore by analyzing the results of the extensive concept, five core subjects of social, cultural, economic, infrastructural and legal and management, were identified as effective factors in achieving clean city in the city of Rasht.
    Conclusion
    Clean and continuing formation of clean city and Continuity of cleanliness in the city, in its various dimensions, have some pre-requisites, that in case of failure of their condition on the one hand and The lack of continuity and reduce the efficiency of the initial conditions of its creation on the other hand, Cannot be hoped to development such cities. Lack of urban infrastructure in the Rasht city in relation to the quite principled collection, led to the loss of opportunity in the field of citizen participation development and economic problems increases the dimension on their reluctance. Accordingly, the citizens encounter with the contradictions on the path of citizenship education of good behavior, who find themselves alone in these areas and As a result, leads to a kind of apathy even among committed citizens. This makes ineffective the planning related to social and cultural promotion of citizens and the managers turn to adopt peaceful behavior in the face of polluted urban spaces.
    Keywords: Clean City, Healthy City, Garbage Collection, Grounded Theory, Rasht City