فهرست مطالب

Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine - Volume:9 Issue:1, 2018
  • Volume:9 Issue:1, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/10/03
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Mostafa Dastani, leila Bigdelu, mahsa hoseinzadeh, Hamid Reza Rahimi , Asieh Karimani, Amir Houshang Mohammadpour, Masoumeh Salari * Pages 1-9
    Objective
    Inflammation along with oxidative stress has an important role in the pathophysiology of unstable angina which leads to acute myocardial infarction, arrhythmias and eventually heart failure. Curcumin has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects and thereby, it may reduce cardiovascular complications. This randomized controlled trial aimed to investigate the effects of curcumin on the prevention of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias and heart failure in patients with unstable angina.
    Materials and Methods
    Forty patients with unstable angina who met the trial inclusion and exclusion criteria, participated in this double-blind randomized clinical trial. The patients were randomized into two groups: curcumin (80 mg/day for 5days) and placebo (80 mg/day for 5days). Cardiac function was evaluated by two-dimensional echocardiography devices at baseline (immediately after hospitalization) and 5 days after the onset of the trial. Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias were recorded by Holter monitors in cardiology ward, Ghaem academic hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Progression to heart failure, myocardial infarction, and pulmonary and cardiopulmonary resuscitation events as well as mortality were recorded daily throughout the study.
    Results
    There were no significant differences between the two groups in atrial and ventricular arrhythmias (p=0.2), and other echocardiographic parameters (Ejection fraction, E, A, E/A ratio, Em, and pulmonary artery pressure) at baseline and five days after the start of the trial.
    Conclusion
    Nanocurcumin administered at the dose of 80 mg/day for five days had no effect in the incidence of cardiovascular complications in patients with unstable angina.
    Keywords: Angina, Unstable, Arrhythmias, Cardiac, Curcumin, heart failure, Acute coronary syndrome
  • Bahareh Barkhidarian, Masoud Khorshidi, Sakineh Shab, bidar *, Baran Hashemi Pages 10-20
    Objective
    We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials that examined the effects of L-citrulline supplementation on blood pressure (BP).
    Materials and Methods
    We searched MEDLINE, SCOPUS, PUBMED and Google scholar databases from inception to November 16, 2017 and 811 papers were identified, of which 8 trials with 10 data sets met the inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria were: (1) application of randomized clinical trial with either crossover or parallel designs; (2) studies conducted in adults (≥18 y); (3) oral supplementation with L-citrulline compared to control group; (4) expression of sufficient data about systolic and diastolic BP at baseline and at the end of the study in each group. BP effects were pooled by random-effects models, with trials weighted by inverse variance.
    Results
    The included studies’ sample size ranged between 12 and 34 subjects. The mean age of the participants in these trials ranged between 22 and 71 years. Dosage of L-citrulline supplementation varied from 3 to 9 g/day. Duration of the intervention ranged between 1 and 17 weeks. The pooled changes in systolic and diastolic BP were (MD, −4.10 mm Hg; 95% CI [−7.94, -0.26]; p=0.037) and (MD −2.08 mm Hg; 95% CI [−4.32, 0.16]; P=0.069), respectively. The subgroup analysis showed a significant diastolic BP reduction in studies that used doses of ≥6 g/day (MD −2.75 mm Hg; 95% CI [−5.37, -0.12]; p=0.04).
    Conclusion
    Our results suggest that L-citrulline supplementation may reduce systolic BP. A significant reduction in diastolic BP was observed only in the studies that used doses ≥ 6 g/day.
    Keywords: L-citrulline, blood pressure, Supplementation
  • Godwin Mbaka *, Steve Ogbonnia, Adeola Sulaiman, Daniel Osiagwu Pages 21-33
    benefits due to its very potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Despite its widespread use, it has not been validated for use in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study was conducted to examine histomorphological effects of SJ seed on BPH that usually causes bladder outlet obstruction.
    Materials and Methods
    There were a total of six groups of animals each comprising 5 adult male rats. Apart from group 1 (normal control), in the remaining five groups, BPH was induced. Group 2 (negative control) was sacrificed immediately after BPH induction; groups 3 and 4 received the extract at 300 and 600 mg/kg respectively by gavages for thirty days; group 5 received finasteride (0.1 mg/kg) for thirty days and group 6 received the extract (600 mg/kg) simultaneously with the steroid administration for thirty days. The animals’ were weighed before the experiment and subsequently every three days until the end of the study.
    Results
    The extract caused marked decrease in prostate weight of rats with BPH with histo-morphology of the tissue showing degenerated stromal and epithelial cells with few epithelial involutions of glandular tissue. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) level as well as testosterone level significantly (p<0.05) decreased in the treated groups compared to negative control. BPH animals treated with extract/finasteride exhibited remarkable increases in anti-oxidant enzymes level with concurrent decreases in peroxidative activity.
    Conclusion
    SJ effectively ameliorated prostatic hyperplasia in BPH animals causing marked degenerative changes in prostate stromal and epithelial cells and also exhibited marked anti-oxidant effect.
    Keywords: Histomorphology, Sphenocentrum jollyanum seed, Phytotherapy, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, male rats
  • Yahya Asemani, Maryam Bayat, Saeed Malek, Hosseini, Zahra Amirghofran * Pages 34-43
    Objective
    Mentha longifolia L. Hudson has been used in folk medicine for various purposes especially for its anti-inflammatory effects. Lymphocytes play a central role in development of inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of different extracts of M. longifolia on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), as main players in development of inflammation.
    Materials and Methods
    PBLs stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) were cultured in the presence of the plant extracts. The effects of the extracts on activation of cells were determined by BrdU assay. The viability of cells was examined by flow cytometry using propidium iodide staining. Also, IFN-γ (T helper 1, TH1) and IL-4 (TH2) secretion was measured by ELISA.
    Results
    Except for the water extract which had a weak inhibitory effect, treatment of cells with more than 1μg/ml of butanol, hexane, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts resulted in strong inhibition of cells proliferation (IC50 4.6-9.9 µg/ml). Flow cytometry analysis showed that these extracts at ≤10μg/ml were non-cytotoxic. Dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts at 10 μg/ml decreased IFN-γ production in a dose-dependent manner from 919±91.1 pg/ml in PHA-only-treated cells to 568±22.6 pg/ml (in dichloromethane-treated cells) and 329±12.3 pg/ml (in ethyl acetate-treated cells) (p<0.001). At 10 μg/ml, the ethyl acetate extract increased IL-4 secretion compared to PHA-only-treated cells (p<0.05). The hexane extract decreased IFN-γ level but did not affectIL-4 production.
    Conclusion
    Reduction of IFN-γ and augmentation of IL-4 secretion induced by the extracts suggested the potential of M. longifolia to inhibit TH1 inflammatory responses toward a TH2 dominant response.
    Keywords: Mentha longifolia, Lymphocytes, Immunomodulation
  • Reza Mohtashami, Hasan Fallah huseini, Farzaneh Nabati, Reza Hajiaghaee, Saeed Kianbakht * Pages 44-53
    Objective
    To study the blood pressure, lipid and glycemic effects and safety of Vaccinium arctostaphylos leaf in the hypertensive hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic patients.
    Materials and Methods
    The patients took 350 mg standardized plant leaf hydro-alcoholic extract capsule (n=50) or placebo capsule (n=50) three times daily alongside conventional drugs for 2 months. At the baseline and endpoint, systolic and diastolic blood pressures and blood levels of fasting glucose (FG), 2-hr postprandial glucose (2hPPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, triglyceride, HDL-C, SGOT, SGPT and creatinine were determined in both groups. To evaluate the extract safety, serum SGOT, SGPT and creatinine levels were tested; also, the patients were requested to report any adverse effects.
    Results
    FG, 2hPPG, HbA1c, TC, LDL-C, triglyceride and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were decreased, whereas HDL-C was increased significantly in the extract group compared to those of the placebo group at the endpoint (for all cases, p<0.05). The extract did not significantly influence other parameters and no adverse effects were reported.
    Conclusion
    V. arctostaphylosleaf hydro-alcoholic extract as an adjunct to the conventional drugs has additional antihypertensive as well as anti-dyslipidemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects in hypertensive hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic patients. Besides, the extract lacks hepatic, renal and patient-reported adverse effects.
    Keywords: Vaccinium arctostaphylos, Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, Dyslipidemia
  • Masoumeh Salari, Roshanak Salari, Hoshang RafatPanah, yalda Ravanshad, Danial Zirachi, Maryam Sahebari * Pages 54-61
    Objective
    Previous studies have examined the role of sensory nerves and neural mediators in symmetrical joint inflammation and autoimmunity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we sought to examine the association between capsaicin skin test and disease activity in RA patients.
    Materials and Methods
    Eighty RA patients (case group) and 20 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this experiment. The subjects in case group were calcified to newly diagnosed patients and those previously diagnosed with RA. A topical solution of capsaicin (0.075%) was applied on the volar forearm during the skin test, and evaluations were done after 5, 10, and 20 min. The parameters recorded in capsaicin skin test were time to tingling, area of induration (cm2), and area of redness (cm2).
    Results
    A faster capsaicin skin reaction was observed in healthy controls compared to the case group (p=0.02). Newly diagnosed and previously diagnosed RA patients were not significantly different in terms of reaction latency (p=0.06). The redness area after 15 (p=0.04) and 20 (p=0.001) min was significantly larger in previously diagnosed RA patients than in newly diagnosed ones. The ​​area of redness and time to tingling did not show any difference between active and inactive RA patients, but after 15 and 20 min, the area of redness was significantly greater in inactive RA patients compared to active RA patients (p=0.01 and p=0.03, respectively).
    Conclusion
    This study suggested that capsaicin skin test is not an efficient tool for the examination of synovial inflammation and disease activity in RA.
    Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, Capsaicin, Inflammation
  • Sandra Gray *, Brett R Lackey, Patricia L Tate Pages 62-71
    Objective
    Shortia and other members of the Diapensiaceae family have ethnomedicinal history in both Eastern and Western hemispheres. Based on ethnopharmacological and chemosystematic evidence, pharmacological and toxicological bioassays were conducted on the rare plant Oconee Bell, Shortia galacifolia.
    Materials and Methods
    Extracts were examined in assays for antimutagenicity, antitumor and estrogen receptor (ER)-binding activity. Antitumor activity was assessed by the tumor induction assay (TiA), using Agrobacterium tumefaciens based on its ability to transform plant tissue. Antimutagenicity was examined using the Ames bacterial reverse mutation test. Recombinant human ERα and ERβ proteins were utilized to screen extracts for receptor selectivity.
    Results
    All concentrations of extracts inhibited A. tumefaciens-induced tumor formation on potato discs, with the mature rhizome extracts having the most marked inhibition. All three plant extracts significantly inhibited the formation of histidine-independent revertant colonies after exposure to the mutagen 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) in the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay. In the ER binding assays, ERβ, but not ERα, displayed affinity for Shortia extracts.
    Conclusion
    Antitumor, ER binding and antimutagenic activities of S. galacifolia extracts were identified using rapid bench-top assays and warrant further investigations.
    Keywords: Antimutagenic, Antitumor, Bioassay, Estrogen receptor, Ethnopharmacology
  • marzieh mahmoodi , Farhad koohpeyma *, Forough saki , Amir Maleksabet, mohammad Ali zare Pages 72-83
    Objective
    Oxidative stress leads to reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, which causes tissue injury in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Zataria multiflora extract on TNF-α, oxidative stress products, and insulin levels as well as lipid profile in diabetic rats.
    Materials and Methods
    Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 10 animals. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Control and diabetic control rats orally received 1 mL/day of normal saline, whereas the other three groups received 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day of Z. multiflora extract, and one non-diabetic group orally received 1000 mg/kg/day Z. multiflora extract, for 28 days. At the end of the treatment course, rats were anesthetized and their serum samples were analyzed for TNF-α, malondialdehyde (MDA), super oxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lipid profile, total plasma protein, blood glucose, insulin, and liver enzymes levels.
    Results
    Our results showed that cholesterol, LDL, TG, MDA and TNF-α levels decreased, but HDL, SOD, TAC, and total protein increased significantly in the diabetic group receiving 1000 mg/kg Z. multiflora compared to the diabetic control group (P<0.05). Moreover, blood glucose level was significantly reduced following administration of different concentrations of Z. multiflora. Liver sections of diabetic rats treated with Z. multiflora 1000 mg/kg showed normal hepatocytes and restoration of liver architecture.
    Conclusion
    Z. multiflora extract ameliorated oxidative stress, TNF-α serum level, lipid abnormality, blood glucose, and liver damage in rats with diabetes mellitus.
    Keywords: Zataria multiflora, TNF-?, Insulin, Liver, Diabetes, STZ
  • Parivash Abbasi, Mohammad Mojalli *, Mojtaba Kianmehr, Somayeh Zamani Pages 84-91
    Objective
    Constipation is one of the most common digestive problems in patients undergoing hemodialysis. It has a negative effect on quality of life in these patients. As routine treatments are not effective in this regard, complementary therapies may help to overcome this condition. This study aimed to investigate the effect of acupressure on constipation in patients undergoing hemodialysis.
    Materials and Methods
    This was a randomized double- blind placebo- controlled clinical trial conducted in 2014.A convenience sample of 70 patients undergoing hemodialysis was selected from hemodialysis units of three hospitals affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Mazandaran, Iran. Patients were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Intervention group received acupressure in acupressure points three times a week for four weeks during hemodialysis. In control group, acupressure was delivered in false points. We assessed the frequency of defecation in the two groups before and after the study. The study instruments consisted of a demographic questionnaire, and a data sheet for documenting constipation frequency.
    Results
    The results indicated a significant difference between intervention group (13.73±3.63) and control group (10.06±3.77) in frequency of defecation during the fourth week of intervention (p<0.001). Regarding quality of stool, there was a meaningful difference between the groups in the fourth week in a way that the stool in the intervention group was more natural and in the control group, it was thicker and more adhesive.
    Conclusion
    Acupressure seems to be an effective complementary treatment for constipation in patients undergoing hemodialysis.
    Keywords: Acupressure, hemodialysis, Constipation