فهرست مطالب

Clinical Research in Paramedical Sciences - Volume:7 Issue: 2, 2018
  • Volume:7 Issue: 2, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/09/02
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Faranak Jafari , Kamran Hajinabi*, Katayoun Jahangiri , Leila Riahi Page 1
    Context: Good governance has been discussed as a new concept for poverty alleviation and economic development by global organizations, but this concept has been neglected in the health system. Therefore, this study was conducted with the goal of analyzing good governance in the health system. Evidence Acquisition: This was a descriptive study with systematic review method conducted at the medical bases of Medline, Scopus, Elsevier, PubMed, Ovid, CINAHEL, ScienceDirect, Springer and Web of Science and after screening at different stages, articles were evaluated and analyzed with inclusion criteria.
    Results
    Among 360 studies, 10 cases had inclusion criteria. Three out of ten studies had evaluated the aspects of good governance in the health system and seven cases were discussed in the study of governance frameworks of health systems.
    Conclusions
    Despite the emphasis of this study, using eight dimensions of participation, including: Rule of law, transparency, accountability, equality, efficiency and effectiveness, responsibility and the formation of general consensus (consensus) in analyzing good governance of countries, designing a native model of good governance in the health system in different societies, is essential.
    Keywords: Good Governance, Governance of the Health System, Good Governance Indicators
  • Masoumeh Heidarian , Hassan Ahadi*, Jalal Shakeri , Amir Hossein Hashemian Page 2
    Background
    Delay in treating the symptoms of psychosis, both in terms of personal and family problems and in terms of economic and social consequences, is of particular importance. The purpose of this study is to investigate demographic and social factors associated with delay in treatment for first symptoms of psychosis in order to better prepare the ground for its prevention.
    Methods
    This is a descriptive cross-sectional study performed using a sequential sampling method on all patients who experienced the first psychosis attack. Then, data are extracted from a clinical interview based on clinical checklist approved by specialists. Using SPSS software (V.25) descriptive statistics including frequency, mean and standard deviation were obtained, and also Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were performed.
    Results
    The obtained results showed that mean delay in treatment for first symptoms of psychosis was 48.5 ± 65.6 weeks. There was a significant relationship between gender (P = 0.0353), age (P = 0.0198), father's occupation (P = 0.0198), history of referral to the first therapist (P = 0.0059), and source of referral (P = 0.0497), on one hand, and delay in treatment for first symptoms of psychosis.
    Conclusions
    The results of this study indicated that, with better understanding of demographic and social factors, besides educating families and doctors, it may be possible to help reducing the overall time of referral to a psychiatric services provider and thereby contribute to First treatment of the patients.
    Keywords: Delay in Treatment, First Symptoms of Psychosis, Demographic Factors, Social Factors
  • Fariba Johari Daha*, Samira Rasaneh , Saleh Salehi Zahabi Page 3
    Background
    The main purpose of radioimmunotherapy is delivered lethal dose to the tumor cells which depends on the immunological and pharmacological of the antibody (Ab) property and the conjugated radionuclide characteristics.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study is preparation of DOTA-Rituximab complex and radiolabeling with Lu-177 and comparison with the results of 131I-Rituximab radiolabed with Chloramine-T method that was obtained before.
    Methods
    The number of chelator molecules (DOTA) attached to the DOTA-Rituximab complex was determined by Arsenazo III reagent. After radiolabeling with Lu -177, the stability in normal saline and the biodistribution in the healthy mice was evaluated. The Immunoreactivity of Ab was checked on Raji cell lines and the results were compared with 131I-Rituximab.
    Results
    Each 300 μg of antibody was labeled with 6 mCi Lu-177. After 48 hours, 82% of the radiolabeled antibody was stable and about 18% of the radiotracer was in the blood. The immunoreactivity was calculated 85% ± 2%.
    Conclusions
    The results showed that radiolabeling with Lu-177 was done with higher yield than iodine-131 and the produced radiopharmacy has more stability and immunoreactivity. The biodistribution results were acceptable in both radiopharmacy.
    Keywords: Rituximab, Radiolabeling, Chloramine-T, Lu-177, DOTA-NHS
  • Abbass Ghanbari, Niaki , Ayoub Saeidi*, Bakhtyar Tartibian , Durdi Qujeq, Mehran Naghizadeh Qomi Page 4
    Background
    Kisspeptin refers to peptides involved in appetite regulation and responds to energy-decaying agents. The aim of the current study was to survey brain response of kisspeptin and glycogen at different times to acute aerobic exercise with and without glucose solution consumption in male rats.
    Methods
    Eighty adult male Wistar rats, after 2 weeks of familiarization with the laboratory space and treadmill, performed aerobic exercise training for 4 weeks followed by rest for 1 week. Then, based on the weight, they were divided into eight groups: 1, pre-exercise (PE, n = 10); 2, immediately after exercise (IAE, n = 10); 3, 24 hours after exercise-saline (24HAES, n = 10); 4, 24 hours after exercise-glucose (24HAEG, n = 10); 5, 48 hours after exercise-saline (48HAES, n = 10); 6, 48 hours after exercise-glucose (48HAEG, n = 10); 7, 72 hours after exercise-saline (72HAES, n = 10); 8, 72 hours after exercise-glucose (72HAEG, n = 10). Each exercise session of the rats included running on the treadmill for 90 minutes with a speed of 25 m/min with the slope of zero degrees. Glucose and saline solutions were given to the glucose and saline groups immediately after training. The rats were sacrificed after 3 hours of fasting, and the brain tissue was separated for analysis.
    Results
    No significant difference in brain kisspeptin was seen with time, between groups, and for interaction between time and group (P > 0.05). Tissue glycogen analyses showed significant changes between the groups (P < 0.001).
    Conclusions
    The results of this study showed that brain kisspeptin did not respond to stress and disruption of energy balance and did not relate to the reduction of tissue glycogen in the brain.
    Keywords: Kisspeptin, Brain Glycogen, Exercise, Glucose Solution
  • Reza Rajabi , Akram Ahmadi Barati *, Leila Farhadi Page 5
    Background
    Lumbar Back Pain (LBP) as the most common musculoskeletal disorder in dentists has increased. Core stabilization exercises, as a new exercise method, can affect individual’s abdominal and lumbar muscles. Given the deleterious effects of LBP on the performance of dentists.
    Objectives
    This study aimed to assess the effect of core stabilization exercises at home on functional ability and chronic LBP in male dentists.
    Methods
    The population of the present quasi-experimental study included all male dentists in Kermanshah. Forty volunteered dentists with LBP were divided to experimental and control groups. Research tools included Quebec Back Pain Questionnaire for measuring LBP and Oswestry Disability Questionnaire for measuring the degree of disability in daily living activities. The exercise program was designed for the experimental group as three sessions per week for six weeks. Data were analyzed with paired and independent t-tests and the normality of the data was verified with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.
    Results
    Spine stabilization exercises have a significant effect on functional ability (P = 0.02) and level of pain in male dentists of Kermanshah (P = 0.04).
    Conclusions
    This intervention is safe, easy, accessible and effective without any side effects.
    Keywords: Male Dentists, Chronic Low Back Pain, Core Stabilization Exercise, Functional Ability
  • Shokufeh Naderi*, Abdolhamid Habibi , Mahnaz Kesmati , Anahita Rezaie , Mohsen Ghanbarzadeh Page 6
    Background
    Alzheimer's disease is the formaton of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and tau tangles in the brain. As Aβ is an important factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, the present research aims to consider the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training on Aβ1-42 levels in the hippocampus tissue of male rat models of Alzheimer’s disease.
    Methods
    Thirty-five rats (3 months old, 222.83 ± 19.60 g) were divided into five groups: Two experimental, two control and sham. Alzheimer's disease, induced by streptozotocin was infused into the rats i.c.v (a 3 m.g/kg dose). Their memory was evaluated by passive avoidance learning method using a shuttle box. The amount of peptide Aβ1-42 was measured by the ELISA method. Comprisions between groups were performed by One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test. A value of P < 0.05 was considered to be significant.
    Results
    The Aβ1-42 levels in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's control group was significantly higher than Alzheimer's HIIT group (P = 0.036) and it was lower in the health HIIT group than it was in the health control group (P = 0.001).
    Conclusions
    It declare that HIIT training lessen the level of Aβ1-42 in the hippocampus and can be benefit for AD rat model. As a result, the advantages of HIIT training can be used in protection and treatment of AD.
    Keywords: High Intensity Interval Training, Alzheimer’s, Amyloid Beta, Hippocampus
  • Shadi Nouriaghdam , Zohreh Ghaffarzadeh , Elahe Shakeri, Saeed Hosseinpoor * Page 7
    Background
    During the wars and natural disasters, cities are threatened and suffer a lot, so employing the principles of passive defense in order to save people concerns authorities and policymakers. Urmia is the capital of Azarbaijan-Gharbi province and it has a strategic, political, economic and hygienic importance due to its common border with some countries. Therefore, numerous potential dangers threaten national security and independence of this region. Strengthening buildings, especially, health care centers and hospitals have a key role in mental safety and peace of the public.
    Objectives
    This study aimed to evaluate Imam Khomeini Hospital based on passive defense principles including design, architecture and mode of locating.
    Methods
    The current research was a descriptive analytical study. Passive defense indicators were extracted from the Iranian building regulations (vol. 21). The data were collected through a self-designed checklist according to 16 criteria through interviews and field observations. Data were analyzed in Excel® and figures were obtained from Google Map.
    Results
    Considering passive defense requirements, 75% of the studied indicators in Urmia’s Imam Khomeini Hospital were rendered defenseless. Four eligible indicators included firefighting system, entry and exit doors, emergency power system, and access to the fire station.
    Conclusions
    It is essential to observe these requirements and build double-purpose hospitals to reduce vulnerability, financial and health damage, and provide health services in critical situations.
    Keywords: Hospital Locating, Passive Defense, Urmia, Design
  • Zahra Yasemi , Bahlol Rahimi*, Reza Khajouei , Hasan Yusefzadeh Page 8
    Background
    This study was conducted to evaluate Pharmacy Information Systems (PIS), which are widely used in Iranian hospitals to identify the usability problems of PIS.
    Methods
    Ten usability experts independently evaluated the user interfaces of pharmacy information system using a heuristic evaluation method. They applied Nielsen’s heuristics to identify and classify usability problems and Nielsen’s severity rating to judge their severity.
    Results
    Overall, 125 unique heuristic violations were identified as usability problems. In terms of severity, 67% of problems were rated as major and catastrophic. In terms of usability violations, two out of 10 heuristics including “consistency and standards” and “recognition rather than recall”, were the most frequently violated whereas “error prevention” and “help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors” were the least frequently violated heuristics.
    Conclusions
    Despite widespread use of specific healthcare information systems, they still suffer from usability problems. These usability problems have been found to potentially put patients at risk. Moreover, they can negatively affect the effectiveness and efficiency of the healthcare information systems, the satisfaction of their users, and the financial issues of the hospital. It is recommended that the designers design systems on the basis of existing standards and principles. These systems are required to be evaluated annually and updated based on obtained results.
    Keywords: Evaluation Study, Pharmacy Information System, User-Computer Interface, Usability Evaluation