فهرست مطالب

Shiraz Emedical Journal - Volume:20 Issue: 2, 2019
  • Volume:20 Issue: 2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/11/02
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Behjat Shokrvash , Atoosa Saeid , Sara Esmailzadeh Saeieh , Mansureh Yazd Khasti , Leili Salehi * Page 1
    Background
    Teamwork improves self-reporting efficiency on inter-professional practice. It can also increase the self-confidence, awareness, and the ability of members to manage high-risk situations. The aim of this study was to translate and assess psychometrically the attitudes toward healthcare teamwork scale; adopted from previous studies.
    Methods
    This cross sectional study consisted of 200 students who were recruited from the nursing and medical schools in Tehran. Convenience sampling method was used to select subjects. Initial instrument comprised 15 items with Likert type response. The impact score, content validity index (CVI) and content validity ratio (CVR) were assessed and an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to extract factors. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to confirm the factorial structure of the questionnaire using SPSS (version 19) and Amos (version 23), respectively. The reliability of the questionnaire was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and test-re-test.
    Results
    Eleven items were considered valid on the basis of impact score of more than 1.5, CVR above 0.62, and CVI above 0.7. The exploratory factor analysis deemed all the 11 items valid. With respect to the eigenvalue above one for each factor, three factors were extracted. This instrument had 55% of variance in the attitude toward healthcare teamwork scale.
    Conclusions
    The results of this study are a suitable evidence on the strength of the factor structure and good reliability for the psychometric property of the attitudes toward health care teamwork scale. The results of this study can be used by education centers and institutes to assess student’s attitudes towards healthcare teamwork.
    Keywords: Validity, Reliability, Psychometric, Attitude, Teamwork
  • Elham Vahhab , Saeid Gholamzadeh , Mohammad Zarenezhad * Page 2
    Background
    Childhood and adolescent injuries are among the most significant health system hazards, especially in developing countries including Iran. In this report, we evaluated the main characteristics of all cases of pediatric injury-related mortality in Shiraz in a 5 - year - period.
    Methods
    This cross - sectional study comprised all injury- related deaths in children and adolescents up to 18 years of age, from September 2011 to September 2016 in Shiraz, Iran. The required information about demographic factors including age, sex, cause of death, the manner and location of death and time period between injury and death was collected for all the cases.
    Results
    There were 485 cases (66% male) with mean age of 8.7 ± 5.9 years. The crude mortality rate was 21.6 per 100000 population in each year. Infants had the lowest rate during the first year (6.4%) and children between 1 to 4 years had the highest rate of death (28.7%). Accident was the most common manner of death occurring in 393 (81.0%) followed by suicide in 58 (12.0%) decedents. Mortality due to electrical injury, traffic accidents, falling down, burns, drowning and blunt trauma were more common in the 1 - 4 years age group. Suffocation, poisoning, work accident and firearm were the most common cause of death in 15 - 18 year - old children. Except for aspiration, firearm and penetrating trauma, all other causes were more common in boys. The most common location of death was at the scene of injury (48 %). The majority of deaths occurred in the first 6 hours after injury (311 cases, 64.1%).
    Conclusions
    Most cases of pediatric injury - related mortality were secondary to preventable injuries and occurred during the first 6 hours and before arriving at the hospital. Thus, injuries should be considered as one of the priorities of the health system and preventive measures such as educating the caregivers regarding these events should be emphasized.
    Keywords: Death, Child, Adolescent, Pediatric, Injury, Accident
  • Abdorrahim Afkhamzadeh , Khaled Rahmani , Azadeh Habibi , Obeidollah Faraji * Page 3
    Objectives
    The age of menarche can be different among girls based on region, ethnic, and some individual factors such as body mass index (BMI). Little is known about the menarche age in Kurdish girls. This study was conducted to determine the menarche age and its association to BMI and socioeconomic status among Kurdish schoolgirls.
    Methods
    This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 400 schoolgirls from different secondary and high schools in Sanandaj, northwest of Iran. Multi stage sampling was used to select the study samples. Data were collected using a checklist, which included demographic information and other variables under investigation. SPSS version 20 was used for data analysis. Independent sample t-test, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The significance level of the tests was considered to be 0.05.
    Results
    The mean and standard deviation (SD) of menarche age was 12.87 ± 1.17 years. About 60.3% of girls had normal BMI and 31%, 6.8%, and 2% of them were underweight, overweight, and obese, respectively. There was a significant relationship between higher BMI (P = 0.02) and menarche age. Based on multivariate analysis, the chance of early menarche in children with higher BMI (≥ 25) was significantly 3.57 times higher than others (P = 0.004). There was no significant relationship between socioeconomic status, physical activity, and birth season, attitude towards menarche, nutritional status, and number of brothers with age of menarche.
    Conclusions
    The results showed a significant relationship between menarche age and BMI. The age of menarche in our region was also different compared to other regions of the globe. The findings of the present study can be used by health policy makers for planning and conducting the interventional programs related to menarche in girls.
    Keywords: Menarche, School, Body Mass Index
  • Elham Arabizadeh , Zohreh Mostafavipour , Soudabeh Kavousipour , Saeedeh Saeb , Pooneh Mokarram *, Saeid Ghavami Page 4
    Background
    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men, worldwide. Geranylgeranylation and farnesylation have a main role in the carcinogenic process, which can be prevented via statins as HMGCOA reductase enzyme inhibitors in cholesterol biosynthesis. These effects might be controlled by several transcription factors such as SOX7 and SOX9, which have been involved in PCa initiation and progression. To the best of our knowledge, no study has demonstrated the association of simvastatin and SOX status in PCa. Therefore, this study is an attempt to evaluate whether simvastatin induces anti-neoplastic effects via the SOX9 and SOX7 transcription factors.
    Methods
    Prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC3 were used to evaluate the expression of SOX7 and SOX9 using quantitative RT-PCR.
    Results
    Our data was analyzed by applying one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test and determined that 0.07 µM of simvastatin after 24 h was sufficient to upregulate SOX7 mRNA expression ratio by 3.58 fold in LNCaP. In addition, the level of SOX9 mRNA expression was increased by 12.18 fold at 0.07 µM after 24 h, 8.67 fold at 0.001 µM after 24 h, and 6.33 fold at 0.07 µM after 12 h in LNCaP and in PC3 cell line. The level of SOX9 mRNA expression was increased by 2.64 fold at 0.5 µM after 24 h and 2.78 fold at 0.1 µM after 12 h, however, it decreased by 0.67 fold at 0.1 µM after 24 h.
    Conclusions
    Our findings suggest that simvastatin can induce the anti-cancer properties via manipulating the expression of SOX7 in LNCaP, as the androgen-dependent cell.
    Keywords: Simvastatin, LNCaP, PC3, SOX7, SOX9
  • Sonia Asadi , Sakineh Mohammad, Alizadeh, Charandabi , Parisa Yavarikia , Mojghan Mirghafourvand * Page 5
    Background
    Domestic violence is a global problem in the world and it is a common cause of psychiatric disorders in women of the reproductive age. This study was aimed at determining the socio-demographic predictors of intimate partner violence.
    Methods
    This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 558 married women in Tabriz, Iran. Participants were selected through the cluster sampling. Data were collected using a socio-demographic characteristics questionnaire and the revised conflict tactics scale (CTS2). CTS2 consists of 39 pairs of statements and five sub-scales including negotiation, psychological, physical, sexual, and injuries sub-scales. It has eight response categories (0 to 7) for each items. Selecting options one to six for any item of each subscale was considered as presence, and selecting options zero or seven was considered as absence of that type of IPA. The multivariate logistic regression model was employed to determine the predictors of domestic violence dimensions. A P value < 0.05 was considered significant.
    Results
    The highest prevalence of male domestic violence against women and female domestic violence against men was in the negotiation dimension, respectively 97% and 98.2%. The lowest prevalence of the male domestic violence against women was in the injury dimension (22.6%) and female domestic violence against men was in the sexual coercion dimension (32.8%). Age, husbands’ smoking, family income adequacy, consensual marriage, and husband’s first marriage were the predictive variables of domestic violence against both men and women. Woman’s job and woman’s job satisfaction were only the predictive variables of male domestic violence against women. Household members and spouse’s substance and alcohol abuse were only the predictive variables of female domestic violence against men.
    Conclusions
    Considering the high prevalence of domestic violence and its relationship with certain socio-demographic factors in the present study, it is crucial to propose culturally-appropriate strategies for decreasing domestic violence to provide matrimonial stability and family solidarity.
    Keywords: Intimate Partner Violence, Socio-Demographic Predictors, Iran
  • Eslam Moradiasl , Davoud Adham*, Hossein Solimanzadeh , Abedin Saghafipour , Hadi Eghbal Page 6
    Background
    Scorpion sting is a major health threatening problem in the world, while most victims in Iran are children. Identification of high-risk areas for scorpion stings and dispersal areas map can help to control, prevent, and take effective measures in a timely manner.
    Objectives
    The current study aimed at investigating the scorpion stings and determining the distribution status and spatial analysis in Ardabil Province, North-West of Iran.
    Methods
    The current cross sectional study collected the routine human scorpion stings information from health houses, healthcare centers, and hospitals of Ardabil Province from 2012 to 2017 in standard epidemiological surveillance forms. The current study employed Arc GIS 10.2.3 and the space map projection to provide spatial distribution maps of high-risk areas for scorpion stings.
    Results
    Eight hundred fifteen cases of scorpion stings from all 10 counties of Ardabil Province were reported. During the study period, there was direct significant relationship between the increase of scorpion sting cases and temperature, as with 3°C average annual temperature increase, the incidence rate of scorpion sting increased from 5.45/100,000 in 2012 to 16.32/100,000 in 2017. Two hot zones of scorpion stings were detected in Khalkhal and Germi counties; the Southern and Northern areas of the province, respectively.
    Conclusions
    According to the current study findings, there were some hot zones of scorpion stings in Southern and Northern areas of the province. In addition, since the increase of temperature and reduction of rainfall and humidity coincide with the increase of scorpion stings, it is expected that with the increase of temperature in the next years with regard to the global warming phenomenon, scorpion stings also increase in this province.
    Keywords: Spatial Distribution, Scorpion Sting, Iran
  • Mahsa Rekabi , Saba Arshi , Sepideh Darougar*, Vahab Rekabi , Mohammad Nabavi , Morteza Fallahpour , Mohammad Hassan Bemanian , Abolfazl Rajabi Page 7
    Introduction
    Wheat allergy can develop at any stage of life. The aim of this report was to demonstrate that skin testing and specific IgE have poor specificities and sensitivities for wheat allergy.
    Case Presentation
    A 37-year-old female presented symptoms that were initiated immediately after consumption of bread and biscuits. She was well until two months prior to her recent admission. Her skin prick test, RIDA assay, and patch test for wheat showed negative results despite a history of two episodes of anaphylaxis. She underwent an oral food challenge, which confirmed wheat allergy. A desensitization procedure was recommended for her. At the end of the immunotherapy process, she had normal intake of wheat without any symptoms.
    Conclusions
    Negative sIgE and SPT results do not rule out clinical food allergy. Oral food challenges are still the cornerstone of diagnosis of food allergy.
    Keywords: Wheat, Food Allergy, Desensitization, Oral Food Challenge, Oral Immunotherapy
  • Kamran Bagheri Lankarani Page 8
    Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI) was established 40 years ago. On the 40th anniversary of this new model of the pious practice of democracy that has been involved in major contentions throughout these four decades from war to coup and sanctions, it would be of interest to know the trends in health indicators in Iran. The progress in many aspects including life expectancy and maternal and child health, as well as the provision of sophisticated health services, is tremendous while there are still challenges in combatting non-communicable diseases and financial aspects of the health system.
    Keywords: Iran, Health, Life Expectancy, Equity, Family Physician, Pharmaceutical Industry, Maternal Mortality