فهرست مطالب

علوم اجتماعی - سال پانزدهم شماره 1 (بهار و تابستان 1397)
  • سال پانزدهم شماره 1 (بهار و تابستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/01/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • حسین میرزایی، مجتبی میرزایی*، الهام مظلومی صفحات 1-20

    مفهوم توسعه دربردارنده پیشرفت و ترقی جامعه در تمامی ابعاد زندگی است. توسعه زمانی محقق می شود که کلیه تلاش ها برای انسان و تعالی او صورت پذیرد. در روند توسعه بر عوامل گوناگونی تاکید می شود؛ از جمله «انگیزه موفقیت» افراد است که این متغیر نیز تحت تاثیر عوامل دیگری شکل می گیرد. این مقاله بر اساس نظریه مک کله لند به تعیین میزان انگیزه موفقیت در بین دانشجویان دختر و بررسی برخی عوامل مرتبط و موثر بر این انگیزه می پردازد. جامعه آماری پژوهش، کلیه دانشجویان دختر دانشگاه تبریز است که 166 نفر به صورت طبقه ای، تصادفی انتخاب شدند و مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند. ابزار تحقیق پرسش نامه استاندارد و همچنین محقق ساخته است. نتایج نشان داد که رابطه مثبت و معنی داری (23/0) بین شیوه تربیتی دموکراتیک والدین و انگیزه پیشرفت دانشجویان وجود دارد. همچنین رابطه بین متغیر علاقه به رشته تحصیلی و میزان انگیزه پیشرفت مثبت و معنی دار (34/0) بوده است. از طرفی رابطه بین سطح تحصیلات دانشجو با انگیزه پیشرفت رابطه معکوس و معنی دار (42/0) بوده است. نتایج مربوط به تحلیل رگرسیون نیز بیانگر آن بوده که انگیزه پیشرفت بیشتر از همه از بعد شیوه تربیتی دموکراتیک متاثر است. نقش تربیتی والدین یکی از عوامل مهم تاثیرگذار در افزایش خلاقیت و انگیزه موفقیت فرزندان می باشد. لذا باید سعی شود تا به نحوه تربیت آنان بویژه در محیط خانواده توجه شود و والدین را از این امر آگاه ساخت که آینده فرزندان آنها و آینده توسعه کشور بی تاثیر از شیوه تربیتی آنها نیست.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه، مک کله لند، انگیزه موفقیت، شیوه تربیتی والدین، دانشجویان
  • علی اکبر مجدی، محمود تیموری*، سید احمد میرمحمدتبار صفحات 21-50
    اهمیت روزافزون یادگیری سازمانی در سازمان یادگیرنده، باعث انجام تحقیقات زیادی در سال های اخیر درباره عوامل موثر بر یادگیری سازمانی شده است. با توجه به افزایش تحقیقات یادگیری سازمانی و شناسایی عوامل متعدد موثر بر آن، تحقیق حاضر درصدد بررسی مهمترین عوامل تاثیرگذار بر یادگیری سازمانی در تحقیقات انجام شده در ایران است. روش تحقیق مقاله حاضر، فراتحلیل می باشد و جامعه آماری این تحقیق، همه مقالات معتبر علمی هستند که در سال های 1384 تا 1394 با موضوعات یادگیری سازمانی منتشر شده اند. ازاین رو در نهایت 39 تحقیق انتخاب و با نرم افزار CMA2 تحلیل شدند. نتایج مرور نظامند درباره متغیرهای اثرگذار بر یادگیری سازمانی در تحقیقات مرور شده، نشان داد که تاکنون 26 متغیر در این حوزه بررسی شده است. همچنین نتایج فراتحلیل نشان می دهد که از بین عوامل اثرگذار بر یادگیری سازمانی، هوش سازمانی و سرمایه فکری اثرگذارترین عوامل بودند. براین اساس، هوش سازمانی (با اندازه اثر 76/0) و سرمایه فکری (با اندازه اثر 74/0) بیشترین تاثیر را بر یادگیری سازمانی داشتند.
    کلیدواژگان: یادگیری سازمانی، سرمایه فکری، فرهنگ سازمانی، هوش سازمانی، فراتحلیل
  • مهدی قادری*، خالد توکلی، بهزاد احمدی صفحات 51-78
    هدف از پژوهش حاضر ترجمه و تعیین اعتبار و پایایی نسخه فارسی «پرسش نامه سرمایه اجتماعی دانش آموزان نوجوان» (SCQ-AS) بود. روش پژوهش، پیمایش و از نوع مقطعی بود. جامعه آماری مورد مطالعه شامل کلیه دانش آموزان دبیرستان های شهر سقز بودند. ابتدا بر اساس نمونه گیری خوشه ای مدارس مدنظر انتخاب، سپس بر اساس نمونه گیری تصادفی سیستماتیک حجم نمونه مشتمل بر300 دانش آموز (160پسر و 140 دختر) انتخاب شدند. اعتبار محتوی پرسش نامه از طریق توافق متخصصان، و اعتبار سازه آن از طریق تحلیل عاملی تاییدی مبتنی بر مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری تعیین شد. پایایی و ثبات درونی پرسش نامه نیز از طریق ضریب آلفای کرونباخ بررسی شد. داده ها با استفاده از ورژن 19 نرم افزارSPSS و نرم افزار LISREL8. 8 تحلیل شدند. نتایج تحلیل عاملی تاییدی مبتنی بر مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری، ساختار 4 عاملی پرسش نامه را تایید کرد. مقادیر «شاخص برازش نرم شده» بنتلر- بونت (NFI) برابر با 95/0 و «شاخص برازش تطبیقی» (CFI) برابر با 98/0، نشان از برازش مطلوب مدل داشتند. مقدار «ریشه دوم میانگین مربعات خطای برآورد» (RMSEA) برابر با 038/0 به دست آمد و ازآن جایی که این مقدار کمتر از 06/0 است، می توان استدلال کرد که پرسش نامه فوق از روایی سازه مطلوبی برخوردار است. این پرسش نامه برای اندازه گیری سرمایه اجتماعی در میان دانش آموزان نوجوان مناسب است و قابلیت به کارگیری در مطالعات اپیدمیولوژیک به ویژه مطالعات مرتبط با سرمایه اجتماعی و اثرات آن بر عوامل خطر یا مولفه های سلامت میان دانش آموزان نوجوان را داراست.
    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل عاملی تاییدی، اعتبار، پایایی، سرمایه اجتماعی
  • توکل آقایاری هیر، محمد عباس زاده، ابراهیم محمدپور صفحات 79-112
    تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی ارتباط بین متغیرهای تمایزطلبی و دانش تغذیه ای با الگوی مصرف (میزان و نگرش به سلامت) غذاهای غیرخانگی نگاشته شده است. روش تحقیق از نوع پیمایشی بوده و جامعه آماری شامل تمامی شهروندان بالای 15 سال شهر تبریز است که 409 نفر از آن ها به شیوه نمونه گیری طبقه ای براساس مناطق ده گانه شهر تبریز برای مطالعه انتخاب شده اند. بر اساس یافته های تحقیق، تمایزطلبی (به شکل مثبت) ، دانش تغذیه ای (به شکل منفی) ، پایگاه اقتصادی- اجتماعی (به شکل مثبت) و جنس (به نفع مردان) رابطه معناداری با میزان مصرف غذاهای غیرخانگی داشته و تنها پایگاه اقتصادی- اجتماعی رابطه منفی، معنادار و ضعیفی با نگرش به سلامت غذاهای غیرخانگی نشان داده است. نتایج حاصل از برازش مدل مسیر حاکی از آن است که هر چهار متغیر مستقل تحقیق (شامل؛ تمایزطلبی، دانش تغذیه ای، پایگاه اقتصادی اجتماعی و جنس) تاثیرات کل معناداری بر میزان مصرف غذاهای غیرخانگی داشته و در مجموع 22 درصد از تغییرات آن را تبیین کرده اند. در ارتباط با نگرش به سلامت غذاهای غیرخانگی، فقط پایگاه اقتصادی- اجتماعی دارای تاثیر معنادار در تحلیل های چندمتغیره بوده که توانسته بخش کوچک و در عین حال معناداری از واریانس نگرش به سلامت غذاهای غیرخانگی را تبیین نماید.
    کلیدواژگان: الگوی مصرف غذای غیرخانگی، تمایزطلبی، دانش تغذیه ای، پایگاه اقتصادی - اجتماعی
  • مریم عبدالهی*، علی حسین زاده صفحات 113-142
    پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی تاثیر معماری دانش بر هویت سازمانی با نقش میانجی توانمندسازی روان شناختی و سرمایه اجتماعی انجام شده است. روش تحقیق کاربردی و به لحاظ روش، جزء تحقیقات توصیفی-همبستگی به شمار می رود. جامعه آماری کلیه کارکنان شهرداری مشهد، 2851 نفر بوده اند که تعداد 332 نفر به عنوان نمونه به شیوه ی نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده انتخاب شده اند. به منظور گردآوری داده های پژوهشی از پرسش نامه معماری دانش چوران و کروگر (2004) ، هویت سازمانی چنی (1983) ، توانمندسازی روان شناختی اسپیترز (1992) و سرمایه اجتماعی ناهاپیت و گوشال (1998) استفاده شد. برای سنجش روایی، از روایی محتوا و تحلیل عامل تاییدی و سنجش پایایی از ضریب آلفای کرنباخ استفاده شد. میزان آلفای کرونباخ هویت سازمانی، معماری دانش، توانمندسازی روان شناختی و سرمایه اجتماعی به ترتیب 86/0، 86/0، 84/0 و 72/0 محاسبه شد. تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات با روش مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری با رویکرد روش حداقل مربعات جزئی و نرم افزار SMART PLS انجام گرفت. نتایج این پژوهش حاکی از تاثیر مثبت و معناداربودن معماری دانش بر هویت سازمانی، توانمندسازی روان شناختی و سرمایه اجتماعی به ترتیب به میزان 42/0، 47/0، 64/0 توانمندسازی روان شناختی بر هویت سازمانی به میزان 41/0 است. در نهایت توانمندسازی روان شناختی و سرمایه اجتماعی نقش میانجی گری در تاثیر معماری دانش بر هویت سازمانی به میزان 32/0 و 43/0 دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: هویت سازمانی، معماری، توانمندسازی روان شناختی
  • بیژن خواجه نوری*، مهری مرادخانی، شهناز براتی صفحات 143-168
    مطالعه ی حاضر رابطه ی بین سبک زندگی و هویت اجتماعی زنان شهر ایلام را مورد بررسی قرار داده است. پس از مرور مطالعات انجام شده، بر اساس نظریه ای مبتنی بر آراء گیدنز شش فرضیه ارائه شد. جهت آزمون فرضیه ها 400 نفر از زنان شهر ایلام به شیوه نمونه گیری خوشه ای چند مرحله ای انتخاب شدند. روش تحقیق این مطالعه پیمایشی و با استفاده از پرسشنامه محقق ساخته بوده است. در تحقیق حاضر با استفاده از تحلیل عاملی 6 سبک زندگی دربین زنان ایلامی مشخص شد. یافته های تحقیق نشان داده اند که بین سبک های زندگی مذهبی، موسیقیایی و مشارکت ورزشی با هویت اجتماعی ارتباط مثبت و معنی دار و سبک زندگی مجازی با هویت اجتماعی ارتباط منفی و معنی دار وجود دارد. همچنین نتایج رگرسیون چند متغیره با حضور 6 متغیر به ترتیب (طبقه اجتماعی، سبک زندگی مذهبی، سبک زندگی موسیقیایی، شغل، منطقه محل سکونت زندگی، و سبک زندگی ورزشی) در مجموع 24 درصد از تغییرات متغیر هویت اجتماعی را تبیین کرده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: هویت اجتماعی، سبک های زندگی، زنان، ایلام
  • محمد بهرامی*، مریم روشن صفحات 169-187
    پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی رابطه جهت گیری مذهبی و باورهای غیرمنطقی با گرایش به سوء مصرف مواد در بین نوجوانان انجام شد. این پژوهش از نوع همبستگی است که بر روی نمونه ای مشتمل بر 219 نفر از دانش آموزان پسر مقطع متوسطه دوم شهرستان شاهین دژ انجام شده است. روش نمونه گیری ترکیبی (خوشه ای تصادفی) و پرسش نامه های آمادگی اعتیاد زرگر (1385) ، جهت گیری مذهبی آلپورت (1967) و باورهای غیرمنطقی اهواز (1384) بر روی نمونه انتخابی اجرا شد. نتایج نشان داد که گرایش به سوء مصرف مواد با جهت گیری مذهبی بیرونی و باورهای غیرمنطقی رابطه مثبت و معنادار و با جهت گیری مذهبی درونی رابطه منفی و معنادار دارد. نتایج تحلیل رگرسیون نشان داد که جهت گیری مذهبی بیرونی و درونی و باورهای غیرمنطقی در مجموع 41 درصد از واریانس گرایش به سوء مصرف مواد را پیش بینی می کنند. می توان گفت که باورهای غیرمنطقی و نداشتن نگرش های دینی و مذهبی درونی از جمله عوامل زمینه ساز سوء مصرف مواد می باشند که باید در درمان و پیشگیری از سوء مصرف مواد مورد توجه قرار گیرند.
    کلیدواژگان: گرایش به سوء مصرف مواد، جهت گیری مذهبی درونی، جهت گیری مذهبی بیرونی، باورهای غیرمنطقی
  • مجید فولادیان*، محمد توکل، محسن سوهانیان حقیقی صفحات 189-220
    چندین دهه بود که مفهوم توسعه یافتگی اقتصادی بعنوان یکی از بنیان های با ثبات، در برنامه ریزی کشورهای در حال توسعه قرارگرفته بود. در کشور ما نیز چه پیش از انقلاب و چه پس از آن رویکرد توسعه صنعتی، راهبرد اصلی دولت های حاکم بوده است. این در حالی است که اکنون سال هاست چه به شکل نظری و چه در عمل ایرادات چنین استراتژی نمایان شده است. بر این اساس در مقابل این رویکرد استراتژی های دیگری از جمله توسعه اجتماعی و توسعه پایدار اهمیت یافته اند. در این تحقیق با توجه به اولویتی که توسعه صنعت و تکنولوژی در تمام مناطق کشور داشته است، به بررسی تاثیرات گسترش تکنولوژی بر ابعاد مختلف توسعه اجتماعی (توسعه اجتماعی توزیعی و انسانی) پرداخته می شود. در این راستا سوالات اصلی که قصد بررسی آنها را داریم عبارتند از: 1) استان های کشور از نظر توسعه تکنولوژیک و توسعه اجتماعی در چه وضعیتی قرار دارند؟ و 2) توسعه تکنولوژیک چه تاثیری بر ابعاد مختلف توسعه اجتماعی در استان های مختلف کشور گذاشته است؟ پژوهش حاضر از نوع تبیینی است، و برای بررسی فرضیات تحقیق از روش «تطبیقی کمی» استفاده شده است. نتایج حاکی از آن است که استان سمنان با بیشترین نرخ توسعه تکنولوژیک بر حسب جمعیت، رتبه نخست را در میان استان های کشور دارا می باشد و پس از آن به ترتیب استان های یزد و قزوین قرار دارند. در میزان توسعه یافتگی اجتماعی در بعد توزیعی،استان یزد بیشترین میزان توسعه یافتگی را داراست. استان فارس نیز رتبه نخست را در میزان سرمایه اجتماعی دارد و بیشترین میزان نابرابری نیز متعلق به استان های گلستان و تهران است. نتایج تحلیل رگرسیونی بیانگر این مطلب است که تقریبا 44 درصد از واریانس و تغییرات بعد توزیعی توسعه اجتماعی توسط توسعه تکنولوژیک تبیین می شود. آماره ها گویای این واقعیت است که متغیر توسعه تکنولوژیک با بتای0. 68بطور مستقیم بر بعد توزیعی توسعه اجتماعی تاثیر می گذارد، این بیانگر این مطلب است که متغیر توسعه تکنولوژیک بر میزان توسعه اجتماعی در بعد توزیعی استان ها موثر است. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که توسعه تکنولوژیک استان ها بر میزان سرمایه اجتماعی و همچنین میزان نابرابری در استان ها تاثیر معناداری ندارد.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه تکنولوژیک، توسعه اجتماعی توزیعی، توسعه اجتماعی انسانی، سرمایه اجتماعی، نابرابری
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  • Hossien Mirzaei *, Mojtaba Mirzaei, Elham Mazlumi Pages 1-20

    1.Introduction Nowadays all societies seek the development of which human being is its basic factor. The development would not be completed if the human beings as the basis of it are not paid attention to and are not improved during this process. Human beings not only are the main purpose of development ،but also they are the main factor and the capital of this development. Therefore, it is very important to consider all the factors that influence this vital capital. Given all the studies on this issue, it is necessary to consider the variables affecting motivation, job commitment, need for achievement, diligence and being competitive of work force. The family is one of the vital variables that has an important role in the life style, future, and personality formation of people. In this research, we have attempted to measure the impact parent's training styles on the feeling of need for achievement among female students of Tabriz University
    2. Theoretical Framework
    Development theories have been categorized into different dimensions. In this paper, we divided them into pessimistic and optimistic theories. Some pessimistic thinkers believe that development path is not open for some societies (under developing and third world countries); Andre Gunder Frank (1971) is one of this scientists. On the other hand, optimistic thinkers suppose that there is no inherent barrier for the development of countries, and this way is open for the third world countries and other societies.
    The modernization theories belong to optimistic view. These theories are presented in three areas of social, economic and psychological types. In the social field, we
    have theorists such Smelser (1959), Hoselitz (1952), and Eisenstadt (1973). In the
    economic field, Hirschman (1973), Schumpeter (1962), and Rostow (1960) can be seen. And in the area of psychological renewal theory, which points to the beginning of development as human renewal and the personality system, it is possible to refer to Hagen (1962) and McClelland (1953) theories. These theories consider the beginning of development as human renewal and personality system. In this study, we focused on McClellan's Need for achievement theory. According to this theory, the main factor for development and modernization is the tendency
    to success. Of course there are many different and important variables which influence this need. Some of these variables are mass media, formal and informal educational system, organizations, religion, family, and etc. For some limitation,  we have chosen only the factor of "parents training style" as the main variable which affects the need for achievement.
    3.Methodology The present study is an applied research using a survey method. In this
    investigation we utilized the first-hand data gathered by the use of questionnaire.
    The questionnaire was designed by the researchers and the pre-test was also taken
    before administration. A sample of 166 students are chosen among all female students in Tabriz University during 2013-2014 school year. The sampling was done using Chochran's formula and random stratified sampling technique.  We measured parenting styles according to the APA (1960) model. She recognized three different parenting styles. Authoritarian ("too hard") )or despotic (: the authoritarian parenting style is characterized by high demandingness with low responsiveness. Permissive ("too soft") (or easygoing): this parenting style is characterized by low demandingness with high responsiveness. And authoritative ("just right") (or democratic): this parenting style is characterized by high demandingness with huge responsiveness.
    4.Results The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of parents training styles on the feeling of need for achievement in female students. According to this end, the results of the correlation coefficient showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between the “democratic training style” and the “feeling of need for achievement”. According this important result, we can conclude that Democratic training style will provide the basic conditions for increasing the need of achievement. But “despotic training style” had a negative impact on need achievement of female students. And there was no relationship between “easy training style” and the feeling need for achievement. The results of regression analysis also confirmed these findings. Other results showed that there is negative and significant relationship between educational level and need of achievement and there was a positive and significant between dependent variable and “the degree of interest in the field of study”.
    5.Conclusion Today it is proved that the development process is impossible without interested and highly motivated human resources. For this reason, each society that wants to follow the development process must give particular attention to human resources. The results of the research showed that the training styles of parents has important effect on the feeling of need for achievement among female students. In other words, parents can increase the need for success in their children directly and indirectly if they behave democratic with their children. The findings of this study confirmed, the views of McClelland (1953), Hagen (1963) and other scholars in the psychological field of development process. In terms of empirical research, the results of the present study are consistent with the results of the research conducted by Santrock (1984), Glasgow (1997) and Beirami and Khosroshahi (2010). Finally, according to these findings, researchers suggest that we must train parents for development process in every society especially in third world countries. And the family is the first step for development and every society must start its development from its families.

    Keywords: Development, McClelland, need for achievement, training style, students
  • Ali Akbar Majdi, Mahmoud Teimouri *.Seyed Ahmad Mirmohammad Tabar Pages 21-50
    1.Introduction Given the adaptation of development to organizations, technological changes, and the necessity of increasing the quality of services, organizational learning is regarded as one of the most important factors concerning organizational innovations. Therefore, exploring and explaining the effective factors in organizational learning are of similar importance due to the significance of organizational learning’s influence on the development of organizations within today’s ever-changing environment. However, with relatively numerous studies conducted in the past few decades as well as the increased number of scientific research in the areas related to the subject of organizational learning in the country, the scientific community is facing extensive and accumulated information on the effective factors in organizational learning. Nevertheless, there are very few collaborative, joint studies in which an abstract, extract, and the results of the conducted research in the area of organizational learning are presented to researchers in an organized, practical manner. Therefore, in this study it is attempted to provide a precise, thorough examination of the existing research in the area of organizational learning in order to present their abstracts and results systematically.
    2. Theoretical Framework
    A considerable number of effective factors in organizational learning were identified through studying several models on this subject. In the majority of these models, similar instances were introduced as effective factors in organizational learning which can be classified into three levels of individual, collective, and organizational. However, there are no organizational learning models or theories that are accepted by everyone. As a result, the identification of the effective factors in organizational learning within the learner organization in a comprehensive model framework is the main necessity of such organizations, and the absence of an integrated, all-inclusive model involving the whole effective individual, collective and organizational factors in organizational learning is considered as a theoretical gap in this area.
    3.Methodology The method used in the present study is meta-analysis. In this method, the background of the subject undergoes a systematic review in order to specify the effect of one variable on another one in previous studies. Similar to cross-sectional inquiries, the sample population of the present study includes research results instead of individuals. The total sample of this study includes all articles on organizational learning published in valid journals of the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology from 2005 to the end of the second half of 2016 and finally 39 articles with the intended criteria were selected.
    4.Results The results of our systematic reviews showed that all 39 studies had been conducted through a descriptive-analytical method, and 46% of these studies were conducted by three researchers. The questionnaires designed by the authors as well as the NIF questionnaire were among the most used with 37% and 15.5%, respectively. The most investigated variable was related to intellectual capital as well as organizational culture, both of which were examined in the research hypotheses seven times.
    The results of meta-analysis also showed that the relationship between organizational intelligence and learning, which was investigated in four articles, was equal to 0.76, which is positive and significant. The relationship between intellectual capital and organizational learning in seven hypotheses were found to be 0.74, both positive and significant. The relationship between the empowerment of staff and organizational learning in three studies was equal to 0.64. According to the results, the relationship between transformative leadership and organizational learning in four hypotheses was almost 0.61, both positive and significant. The results of meta-analysis on seven studies presented a relationship between organizational culture and learning equal to 0.61, which was both positive and significant. Furthermore, the relationship between knowledge management and organizational learning in three hypotheses was equal to 0.57, both positive and significant.
    5.Conclusion The results of the study showed that variables including intellectual capital and organizational learning were of great effect (more than 0.7) on organizational learning, which is in line with the previous theories in this area. Haber (1991) states that organizational learning occurs when an organization acquires the required knowledge; this means that the main requirement for organizational learning is the knowledge created or acquired by the staff. As a result, such a requirement is intellectual capital which has positive and significant effect on organizational learning. The results of the study also demonstrate a positive and significant relationship between organizational intelligence and learning. In the literature on organizational intelligence, the link between the learning process and organizational intelligence is pointed out theoretically. According to this literature, an intelligent organization is basically one that is capable of learning. Consequently, the variables of organizational intelligence and intellectual capital are theories at the organizational level which have a direct relationship with organizational learning.  
    Keywords: Organizational learning, Intellectual capital, Organizational culture, Organizational intelligence, Meta-analysis
  • Mehdi Ghaderi *, Khaled Tavakoli, Behzad Ahmadi Pages 51-78

    1.Introduction Social capital is one of the concepts that has attracted the attention of theorists of various research fields in the last two decades. Despite the increasing growth of social capital literature in various research fields, one of the most important challenges in this area is that the researchers are not paying attention to social capital studies for the adolescent generation and its effects on health. Most research in this area has studied social capital relations in the school environment and its effects on academic achievement and social adjustment. Among the most important shortcomings in this regard is the lack of appropriate scales along with precise measures for assessing social capital among the adolescent generation. Due to the lack of scales and tools for assessing social capital for the adolescent generation, the purpose of this study is to translate and determine the validity and reliability of Social Capital Questionnaire for Adolescent Students (SCQ-AS). In fact, Paiva et al. (2014) conducted its design, construction and validation for the adolescent students in Brazil. The main question of the present research is whether the Persian translation of the questionnaire has adequate validity and reliability for Iranian adolescent students. 2. Theoretical Framework
    The study of theoretical approaches to social capital in the field of health indicates that social capital plays a key role in the health and well-being of individuals. By social capital in the field of health, we mean "the measures taken by the society in an effort to stimulate and mobilize policy makers to allocate resources for a specific purpose, such as the development of health promoting social infrastructures” (Abel, 2007, pp 51- 50). In this regard, Lin (2001) argues that social capital contributes to mental health. In his view, receiving approval and obtaining social credibility can lead to self-esteem in individuals in such a way as that protects the person from stress and maintains their balance, thereby enhancing the mental health and life satisfaction (Lin, 2001). From Putnam's point of view, there are four reasons why social capital and health are related: (1) Social networks offer financial help to peopleto reduce stress; 2) The networks reinforce health and health standards; 3) Better networks can ask for more suitable health services; (4) Evolution and social activities make the defense system of the body more active (Putnam, 2000). In general, theoretically, social capital can be to the benefit of the health of individuals in several ways: (a) Social capital contributes to a growing dissemination of information leading to health improvement (Kawachi & Berkman, 2000; McKenzie, 2006); b) In order to provide psychological support to individuals, social capital is able to create opportunities that tend to reduce stress and improve health (Kawachi & Berkman, 2001); (c) Social capital is often inclined toward more political organizations, which results in the allocation of more health resources for a region. Health resources further and improve access to health care and thus improve health (Kawachi & Berkman, 2000). 3.
    Methodology
    The research method in this paper was a cross-sectional survey. The statistical population consisted of all high school students in Saghez. At first, based on the cluster sampling, the relevant schools were selected and then, based on systematic random sampling, a sample size of 300 students (160 boys and 140 girls) was selected. The validity of the content of the questionnaire was determined through the experts' agreement, and its construct validity was determined through a confirmatory factor analysis based on structural equation modeling. The reliability and internal consistency of the questionnaire were also determined by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The data were analyzed using SPSS v.19 software and LISREL 8.8 software. 4.Results The results of this study show that internal coordination for each of the subscales as well as the overall scale of the situation is favorable. The validity and internal consistency of this questionnaire and the proximity of its results with the results of the main study (the total alpha coefficient calculated in the original study was 0.71%) suggest that the translation process of the present tool has been properly conducted and that it is of good comprehensibility. Hence, on the one hand, the respondents have not faced basic ambiguity when answering the questions. On the other hand, the items and factors of this scale have been insensitive to ethnic and cultural issues. This can be considered as a distinctive feature of the tool. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis based on the structural equation modeling (RMSEA = 0.038) is also consistent with the results of the study by Paiva et al. (2014), the four-factor structure of the questionnaire, including coherence in school, intimacy in school, social cohesion in the neighborhood, trust in school and neighborhood, was endorsed. As a result, none of the items in the survey questionnaire was deleted. In other words, there was a relationship between the content of the items from the point of view of the subjects and the factors related to each item. 5.Conclusion In this paper, after translating and doing preparatory work with the aim of evaluating the validity and reliability of the Persian version among Iranian students, it became clear that the scale has the following benefits: 1) Concise, clear and short questions; 2) Emphasis on important and determining dimensions of social capital (such as coherence and intimacy in school, social cohesion in the neighborhood, and trust in the environment of schools and neighborhoods); and (3) The suitable adaptation of the questions in the questionnaire for Iranian adolescents and students. Its proper validity and reliability implies that this scale has the potential to become a practical guide for assessing the level of health among teenage students. Accordingly, the application of this scale is particularly important for conducting epidemiological studies, especially the studies on social capital and its effects on risk factors or health components among adolescent students. In order to overcome its shortcomings, it is suggested that the validity and reliability of this scale be examined in further studies by other researchers among wider samples in different parts of the country.
    Keywords: Confirmatory factor analysis, Validity, Reliability, Social capital.
  • Tavakkol Aghayari Hir , Mohammad Abbaszadeh, Ebrahim Mohammadpour Pages 79-112
    1.Introduction Every living being requires food, energy, and nutrition to survive and preserve their life and health. Experiences related to food and nutrition along with its biological role have gained economic, social, and cultural dimensions within the contemporary urban life. Studying food-related experiences within its social dimension is so significant that it has led to the formation of a new area of study called sociology of food and nutrition during the last few years. The present evidence in Iran shows that Tabrizi citizens are also increasing the share of takeaway food in their consumption pattern, which is parallel to the general course of changes occurring in this area across the world or metropolitan cities of the country. The present study was conducted with the purpose of examining certain social dimensions related to takeaway food consumption pattern among Tabrizi citizens. 2. Theoretical framework
    the processes and experiences related to food can be influenced by a large number of economic, political, social, and cultural factors. By focusing on existing social approaches regarding food consumption practices, the theories presented by Thorstein Veblen and Pierre Bourdieu were used in this study to explain the individuals’ food-related experiences from the economic-social dimension. By introducing the concept of exhibitive consumption (which could also be used for food consumption), Veblen regards the economic and social position of individuals as related to their food-related experiences. In his general theory of distinction,
    Bourdieu also believes that individuals use food in various quantities and qualities as a tool to offer a distinction between themselves and others, which is similar to other consumer experiences they might have. In fact, they use this tool to form various dimensions of their identity and character. 3.Methodology The present study was conducted using the survey method among the entire citizens of Tabriz city over the age of 15. Approximately 409 people were selected as the sample of population using Cochran’s formula as well as multi-stage stratified sampling (among ten districts of Tabriz city). The required data were collected using the questionnaires developed by the authors based on the previous literature related to notions under examination. The assessment of validity and reliability of the study was respectively carried out according to content validity (formal) and Cronbach’s alpha along with the KMO index, the results of which demonstrated the appropriateness of indices used in this study. The dependent variable in this study included takeaway food consumption pattern (entailing the extent of use and outlook towards the quality and safety of food), while the independent variables included seeking distinction, nutrition literacy, socioeconomic position, and gender. 4.Results According to the findings of the study, seeking distinction (positively), nutrition literacy (negatively), socioeconomic position (positively) and gender (in favor of men) showed significant correlation with the amount of takeaway food consumption. Of the employed independent variables, only the socioeconomic position variable showed a negative and significant statistical relationship with the outlook towards the quality and safety of takeaway food. The results obtained from related path models fitness demonstrate that all four independent variables (i.e. seeking distinction, nutrition literacy, socioeconomic position, and gender) had a significant effect on the extent of takeaway food consumption, explaining almost 22% of the variance in the dependent variable. Regarding the outlook towards quality and safety of takeaway food, only the socioeconomic position variable had a general significant effect on the related final model, explaining a small, yet significant part of the variance in the dependent variable.
    Given the theoretical framework and experimental backgrounds reviewed in the study, the results showed a significant relationship between seeking distinction and the extent of takeaway food consumption. Respondents who showed high levels of seeking distinction also consumed more amounts of takeaway food. Along with its primary and biological role, it appears that food also involves social and identity-related implications. According to the results, the individuals belonging to high-level socioeconomic positions also consumed higher amounts of takeaway food. As was expected, nutrition literacy affected the amount of takeaway food consumption negatively and significantly through providing nutritional information on the various types of foods. In general, men consumed higher amounts of takeaway food as compared to women. 5.Conclusion As takeaway foods (esp. their consumption), at least among the investigated individuals, are formed under the influence of a number of variables, including seeking distinction, nutrition literacy, socioeconomic position, and gender, a set of general points could be presented as conclusion. First of all, considering the relatively high consumption of takeaway food among a portion of respondents, attention to the quality and safety of these foods should be considered in the interventions related to food and nutrition in Tabriz city so that effective steps can be taken to improve the quality of takeaway foods using various control and supervision mechanisms with regards to the production and distribution of these foods. People with high socioeconomic positions showing a more intense desire towards distinction consumed takeaway foods to a higher extent. Presumably, paying attention to the role of this experience in the lives of these people is essential. It can also be pointed out that raising public’s awareness and sensitivity in line with reducing takeaway food consumption might decrease the possibly undesirable impacts of such foods which are often classified as serious concerns within the area of nutrition and health. In addition, given their high consumption of takeaway food, men indeed require special attention in this regard.
    Keywords: Takeaway Food consumption pattern, Seeking distinction, Nutrition literacy, Socioeconomic position
  • Maryam Abdollahi, Ali Hosseinzadeh * Pages 113-142
    1.Introduction As a phenomenon, identity has been the interest of philosophers and thinkers in areas of psychology and sociology for many years. By definition, organizational identity is a description of how members of organizations define themselves as a social group through which they distinguish themselves from the members of other organizations. Given the vast changes in the atmosphere revolving around organizations in recent years, the issue of identity has been increasingly focused on in the areas related to organizations. In this regard, researchers have examined the causes and implications of the subject in which the impact of knowledge management on organizational identity through the mediator role of psychological empowerment and social capital has been overlooked. 2. Theoretical Framework
    There is little consensus on the meaning and definition of organizational identity; in fact, this construct represents particular means through which individuals define themselves based on their membership in a particular organization. Organizational identity is a conceptual link between the awareness of organizations and self-awareness. Organizational identity is a notion for defining individuals’ relationship with the organization they work in. Knowledge management is one of the main components of management systems which specify how and where knowledge can be acquired and transferred. Knowledge management offers the means for the transformation and evolution of information to knowledge as well as how to transfer them. In other words, knowledge management provides a general scheme
    for the technical infrastructure of knowledge management. As a subcategory of organization management and one of the main constituents of knowledge management systems, knowledge management indicates how and where knowledge can be acquired and transferred; it entails three major parts, including skill, information, and structure, with innovation also being a part of it. Considered as a competitive privilege, one of the major capitals of any organization is to have efficient, capable, and cooperative human resources. Studies on leadership and management skills demonstrate the act of human resource empowerment as the main axis of the effectiveness of organizations and management. In this case, managers do not have sufficient time to control their staff, and they should spend the majority of their time and energy on identifying the inner and outer environments of their organization and assigning other routine duties to their employees. What highlights the need for empowerment more than ever is that firstly empowered staff would regard themselves as more effective in their workplace and share such empowerment with their collogues; secondly, they would deem themselves as innovators, showing less fear toward trying new things. Social capital reflects social platforms and relationships which have significant implications. In some studies, a strong correlation has been found between physical and spiritual health and positions in networks. Today, the subject of social capital has become the main focus of scholars in scientific areas, particularly organizational researchers. One of the main causes of such focus is related to the importance and benefits of social capital in today’s world, especially in the area of organizations. Similar to other forms of capitals, social capital provides generating points and the probability of success regarding particular purposes, which would not have been possible otherwise. 3.Methodology The population of this study includes the entire Mashhad's municipality staff (i.e., 2851 individuals) out of which 332 people were selected through random sampling. As for data collection, the knowledge management questionnaire by Curran and Kruger (2004), psychological empowerment questionnaire by Spreitzer (1992), organizational identity questionnaire by Cheney (1983), and social capital questionnaire by Nahapiet and Goshal (1998) were used. To evaluate the validity of questionnaires, content validity and factor analysis were used; the reliability was also assessed using Cronbach’s alpha, and given its higher values than 0.7 in all questionnaires, the reliability was confirmed. 4.Results The hypotheses of the study were tested using structural equations model. The path coefficients among the variable of knowledge management on organizational
    identity, empowerment, and social capital were 0.424, 0.472, and 0.647, respectively. Furthermore, the path coefficients of psychological empowerment and social capital on organizational identity were 0.416 and 0.465, respectively. Significant coefficients in these paths were respectively obtained as 2.156, 6.126, 8.711, 2.806, and 2.333, which shows that the first five hypotheses of the study have been confirmed. Moreover, given the value of t score obtained from Sobel test as 1.97 and 2.79 which were higher than 1.96, it can be concluded that the impact of mediator variables of psychological empowerment and social capital on the relationship between knowledge management and organizational identity is significant at 95% confidence level. As a result, the observed indirect relationship is statistically significant; therefore, the sixth and seventh hypotheses of the study were confirmed. 5.Conclusion Organizational identity has many various causes; however, this study attempts to examine the impact of knowledge management on the organizational identity variable through the mediator role of psychological empowerment and social capital. The results of the study show that knowledge management directly affects the organizational identity of Mashhad's municipality staff through the mediation of psychological empowerment and social capital. In general, since human resources are the most important and valuable capital of any organization and that concentrating on such invaluable capital may impact the failure or success of any organization, it is vital that managers pay attention to developing the identity of their staff. The results indicate that concentrating on subjects such as the participation of staff in decision making, the empowerment of human resources, the delegation of authority, mutualistic relationships, participatory administration, the assignment of the staff to organizational knowledge, and the flexible structures that are indices of knowledge creation, social capital, and knowledge management in organizations may affect the staff to be more committed to their organization and its purposes and values. This, in turn, results in a stronger organizational identity. Moreover, as a result of enhancing organizational identity among the municipality’s staff, they will show a higher job performance and citizen behavior of the staff as well as fewer resignations, inefficiencies, delays, and unjustified absences.
    Keywords: Organizational identity, management, psychological empowerment.
  • Bijan Khajenoori *, Mehri Moradkhani, Shahnaz Barati Pages 143-168
      1.Introduction The process of globalization has considerably affected different aspects of human life, including gender attitude, education, identity, and life style (Chiu, 2010; Lotf Abadi, 2008; Nourouzi, 2004; Theophanous, 2011). In modern society, social identity is predicated on social class or individuals' life style (Rahmat Abadi & Aghabakhshi, 2006). Women constituting one half of society are situated in the rather different atmospheres which have changed their available resources, roles, and status in the society more than anything else (Qaderzadeh, 2011). One of the most important of these changes is the change in the process of production and reproduction of their social identity (Moghaddas & Khajenoori, 2004). The present study considers the social identity of women in the city of Ilam which is deemed to be one of the tribal and traditional cities of Iran. 2. Theoretical Framework
    In its simplest term, social identity is "the definition of an individual based on his or her membership in social groups in society" (Brown, 1985, p. 771). Moreover,a person's social identity refers to the characteristics and thoughts that one acquires through social sharing, membership in groups and social categories.. By internalizing these features, the individual feels affinity toward that group. The social identity of individual creates the concept of "we" against the concept of "they" (Mehrmand et al., 2009, p. 95). In fact, all identities are to some extent social identities (Jenkins, 1996) because no identity exists apart from society. The root of identity formation is in the process of socialization although this should be noted that the social identity is a process which changes during one's life. With
    regard to Giddens' (1999) view, "identity is created and constantly is adapted and experienced with respect to life styles and paradoxes, and the motivating tendencies of today's institutions" (Giddens, 1999,p. 261). Bourdieu (1984) also emphasizes the the role of identity with regard to one's life style, and use it as a tool to show social distinction (as cited in Storey, 2006). The results of this research confirm the existence of a relationship between life style and individual identity. Nowadays, women become acquainted with new styles of living through using modern tools like satellites, the Internet, and cyber space, and they feel compelled to compare these tools with the traditional style of living. The existence of women in different fields around the world specifically in developed countries has incited other women to reconsider their social identities and their roles within society, which has brought about many questions in their minds (Moghaddas & Khajenoori, 2005). The main assumption of the current research is to consider the relationship between the identity and the life style of women in Ilam. 3.Methodology This research is conducted through a quantitative method. The population of this research is consisted of women living in Ilam. The samples are taken from four hundred married women from Ilam. Multi-stage cluster sampling is used here. The questionnaires used are designed by the researchers. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient is used to evaluate the reliability of the items of the social identity variable which equals α = 73/0. For the validity of the items of the life style variable, two methods of content and construct validity are used. 4.Results The results of the descriptive statistics showed that the average age of the women in this study was 36/52, and most of them belonged to the groups of 34-49. Forty-eight percent of them had university education, while 66/5 percent of them were housewives. In addition, most of them belonged to the middle class. The results of the two-variable methods showed that the social identity of women has a positive correlation with religious life style, musical life style, and athletic life style. Moreover, there exists a negative correlation between the virtual life style and social identity. Based on multiple regression statistics, the effective independent variables on social identity were taken into consideration. With regard to the logic of the method of multi-variable methods, independent variables that significantly contributed to the explanation of variance were included in the equation for the dependent variable in seven steps. . The entered variables respectively included social class, religious life style, musical life style, job, neighborhood, virtual life style, and athletic life style. Altogether, the model of this study explained 24 percent of the changes in the variable of social identity. 5.Conclusion The present research showed that the selection of one specific life style can greatly affect women's identity. For several decades, girls and women around the world have questioned and confronted their established and traditional identity. Based upon Giddnes's view, due to today's open social life, the multiplicity of the activities in contexts and the great number of resources with more authority, the selection of life style with the purpose of constructing an identity and resuming daily activities is extensively becoming more important. The results of this research showed that the selection of life styles with the purpose of directing one's identity is significant. These findings are totally in line with the results of the studies conducted by Azadarmaki and Chavoshian (2002), Moghaddas and Khajenoori (2005), Tanhaie and Khorrami (2010), Mirzaii (2011), Campbell (2007), Mashhadi (2011), and Dedeoglu and Ustundagli (2011). They all approve that life style directs an individual’s social identity.
    Keywords: Social identity, life styles, Women, Ilam
  • Mohammad Bahrami*, Maryam Roshan Pages 169-187
    1.Introduction Addiction is a physical, mental, and social illness in which pre-addiction backgrounds play a substantial role. The readiness of addiction is considered to be the beliefs of the individual about the outcome and outcome of any work and value that a person makes for this result (Galanter, 2006). Tendencies toward substance use in individuals are assessed according to their beliefs and views about substance The present study was conducted with the purpose of examining the relationship between the religious orientations and irrational beliefs and the substance abuse tendencies among teenagers. Due to the high prevalence of substance dependence among different classes and the difficulty in treating it, attempts to identify the causes of this problem in many populations are very important, and the awareness of the family and authorities in juvenile adolescents and how to deal with this phenomenon is also very effective as such. 2. Theoretical Framework
    Religious beliefs can be employed as an antidote against the disorders caused by substance abuse. According to Allport (1967), individuals with an external religious orientation will be the tool of satisfaction of their basic needs, and those with internal religious orientation, while integrating religious values, will consider religion as a goal . In this case, findings show that people with high religious orientations are less likely to consume alcohol and other substances. Studies in this area have confirmed that when religious beliefs and the sense of meaning and purpose are at a low level in one’s life, they would be more prepared for substance abuse (Miller, 1988).
    The presence of irrational thoughts and beliefs also play a significant role in the etiology and treatment process for the individuals who are dependent on substances (Gastfriend, 2005). The results of a study conducted by Mahmoudi (2013) showed that people with higher irrational thoughts are less resilient toward substance and have a more positive view about them. Ghorbani, Kazemi, & Ghorbani (2011) demonstrated that people suffering from methamphetamine abuse disorder had more irrational beliefs as compared with normal individuals. Aminpour and Ahamd Zadeh (2011) compared the irrational beliefs in addicted and normal people and discovered that these beliefs were more significant in the former type than the latter one. In view of the above discussion, the purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between religious attitudes, irrational beliefs and substance abuse tendencies. 3.Methodology The population of the study included the students of the 2nd grade of high school in Shahin Dezh County studying during 2016-2017 academic year. The sample population included 219 students who were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. To analyze the data, the Pearson correlation method as well as multi-variable linear regression were used. Furthermore, the questionnaires including addiction preparedness (Zargar, 2006), religious orientation (Allport, 1967), and irrational beliefs of Ahwaz (4IBT-A) (Ebadi & Motamedin, 2005) were given to the sample population. 4.Results The results showed that substance abuse tendencies have a positive, significant relationship with extrinsic religious orientations and irrational beliefs, while it has a negative, significant relationship with intrinsic religious orientations. The three variables of intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientations and irrational beliefs are capable of predicting teenagers’ substance abuse tendencies; in fact, it could predict that 41% of the variance was related to substance abuse tendencies. 5.Conclusion The results of this study show that teenagers with intrinsic religious orientations are less likely to have substance abuse tendencies, whereas individuals with extrinsic religious beliefs are more likely to have drug abuse tendencies. In fact, enforcing religious beliefs across the entire stages of life can be a preventive measure to reduce mental disorders and its consequences, such as Substance addiction, depression, and anxiety (Asghari, Kordmirza, & Ahmadi, 2013). Other studies also assert the fact that the minimum function of religion plays a direct protective role against any type of damage. As a result, it can be stated that individuals’ religious beliefs and outlooks increase their immunity against substances; it appears that individuals with more intrinsic and real religious beliefs are more immune against addiction. Furthermore, teenagers who had irrational beliefs faced more substance use tendencies. According to Ellis (1995), mental and behavioral problems are the result of individuals’ incorrect understanding as emotions are the products of awareness (Zareidoost, Atefvahid, Bayanzadeh, & Birashk, 2007). In addition, sometimes there are incorrect beliefs among people regarding dugs and addiction, which only complicates and worsens the situation. For instance, false beliefs such as “recreational and very inconsiderable use of substances will not lead to addiction” and “everything is worth experiencing for one time”, unfortunately result in the spread of addiction across the society.
    Ultimately, religious orientations and irrational beliefs are capable of predicting 41% of changes in the scores related to substance abuse tendencies among teenage students. Consequently, the absence of intrinsic religious outlooks and rational beliefs in individuals would make them more susceptible to dangerous behaviors such as substances abuse, providing the context for their addiction. It is thus recommended that proper strategies and models be used to confront religious disbeliefs, irrational beliefs, and substances use in order to change the students’ views about substances use and enforce their religious beliefs.
    Keywords: Substance abuse tendencies, Intrinsic religious orientation, Extrinsic religious orientation, Irrational beliefs
  • Majid Fouladiyan *, Mohammad Tavakkol, Mohsen Sohanian Haghighi Pages 189-220

    1.Introduction It has been decades since the concept of economic development was considered as one of the steady foundations of planning carried out in the developing countries. Either before or after the Iranian Islamic Revolution, the industrial development has always been the major strategy of the governments. Meanwhile, the impediments of such a strategy have been revealed for years, both in theory and practice. In turn, other strategies such as social and sustainable development have been gaining significance. In the present study, given Iran’s priorities on the development of industries and technologies throughout the country, it is attempted to investigate the impacts of technology expansion on various dimensions of social development (distributive and human social development). In this regard, the main questions to be investigated in the study are as follows: 1) What is the status quo of Iranian provinces in terms of social and technologic developments? 2) What are the impacts of technologic development on various dimensions of social development in different Iranian provinces? 2. Theoretical Framework In the West, technology and social development have been evolving alongside each other (Francois, 2002); however, the conditions of the countries developed after the West are different. One idea regarding such countries points to the advantages of their late development, as it may lead to a form of technologic shift. This method of technologic development can affect social development both positively and negatively due to its sudden introduction to the society. When the effect is positive, the outcome of mechanism enables manufacturers to act successfully, which is also beneficial to others. These consequences are, in fact, the means through which the benefits of essential dynamics are offered for the sake of the social development of the economy (Bannet, 2004; Bisin & Verdier, 2001; Francois, 2002; Kuznets, 1962). However, the second argument suggesting the negative impact of technologic progress on social development is based on the idea that the possibility of fast improvement can practically result in highly adverse consequences in social development. Such issues can arise when, despite their advantages in increasing productivity, new technology requires imposing heavy damage on a part of vulnerable manufacturers. Habits are resistant and preferences cannot be moderated overnight. When a newer, more efficient technology reaches the utilization stage, it may involve an ever-increasing growth in reliability, even though the reliability levels remain the same as the beginning point for a while. The more the differences between a new technology and its old form, the more the imbalance between the current level of social capital and its required level for new technology. If such a difference is too extensive, then new technology would not persist; consequently, entrepreneurs introducing that technology would fail. Then fewer entrepreneurs would take the risks of modern production; therefore, the dynamic benefits of reliability require positive consequences offered by successful entrepreneurs, while their failure is in fact a threat against the social capital of the society. Evidently, attempts made to introduce significant changes are bound to fail due to the presence of a form of imbalance between the initial level of social capital in the society and the required social capital for new technology (Francois, 2002; Kalen & Fang, 2015).
    Under these conditions, the majority of such countries are faced with a sociocultural duality, and become subject to economic and sociocultural imbalance on a daily basis, moving away from various indices of social development (Abdullahi, 1987; Eliyas, 1985; Gharbaghian, 1991; Mousayi, 2009). On the other hand, this type of technologic development has not led to a proper distribution of income and poverty in Peru (Todaro, 1992).
    Considering the dominant approach on the strategy of industrial and technologic advances in the country, the purpose of the present study is to evaluate the impact of technologic development on various dimensions of social development. 3.Methodology The present explanatory study was conducted using the quantitative-comparative method through testing hypotheses or contrasting the theoretical assumptions with the facts implied by these assumptions. The unit and level of analysis were “provinces” and “the country”, respectively, and the observation unit was “province/year”. The study was carried out according to the quantitative data of provinces during the years 2001-2016. Secondary analysis was used for data collection. 4.Results The findings of the study suggest that Semnan Province is ranked first among others with the highest rate of technologic development given its population, followed by Yazd and Qazvin, respectively. Yazd Province is the most developed province in terms of distributive social development. Fars Province is ranked first in terms of social capital, and the highest extent of inequality belongs to Tehran and Golestan Provinces.
    The results of regression analysis indicate that almost 44% of variance and changes in the distributive dimension of social development are explained by technologic development. The statistics demonstrate the fact that the technologic development variable directly affects the distributive aspect of social development with a beta value of 0.68. That is, the technologic development variable is effective in term of social development from a distributive dimension. Furthermore, the results also showed that the technologic development of provinces is of no significant impact on the amount of social capital as well as the extent of inequalities in provinces. 5.Conclusion In this study, the historical process of development theories was examined, showing how the concept of social development has been gaining considerable importance during the past two decades. Moreover, the concept of social development has shown new dimensions as a result of its evolution and growth throughout history. Then, the theoretical relationship between the technologic and social development was clarified based on which the hypotheses of the study were formulated. According to the findings of the study, technologic development affects the distributive dimension of social development, whereas it does not involve significant impact in terms of social capital as well as inequality (human dimensions of social development) in Iranian provinces.
    Keywords: Technologic development, Distributive social development, Human social development, Social capital, Inequality