- Volume:4 Issue: 2, Dec 2018
- تاریخ انتشار: 1397/10/12
- تعداد عناوین: 8
Pages 35-36In recent years, researchers have been looking for genes whose products can directly affect the aging process. Among these, the anti-aging protein klotho has attracted much attention. This single transmembrane protein is expressed in the renal tissues, parathyroid gland and choroid network of the brain and acts as a co-receptor for Fibroblast Growth Factor FGF. In this way, it contributes to calcium and phosphate homeostasis, which is in fact the classical function of this protein. The second extracellular protein of this protein can be released from cell surface by ectodomain shedding and get secreted into the blood, which, in turn, as an “endocrine factor”, affects the body in many ways.Keywords: Klotho, cardioprotective, protein
Pages 37-42IntroductionSocial support is one of the most important indices affecting adaptation to aging process as well as the problems and complications of the aging period such as anxiety, death and social support. This study was aimed to determine the correlation of social support with death anxiety among the elderly of Tehran, Iran.
MethodsIn this correlational study, 208 elderly referring to the daycare centers of Tehran were selected through cluster random sampling. Data were collected by demographic questionnaire, Vaux Social Support Appraisals Scale (SS-A) and Templer death anxiety scale. Both social support and death anxiety scales have been validated in Iran and enjoy the required reliability.
ResultsFrom among the participant elderly, 5.3 % were male and 67 % were single, with their mean age of 66.6 years. Also, 60.1 % were under diploma in terms of education and 64.9 % lived in their personal houses with their families. The results showed the mean social support of 24.94 and mean death anxiety of 24.43 for the elderly. Further, Pearson correlation coefficient indicated a reverse correlation between social support and death anxiety (r = -0.020).
ConclusionDeath anxiety was reduced with increased social support among the elderly. Social support, a component affecting the mental health and spirit of the elderly, can be considered a cheap source and a social capital in line with decreasing death anxiety, increasing dynamicity and improving the life quality of the elderly.Keywords: Social Support, Anxiety, Aged
Comparative Study of Balance Exercises (Frenkel) and Aerobic Exercises (Walking) on Improving Balance in the ElderlyPages 43-48IntroductionBalance in the elderly is one of the important issues, and imbalance can create irreparable problems for the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Frenkel balance exercise and aerobic exercise (walking) on improving the balance of elderly patients in Kerman province in 2016-2017.
MethodsWe used a randomized block design, with 4 participants in each block; 48 elderly men and women living in the nursing homes of Kerman province were randomly assigned to two groups, balance (Frenkel) exercises and aerobic exercises (walking). The two groups performed Frenkel exercises and aerobic exercises (walking) for three 10- to 15-min sessions a week for five weeks. The balance time using the Sharpened Romberg test was recorded to measure static balance and the Get Up and Go test used to measure dynamic balance before and after the exercise program. To describe the variables studied, central tendency indicators and dispersion were used. Paired t-test was used to compare the time of balance before and after intervention and independent t-test to compare changes in balance time between two groups.
ResultsThe mean static balance (with Sharpend Römberg test) was increased from 3.16 s to 6.01 s in Frenkel exercise, and from 3.33 s to 4.95 s in aerobic training group, indicating an improvement in the static balance after intervention. The mean time of dynamic balance (in the Get Up and Go test) during Frenkel exercise reduced from 17.07 s to 12.03 s, and during aerobic training from 17.08 s to 10.9 seconds, indicating an improvement in dynamic balance (p < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in the mean changes in the duration of dynamic and static balance before and after intervention in the two groups.
ConclusionBoth Frenkel exercise and walking equally improve static and dynamic balance in the elderly in different settings.Keywords: Balance, Aerobic, Exercise, Walking, Elderly Balance
Associated Factors of Chronic Kidney Disease among Hyponatraemic Elderly Patients Attending a Primary Care ClinicPages 49-54IntroductionChronic kidney disease (CKD) emerges to be an important geriatric health issue. It may progress to end stage renal failure and affect the quality of life. However, little is known about the associated factors of CKD. So this study aimed to determine the associated factors of CKD among hyponatraemic elderly.
MethodsThis is a retrospective study of hyponatraemic patients aged ≥ 60 years attending outpatient clinic in 2014. Blood test results of glucose, potassium, creatinine, medical history, blood pressure, medication and demographic data were captured from patient records. Each patient’s estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the CKD-EPI Creatinine Equation. CKD is defined as eGFR of < 60 ml/min/1.73m2. SPSS 21 was used to do the analysis.
ResultsTotally 257 patients with mean age of 72.9 ± 7.3 years were enrolled in this study. Of them 73 (28.4 %) elderly had CKD. The mean eGFR was 72.62 ± 24.14 ml/min/1.73m2, mean BP was (135.75 ± 18/10) mmHg. Of the participants, 134 (52.1 %) were men, 151 (58.8 %) were diabetics, 247 (96.1 %) had hypertension. The independent associated factors of CKD were increasing age (OR 1.08; 95 % CI 1.03-1.13; p = 0.002), hyperglycaemia (OR 1.10; 95 % CI 1.02-1.18; p = 0.017) and the use of loop diuretics (OR 5.15; 95 % CI 1.52-17.38; p = 0.008).
ConclusionHyperglycaemia and loop diuretics usage are found to be significantly associated with CKD among elderly patients attending a primary care clinic. Hence every effort should be made to optimise glucose control and cautious in the usage of loop diuretics to retard the decline in renal function.Keywords: Chronic Kidney Disease, Aged, Primary Health Care
Pages 55-59IntroductionOne of the most important causes of chronic diseases in elderly people is lack of physical activity. Studies have shown that lack of physical activity in the elderly causes osteoporosis, obesity, depression and sudden death from cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and colon cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an educational intervention on knowledge and practice of physical activity among the rural elderly in Zabol city.
MethodsIn this semi-experimental study, 200 elderly people over 60 years of age living in rural areas of Zabol city who were selected by multi-stage random sampling were divided into two groups: intervention and control. The data collection instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire that comprised 3 parts: demographic and background variables, knowledge and practice. Before the intervention, the questionnaires were completed by intervention and control group. The educational content for the intervention group was the Healthy Lifestyle Handbook and face-to-face training which included a practical representation of six smooth movements. However, no intervention was performed in the control group. After 2 months, the same questionnaire was completed again and the data were analyzed using SPSS software.
ResultsBefore the intervention, there was no difference in the mean score of knowledge and practice of the participants, but these differences were significant in the post intervention (p < 0.001). The mean of knowledge and practice scores in the control group in pre-intervention stage was 35.17 ± 2.05 and 6.24 ± 2.82, respectively, Which was 35.59 ± 1.82 and 5.91 ± 2.64 in the post-intervention phase, respectively, But the mean score of knowledge and practice in the intervention group in pre intervention stage increased from 35.6 ± 2.47 and 6.73 ± 3.43 to 37.85 ± 1.38, and 12.83 ± 9.09 in the post-intervention phase, respectively.
ConclusionEducational intervention is effective in increasing awareness and overall level of physical activity among the elderly.Keywords: Educational Intervention, Knowledge, Practice, Physical Activity, Elderly
Pages 60-67IntroductionSocial participation is considered one dimension and also determinant of quality of life. The level of social participation of the elderly is influenced by various components such as socio-economic and demographic factors. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between social participation, quality of life, and some socio-economic factors in community dwelling elderly in Kerman, Iran.
MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 communities dwelling old people in Kerman in 2017 selected through random sampling. The data were collected using researcher-made Social Participation questionnaire and WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires. The data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and linear regression analysis.
ResultsThe results revealed the participants’ mean score of social participation was above fifty. Social participation was significantly associated with age (p < 0.001), marital status (p = 0.004), education level (p < 0.001), and occupation (p = 0.021). A significant direct correlation was also observed between social participation and quality of life (p < 0.001), and social participation determined 21 % of variance of life quality score (p < 0.001).
ConclusionWith the increase in social participation of the elderly, their quality of life improves. Establishing nongovernmental organizations, charities, and associations for retirement and aging can increase the level of social participation of the elderly.Keywords: Aged, Social Participation, Quality of Life
Rural-Urban Differences in Stroke Types, Risk Factors, Severity and Prognosis in Babol, Northern IranPages 68-74IntroductionStroke recognized as the third most common cause of death. Stroke survivors often suffer a large amount of physical and mental disability. Due to assess difference between stroke types, progression and distribution of risk factors according residential status, to get correct information for prevention planning and management, this study was conducted.
MethodsThis descriptive cross-sectional study on stroke patient from 2016 to 2017 that admitted to Ayatollah Rohani Hospital of Babol was conducted. Type of stroke, their severity, risk factors, and urban or rural area of residence of patients were recorded in the checklist. The chi-square test was used to compare frequencies of gender, and stroke risk assessment between the urban and rural residents. Binary logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the association of risk factors with living in urban and rural areas. The results were expressed as multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs). A two-sided p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. All data analyses were performed, using SPSS statistical analysis software.
ResultsOf 241 stroke patients, 133 patients (55 %) were female and 213 patients (88.4 %) were ischemic. Also, 140 cases were (58 %) rural. Embolic strokes more in urban population and thrombotic strokes were more in rural populations. Hyperlipidemia was more in urban than rural p = 0.01. Severity of stroke in admission time (p = 0.03) and at discharge (p = 0.005) was more in rural than urban. The mortality was higher in rural 12 (8.6) vs. 2 (2) urban resident,( p = 0.03).
ConclusionRural patients had more severity, thrombotic type and mortality than urban. Suitable policy regard to residential parameter is suggested.Keywords: Stroke, Risk Factors, Rural, Urban
Pages 75-80IntroductionThere are strong evidences to support the relation between Physical Activity (PA) and improved health in older adults. So this study aimed to determine the predictors of PA among a group of older adults in northwest of Iran.
MethodsIn 2016, a randomly sample size of 340 older people in urban regions of Maku, West Azerbaijan, Iran, was recruited to complete Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and individual factors questionnaires.
ResultsThe mean score of PA was 94.02 ± 3.41. Logistic regression analysis showed that age was the strongest predictor of PA; among younger elderly with higher level education, who had less comorbidity were significantly more active than their counterparts. (β = -2.72, SE = 0.47, P- value = 0.001)
ConclusionIn this study the level of PA among the older adults was low and interventions to promote PA in this population is recommended.Keywords: Physical Activity, Aged, Individual Factors