فهرست مطالب

Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench Journal - Volume:11 Issue:4, 2018
  • Volume:11 Issue:4, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/09/17
  • تعداد عناوین: 24
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  • Hadis Najafimehr, Sara Ashtari, Hamid Mohaghegh Shalmani *, Zeinab Fazeli, Hosein Yadegari, Hamed Taherinejad, Khosrow Manhoie, Seyed Ramin Rasooli, Abbas Moradi, Mohammad Javad Akbariju, Hosein Mohseni, Maryam Nasserinejad Pages 1-7
    Aim
    Present study aimed to evaluate association between job -related factors and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) among Iranian auto factory’s workers.
    Background
    Many of the gastrointestinal disorders may be caused as the result of stress-related occupations and biorhythm disruption.
    Methods
    We performed a cross-sectional study on 3590 Iranian Auto factory employees. GERD symptoms, demographic information, work shift, work section and history of some gastrointestinal disease were asked from all employees by physician. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for GERD symptoms according to the potential risk factors.
    Results
    The prevalence of GERD was 25.57%, which was higher in rotatory shift (91.6%) than the fixed shift (8.4%) (P-value = 0.009). Smoking (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: (1.09, 1.57)), working in official section (P-value < 0.001), history of GERD (OR: 8.63; 95 % CI (6.53, 11.40)), history of peptic ulcer (OR: 2.96; 95 % CI (2.08, 4.20)), family history of gastrointestinal cancers (OR: 1.47; 95 % CI (1.19, 1.81)) were the factors associated with GERD symptoms.
    Conclusion
    The prevalence of GERD in the rotatory shift was more than the fixed shift. Smoking, family history of gastrointestinal cancers and peptic ulcer could be associated with GERD symptoms. Working in the special job with high activity, may probably lead to decrease in the risk of reflux.
    Keywords: Gastroesophageal reflux disease, risk factor, work shift, gastrointestinal cancer, peptic ulcer
  • Saeede Saadati, Azita Hekmatdoost, Behzad Hatami, Asieh Mansour, Zahra Yari, Mehdi Hedayati, Amir Sadeghi * Pages 8-13
    Aim
    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of curcumin supplementation on hepatic fibrosis using different fibrosis assessment methods.
    Background
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may progress to hepatic fibrosis. Detection of hepatic fibrosis should be measured by liver biopsy, which is an invasive method. Thus, some non-invasive methods are suggested.
    Methods
    Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated in forty six patients with NAFLD before and three months after supplementation with 1.5 gram curcumin or placebo. Methods of assessments included fibroscan, and calculating non-invasive marker panel including FIB-4 (Fibrosis4), NFS (NAFLD fibrosis score), APRI (AST (Aspartate aminotransferase) Platelet Ratio Index), and BARD (body mass index, AST/ALT (Alanine aminotransferase ratio, diabetes).
    Results
    Fibrosis score was reduced significantly after curcumin supplementation using fibroscan (p<0.01), FIB-4 (p<0.05) and APRI (p<0.05) tests, while fibrosis score did not change significantly using BARD and NFS methods (p>0.05).
    Conclusion
    Our results revealed that fibroscan, FIB-4, and APRI are similar in assessment of hepatic fibrosis changes after curcumin supplementation. Future studies with higher sample sizes are needed to confirm these results.
    Keywords: Curcumin, Hepatic Fibrosis, NAFLD
  • Shermin Seddighi, Mohammad Esmaiel Ghidari, Amir Sadeghi *, Mohammad Amin Shahrbaf, Mohammad Amin Mahmanzar, Saeede Saadati, Zahra Yari Pages 14-19
    Aim
    the aim of this study was evaluating the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with gallstones.
    Background
    Gallstones is the most common Biliary System disorder which its prevalence is increasing. On other hand, cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in the world. The causes and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and gallstones are in common.
    Methods
    In this descriptive cross-sectional study, patient with gallstones who hospitalized in Taleghani Hospital of Shahid Beheshti University of medical sciences or referred to its clinics in 2017, shared their demographic information and their underlying diseases with us. In addition, more data was collected with clinical examination, blood test, echocardiography and ultrasonography. Data was analyzed by SPSS vs21 software. In addition, online software was used for calculating Framingham and ASCVD risk score for cardiovascular diseases.
    Results
    105 patients with gallstones and 105 healthy people participated in this study. There was no significant difference between these two groups for existence of main risk factors, but the average amount of ALT, AST, and ALP enzymes in patients with gallstones were significantly more than the control group (P value<0.05). The average amount of Framingham score was not significantly different between these two groups and the average score of ASCVD was statistically lower in our case group.
    Conclusion
    The risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with gallstones is not significantly more than the general population.
    Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, Gallstones, Risk factors
  • Fatemeh Hosseini Oskouie, Homayoun Vahedi, Mohammad Amin Shahrbaf, Amir Sadeghi, Bahram Rashidkhani, Azita Hekmatdoost * Pages 20-24
    Aim
    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between dietary fiber intake and risk of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
    Background
    Patients with IBS are usually concerned about their diet, which can exacerbate or relieve their symptoms.
    Methods
    In this case-control study, ninety cases and 355 controls were selected from a gastroenterology clinic. Dietary intakes of participants were assessed using a validated and reliable food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary fiber was calculated according to United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) food composition table.
    Results
    Dietary total fiber intake was significantly associated with lower risk of IBS. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) comparing the highest tertile of dietary total fiber with the lowest tertile was 0.14 (95% CI = 0.71–0.28; P-test for trend <0.001); however, there was no significant association or dose–response trend for higher intakes of soluble, and insoluble fiber separately with risk of IBS.
    Conclusion
    Our data indicate that dietary fiber is inversely associated with the risk of IBS. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these data.
    Keywords: Irritable bowel syndrome, Dietary fiber, IBS, Case-control
  • Hadis Najafimehr, Sara Ashtari, Mohammad Amin Pourhoseingholi *, Luca Busani Pages 25-31
    Aim
    The aim of this study was to identify the esophageal cancer (EC) high risk regions to evaluate changes of relative risks (RRs) for both genders by time in Iranian provinces.
    Background
    EC is one of the public health problems in Iran. In spite of this fact, there is not comprehensive study estimating RRs across the Iranian provinces.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study the data for EC cases were extracted from Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) including 30 provinces from 2004 to 2010. For estimating the model parameters, we used Bayesian approach by regarding spatial correlations of adjacent provinces.
    Results
    The Northern half of Iran has high risk and other half has low risk. During the time, the range of RRs has decreased for both gender and also the dispersion of EC is decreasing for women but nearly is fixed for men.
    Conclusion
    While RR has declined during the study, focusing on the Northern half of Iran as high risk regions is a considerable fact for policymakers.
    Keywords: Esophageal cancer, Relative risks, Bayesian model, Iran
  • Saeed Abdi, Roghayeh Sahraie, Habib Malekpour *, Sara Ashtari, Somayeh Jahani, Sherafat, Mojgan Frootan Pages 32-38
    Aim
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP) Iranian patients.
    Background
    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common cause of NCCP, which accounts for about one third of cases.
    Methods
    This was a descriptive study on consecutive NCCP patients who referred to the gastroenterology clinic at the Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran from 2015 to 2017. Medical history, physical examination and esophageal test including upper gastroenterology (UGI) endoscopy, esophageal manometry and 24 hour ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring were done for each participant.
    Results
    The study included 102 patients, of which 58.9% were women, and the mean age of patients was 41.5 ± 11.2 years. The most common symptoms associated with chest pain were regurgitation in 28.4%, dysphagia in 23.5% and heartburn in 19.6% patients. UGI endoscopy was abnormal in 29.4% cases, esophageal manometry was abnormal in 61.7% cases and ambulatory pH monitoring was abnormal in 37.2% patients. Using UGI endoscopy and combined 24-h pH monitoring determined the prevalence of GERD 44.1% , and based on manometry the most frequent causes of NCCP was ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) in 19.6% patients with NCCP.
    Conclusion
    Detecting etiology of NCCP allows healthcare providers to assure patients of the benign nature of their condition and provide appropriate treatment. It can also help prevent excessive hospital and physician visits as well as the costly and potentially risky testing which often results.
    Keywords: Non-cardiac heartburn, Gastro-esophageal reflux disease, Esophageal dysmotility, Functional chest pain
  • Hedieh Balaii, Sepideh Olyanasab Narab, Binazir Khanabadi, Fakhri Alsadat Anaraki, Shabnam Shahrokh * Pages 39-44
    Aim
    Since the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a disorder which requires continuous drug intake to induce and maintain the remission phase, finding the barriers for low adherent group, may improve the disease phase and quality of life in those patients.
    Background
    IBD is defined as a chronic immune disorder with unpredictable flares. The common treatment of these diseases can be effective for inducing and maintaining remission courses. Therefore the use of long-term medication therapy is the crucial key to prevent surgery and complications in patients with IBD.
    Methods
    Morisky Medication Adherence Scales (MMAS) is used for detecting level of adherence to the medicines for 137 patients with IBD. Demographic and clinical data are recorded for all patients and quality of life has been evaluated by Short-Form 36 questionnaire in 55 patients.
    Results
    Demographic and clinical features showed no correlation with the degree of adherence. The MMAS-8 score in the low adherent group significantly different than that in the medium and high adherer group. No relation was found statistically between level of adherence and mental or physical sates (p value=0.17, 1.2) and total quality of life (p value=0.22) in patients with IBD.
    Conclusion
    Designing smart reminder and the physician’s explain about adverse effects and beneficial of medicines may be effective to confront with forgetfulness and feeling comfort with treatment. Improve a strategy in order to regular measurement of adherence to medication, provides enough information about stop taking medication.
    Keywords: Inflammatory bowel disease, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, Adherence, Quality of life
  • Mohsen Norouzinia *, Vahid Chaleshi, Samaneh Alinaghi, Saeedeh sadat Beheshti Shirazi, Aliasghar Keramatinia, Mahyar Nourian Pages 45-52
    Aim
    Aim of this study was to compare the gene expression of Interleukin 12 members in two phase of IBD.
    Background
    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a well-known gastrointestinal disorder in the world that fluctuates between remission and flare-up phases. Each of these phases has an individual immune system response profile. Therefore, analyzing the interleukins (IL) expression status improves the diagnosis and the classification of the IBD cases.
    Methods
    In this a case-control study, among 400 patients whom admitted to the IBD clinic, forty nine IBD patients were included. Patients were divided into three categories based on 1) the phase of the disease, 2) the type of IBD, Ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD), and 3) the therapeutic pathways. Using the real-time PCR method, the expression levels of IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-23A, and IL-27 were examined in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and compared to the pre-described subgroups.
    Results
    the data showed upregulation in the expression levels of IL-12A and IL-12B in the remission phase in comparison with the flare-up. However, no significant changes were obtained from the evaluation of IL-23A and IL-27. In addition, the mRNA levels of the target genes in the subgroups of Category 2 as well as Category 3 were similar.
    Conclusion
    Our results showed that expression patterns of the IL-12A and IL-12B genes varied between the remission and flare-up phases for the IBD patients, and may be considered as potential biomarkers for the detection and the classification of IBD cases.
    Keywords: Flare-up phase, Inflammatory bowel disease, Interleukins, Remission phase, Gene expression
  • Azade Amini Kadijani, Fariba Javadinia, Zahra Gholamrezaei, Alireza Mirzaei, Zeinab Khazaei koohpar, Hedieh Balaii, Shaghayegh Baradaran Ghavami, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei * Pages 53-58
    Aim
    Here we aimed at evaluating whether the apoptosis status of circulating leukocytes of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) patients is attributed to the diseases clinical status.
    Background
    Defects in the programmed cell death of inflammatory cells is known as to play a major role in the pathogenesis of IBD, and has been associated with the clinical efficacy of therapeutic agents.
    Methods
    A total of 50 IBD patients, 25 with remission and 25 with flare-up phase of the disease, who their disease was confirmed by colonoscopy, were included in this cross-sectional study. Pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 mRNA expression, along with Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, as measures of apoptotic status, were assessed in the Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) of the patients using semi-quantitative Real-time PCR method.
    Results
    The mean Bax mRNA expression level was 0.54±0.12 in flare-up group and 0.53±0.13 in remission group (p=0.8). The mean Bcl-2 mRNA expression level was 0.63±0.13 in flare-up group and 0.55±0.12 in remission group (p=0.03). The mean Bax/Bcl- 2 ratio was 0.88±0.17 in flare-up group and 1±21 in remission group (p=0.05). The mean Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was not statistically significant between different disease types (p=0.54) or therapeutic agents (p=0.7).
    Conclusion
    According to our results, alteration in markers of apoptosis could be traced in the circulating leukocytes of IBD patients, which suggest a potential for clinical application of apoptosis markers in disease monitoring and prediction of relapse.
    Keywords: Inflammatory bowel diseases, Apoptosis, Remission, Flare-up, Biomarker
  • Masoumeh Azimirad, Fatemeh Naderi Noukabadi, Farhad Lahmi, Abbas Yadegar * Pages 59-65
    Aim
    In this study we investigated the prevalence of binary toxin genes, cdtA and cdtB, in clinical isolates of C. difficile from hospitalized patients with diarrhea.
    Background
    C. difficile binary toxin (CDT) is an action-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase that is produced by some strains of C. difficile. Co-expression of this toxin with tcdA and tcdB can lead to more severe disease in CDI patients.
    Methods
    Totally, 930 patients suspected of having CDI was included in this study. All samples were treated with methanol and cultured on selective C. difficile agar plates. The C. difficile isolates were further identified by PCR. Presence of tcdA, tcdB, cdtA, and cdtB genes among the strains were examined by PCR.
    Results
    Analysis of the PCR results showed a prevalence of 85.2% (144/169) for toxigenic C. diffidile. Toxin genotyping of the strains for tcdA and tcdB genes revealed the toxin profiles of A+B+, A+B-, A-B+ accounting for 86.1% (124/144), 7.6% (11/144), 6.2% (9/144) among the strains, respectively. Totally, 12.4% (21/169) of the C. difficile strains were binary toxin-positive. cdtA-B+, cdtA+B+ and cdtA+B- were detected in 43% (9/21), 38% (8/21) and 19% (4/21) of the strains, respectively. Interestingly, 12% (3/25) of nontoxigenic C. difficile strains (tcdA-B-) had either cdtA+B+ or cdtA-B+ profiles.
    Conclusion
    This is the first report for the prevalence of binary toxin genes in C. difficile strains isolated from Iran. Further studies are required to investigate the exact role of binary toxins in the pathogenesis of C. difficile particularly in patients with chronic diarrhea among Iranian populations.
    Keywords: Clostridium difficile, Binary toxin, cdtA, cdtB, Diarrheal patients
  • Shaghayegh Baradaran Ghavami, Seyed Reza Mohebbi *, Khatoon Karimi, Pedram Azimzadeh, Afsaneh Sharifian, Helia Mojahed Yazdi, Behzad Hatami Pages 66-72
    Aim
    To assess the possible correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of two members of TNF ligand superfamily genes, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and lymphotoxin-α (LTA), and HCV chronic disease.
    Background
    The causes of disease progression from hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to chronic liver disease still remains unclear. Abnormal production of the cytokines alleged to be contributed to progression of the disease or viral persistence. Regulatory mechanisms that control the production of cytokines including genetic polymorphisms, especially at coding/regulatory regions of genes, may affect expression and secretion of the cytokines.
    Methods
    In this case-control investigation, 258 individuals with serologically proven chronic HCV infection and 277 healthy controls were studied. Genotyping of rs1799964 variant of TNF-α and rs909253 intronic variant in LTA gene were performed. To confirm the results of genotyping, 10% of the specimens analyzed again by sequencing approach.
    Results
    In this investigation, a significant association was observed between the TNF-α TC genotype and chronic HCV infection (P = 0.035). Moreover, the frequency of C allele was significantly different between control subjects in comparison with chronic HCV patients (P=0.02). On the other hand, no association was found between LTA gene polymorphism and susceptibility to chronic HCV infection.
    Conclusion
    These findings indicate that genetic variants like single nucleotide polymorphism in TNF-α rs1799964, could be a host factor associated with susceptibility to HCV chronic infection. However, further large scale investigations are needed to confirm this finding.
    Keywords: Hepatitis C, Cytokine, Single nucleotide polymorphism, Lymphotoxin-?
  • Khadijeh Jalili Angourani, Sogol Mazhari, Shirin Farivar, Donya Salman Mahini, Abdolreza Rouintan, Kaveh Baghaei * Pages 73-79
    Aim
    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium on fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation.
    Background
    Mesenchymal stem cells have a long-term clinical application and widely have used in autoimmune disease and regenerative medicine. However, some MSCs derived cytokines such as TGF-β could have a dual role in suppression or progression of disease. Fibroblast activation and extracellular matrix production are two key features of wound healing which mostly are controlled with multifunctional cytokine TGF-β1.
    Methods
    Bone marrow MSCs were isolated, cultured and used for conditioned medium preparation. The flow cytometry analysis was done for MSCs cell surface markers. MRC-5 subconfluent cells were starved with the medium containing 0.5 % FBS for 24h, then treated with exogenous TGF-β1 (10ng/ml as positive control) and MSCs-conditioned medium for 48h. Finally, the mRNA expression of three target genes: collagen I, collagen III and α-SMA were evaluated by RT-PCR technique.
    Results
    Our findings demonstrated that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells-conditioned medium (secretome) significantly upregulated type I and III collagen expression but non-significantly α-SMA gene expression.
    Conclusion
    Totally, Real Time PCR results suggest that MSCs conditioned medium activates differentiation of fibroblast to myofibroblast phenotype as confirmed through the presence of α-SMA, collagen I and collagen III expression compared to control in MRC 5 cells.
    Keywords: MSCs-secretome, Fibroblast, Myofibroblast, Alpha-smooth muscle actin, Collagen I, Collagen III
  • Mohammad Reza Zali *, Mohammad, Mahdi Zadeh, Esmaeel, Mostafa Rezaei, Tavirani, Elmira Sadat Tabatabaei, Nayeb Ali Ahmadi Pages 80-84
    Aim
    In this study, the transcriptome profile of Barrett's esophagus (BE) was examined for identification potential related biomarkers in view of interacting charactering.
    Background
    Since BE is known as a precursor of esophageal cancer, the molecular studies of this condition could be essential.
    Methods
    Gene expression data of BE in comparison with normal cases, GSE34619 was retrieved from Gene Expression Omnibus. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were determined applying GEO2R online software. The DEGs then were analyzed in terms of centrality properties via constructing an interaction network.
    Results
    The data indicate that there are two sets of hub-bottlenecks panels with distinguishable values in BE. The first group shows that BE is very susceptible to develop cancer, and the second one implied on central characteristic of some DEGs as previously were also reported for BE pathogenicity. In addition, these genes are also implicated in cancer shift from certain conditions.
    Conclusion
    On the whole, taking together these findings explain and support the cancerous origin of BE and introduced a panel of nominated biomarkers that could be more specific for BE rather than other types of esophageal problems. However, a complementary study to support this claim is suggested.
    Keywords: Barrett's esophagus, Transcriptome, Protein interaction maps, Cancer development
  • Nosratollah Naderi, Mona Zamanian Azodi *, Elahe Daskar Abkenar, Mohammad Shahidi Dadras Pages 85-91
    Aim
    Evaluating and screening of genes related to colorectal inflammation of mice for finding critical ones in this disease was the aim of this study.
    Background
    Many studies are shown direct relationship between inflammation and colorectal cancer onset and development. Several molecular aspects of inflammation are investigated to discover molecular mechanism of this disease.
    Methods
    Profiles of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of mice inflamed colorectal tissue in comparison with normal samples are obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The significant and characterized DEGs were screened via protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Hubs of the network were determined and backbone network was constructed. Moreover, action network for the critical nodes was constructed and analyzed.
    Results
    Eight central genes including IL6, ALB, PRDM10, AKT1, GAPDH, IL8, INS and TNF were determined as hub nodes. Findings indicate that insulin plays critical role in regulation of hub genes. This finding shows association between inflammation and metabolism dysregulation. Except PRDM10 and GAPDH, the other hubs show considerable regulatory effects on each other.
    Conclusion
    Inflammation of colorectal tissue is strongly depended on metabolism especially to insulin function.
    Keywords: Colorectal, Inflammation, Transcriptome, Protein interaction maps
  • Homayoun Zojaji, Majid Rezaei Tavirani *, Vahid Mansouri, Ali Seyed Salehi, Reza Mahmoud Robati Pages 92-97
    Aim
    Introducing possible suitable compound as diagnostic agent in appendicitis is aim of this investigation.
    Background
    Appendicitis diagnosis is a difficult step in treatment of disease due to complex abdominal pain signal which may be refer to the non-appendicitis pain.
    Methods
    Gene expression profiles of children with non-preforated appendicitis in comparison with the samples with nonappendicitis abdominal pain are analysis via protein – protein interaction (PPI) and the critical compounds are introduced by STITCH.
    Results
    Ten compounds including including MgATP, glycerol, MgADP, calcium ions, chloride, magnesium, phosphate, sulphate, acetate, and sodium are introduced as possible biomarker panel to differentiate appendicitis from the other abdominal pains.
    Conclusion
    A laboratory method such as flame photometry based on metal detection for diagnosis of appendicitis is possible, however more investigations are required.
    Keywords: Appendicitis, Gene, Biomarker
  • Mohammad Reza Zali, Mohammad, Mehdi Zadeh, Esmaeel, Majid Rezaei Tavirani, Sina Rezaei Tavirani, Mohsen Norouzinia, Mostafa Rezaei, Tavirani * Pages 98-104
    Aim
    Identification of crucial genes and possible biomarkers which are involved in Barrett’s esophagus (BE) disease was aim of this study.
    Background
    BE is diagnosed by endoscopy and biopsy and is characterized by esophageal columnar metaplastic epithelium. BE can convert into dysplasia that finally results cancer condition.
    Methods
    Gene expression profiles of BE and normal gastric cardia which are characterized by GSE34619 and GPL6244 platform (1) were retrieved from gene expression omnibus (GEO). The significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed via protein-protein interaction network (PPI) analysis. The nodes of network were enriched via gene ontology (GO) to find biological terms. Action map of network elements was provided.
    Results
    Among 250 top DEGs, 100 ones were included in PPI network and KIT, CFTR, IMPDH2, MYB, FLT1, ATP4A, and CPS1 were recognized as prominent genes related to BE. Seven amino acids including arginine, alanine, aspartate, glutamate, valine, leucine and isoleucine which are related to BE were highlighted.
    Conclusion
    In conclusion five central DEGs; KIT, CFTR, IMPDH2, MYB, and FLT1 were proposed as possible biomarkers for BE. However, validation and more experimental information is require to finalize the findings.
    Keywords: Biomarker, Barrett’s esophagus, Network
  • Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Mona Zamanian Azodi *, Reza Vafaee, Hamideh Moravvej Farshi, Nosratollah Naderi Pages 105-110
    Aim
    Determination of crucial genes that are involved in onset and progress of dysplasia of colorectal mucosa is the aim of this study.
    Background
    Management of dysplasia as one of the risk factors of colon cancer is very challenging. Molecular studies could be helpful in this matter. Here, the transcriptome profile of low-grade dysplasia in colon tissue in comparison with normal one is studied by protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis.
    Methods
    For detecting differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of dysplasia lesion, the data was downloaded from the gene chip GSE31106, platform GPL1261, GSM770092-94 as normal colorectal mucosa group and GSM770098-100 as low-grade dysplasia colorectal mucosa from the Gene Expression Omnibus database (GEO). The expression profile is evaluated by GEO2R and a network of DEGs is constructed and analyzed by Cytoscape algorithms.
    Results
    The findings indicate that a PPI network analysis of 113 DEGs is consist of 8 nodes that 6 of them are common with inflammation state. Only SRC and TP53 were recognized as the specific makers for dysplasia. In this respect, a subnetwork of these two genes introduce a panel of 8 nodes consist of HRAS, MYC, PIK3CA, PIK3CB, PIK3CD, PIK3CG, SRC, and TP53.
    Conclusion
    It can be concluded that SRC and TP53 may play prominent role in dysplasia pathogenicity after running validation tests.
    Keywords: Dysplasia lesion, Colorectal cancer, Protein-protein interaction network analysis
  • Habib Malekpour, Mohammad Hossein Heidari *, Reza Vafaee, Hamideh Moravvej Farshi, Mahsa Khodadoostan Pages 111-117
    Aim
    The aim of this research was to find a clear molecular view of dysplasia via network analysis.
    Background
    There are some evidence suggest the relationship between dysplasia and colorectal cancer. Understanding of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) could be beneficial for colon cancer management.
    Methods
    Bioinformatics study of HGD versus healthy subjects was conducted to check the status of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). GSE31106, GPL1261, GSM770092-94 and GSM770101-6 were the sources from gene expression omnibus (GEO) that queried for protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis via Cytoscape and its algorithms. Hubs of network were enriched for biochemical pathways and were validated via clustering analysis.
    Results
    Numbers of 46 hub nodes were determined and were included in 12 pathways. A main cluster including 76 nodes was identified containing 45 hubs. 33 hubs among 46 genes were involved in biochemical pathways. IL1B, IL6, TNF, and TRL4 were the most important critical genes.
    Conclusion
    Many different genes as hub nodes might influence the trigger and development of advance condition and also colon cancer.
    Keywords: Transcriptome, Interactome, Colon cancer, High grade dysplasia
  • Mohammad Rostami, Nejad, Vahid Mansouri *, Reza Mahmoud Robati, Hamid Mohaghegh Shalmani, Reza Mahmoudi Lamouki, Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani Pages 118-123
    Aim
    Finding important differential genes between grade II and grade III of rectum cancer was the aim of this study.
    Background
    Colorectal (CRC) cancers (CRC) are known as the third diagnosed cancer and the second leading to death cancers. Life style is an important risk factor of CRCs. Diagnosis of rectum cancer estimated as 44% of colon cancer.
    Methods
    Differentially expressed genes (DEGS) related to grade II into grade II in 6 patients are retrieved from gene expression omnibus (GEO) and investigated by protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. Central nodes of the network are identified and enriched to determine biochemical pathways. Action map is illustrated for the central genes.
    Results
    Among 15 central genes including AKT1, PRDM10, GAPDH, TP53, SRC, EGFR, ALB, INS, CTNNB1, EGF, IL6, RHOA, DECR1, ACACA, GMPS role of AKT1 is highlighted due to prominent role in the integrity of the network and participation in the most determined pathways. However, significant regulatory effect of INS, AKT1, EGF, EGFR, and CTNNB1 is tinted in action map.
    Conclusion
    It seems that AKT1, EGFR, and TP3 are suitable drug targets to prevent rectum cancer progression.
    Keywords: Rectum, Cancer, Gene, Protein
  • Saeed Baranipour, Azade Amini Kadijani, Durdi Qujeq, Shabnam Shahrokh, Mehrdad Haghazali, Alireza Mirzaei, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei * Pages 124-128
    Aim
    Here, we evaluated the role of (iNOS) as a blood-based biomarker of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD).
    Background
    Up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the intestinal epithelial cells has been closely associated with the initiation and maintenance of intestinal inflammation in IBD.
    Methods
    In a case-control design, 59 IBD patients and 30 healthy control subjects were participated in this study. A total of 10 ml blood sample was taken from each participant. Blood leukocytes were isolated and iNOS mRNA expression level was evaluated in the isolated leukocytes using relative quantitative Real-time PCR.
    Results
    The patients’ population included 40 ulcerative colitis (UC) and 19 Crohn's disease (CD) patients. The flare and remission phase of disease were seen in 43 and 16 patients, respectively. The mean iNOS mRNA expression was not significantly different between the IBD patients and healthy controls (p=0.056). The mean iNOS mRNA expression was significantly higher in the flare phase of the disease compared to the remission phase (p=0.039). No significant difference was observed between the mean iNOS mRNA expression in the blood leukocytes of UC and CD patients (p=0.82).
    Conclusion
    iNOS is differently expressed in the blood leukocytes of active vs. inactive IBD disease. Thus, it could be potentially used as a non-invasive blood-based biomarker of IBD.
    Keywords: Inflammatory bowel diseases, Inducible nitric oxide synthase, Biomarker
  • Farid Azizi Jalilian, Masoud Parvin, Meysam Olfatifar *, Hossein Erfani, Jalal Bathaei Pages 129-133
    Aim
    This study was conducted to provide a clear epidemiological picture of HCV spatial pattern.
    Background
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major problems of public health, that its spatial and spatiotemporal pattern remain unclear in Hamadan province.
    Methods
    We used the scan statistic to identify the spatial and spatiotemporal clusters of HCV in Hamadan province with an emphasis on considering the role of carrier's and injecting drug users (IDUs) cases. We repeated the same analysis to estimate the effect of some influencing factors on the formation of clusters. All HCV cases that had been recorded by deputy health of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences during 2008-2016 were included in this study.
    Results
    The location of the purely spatial cluster for carriers, IDUs and total of cases were similar to each other, a cluster consisting of Toyserkan, Nahavand, Asadabad, Malayer and Bahar cities. However, after adjustment, the location of the identified cluster for both carries and IDUs cases changed to a cluster consisting of Asadabad, Bahar, Toyserkan and Nahavand cities. This cluster also observed for spatiotemporal clusters carriers, IDUs and total of cases even after adjustment.
    Conclusion
    Although further studies in individual level are needed, our results revealed that spatial distribution of HCV in Hamadan province (especially in clusters areas) can strongly dependent on the distribution of IDUs cases. Consequently, the effectiveness of HCV combating programs is subjected to properly controlling these case through various counseling, behavioral and therapeutic programs.
    Keywords: Hepatitis C virus, Spatial analysis, Injecting drug users, Hamadan province
  • Ali Taghipour, Taher Azimi, Ehsan Javanmard, Ali Pormohammad, Meysam Olfatifar, Ali Rostami, Payam Tabarsi, Mohammad Reza Sohrabi, Hamed Mirjalali, Ali Haghighi * Pages 134-139
    Aim
    To investigate the presence of intestinal parasites in tuberculosis patients who suffered from immunodeficiency disorders.
    Background
    Tuberculosis is an important infectious disease that is endemic in some regions of Iran. However, there is a coverage in the endemicity areas of this infection with intestinal parasites.
    Methods
    Stool samples were collected from 50 immunocompromised tuberculosis patients. Direct smear using the normal saline (0.85% NaCl solution) and Lugol’s iodine staining were performed to detect trophozoite of parasites. Moreover, stool samples were concentrated using routine formalin-ether to detect protozoan cysts and helminth’s ova/larvae. Specific staining techniques including Trichrome, Modified Ziehl-Neelsen and chromotrope 2R were employed to detect amoeba, Giardia spp., coccidian parasites and microsporidia.
    Results
    From 50 participants, 42 (84%) and 8 (16%) were male and female, respectively. The mean age + SD of patients was 47.88 + 10.88 years. Among the participated patients, HIV positive, cancer, organ transplant and receiving corticosteroids were seen in 13, 10, 15 and 12 subjects, respectively. The prevalence of Intestinal parasites was 34 %( 17/50). Blastocystis (18%; 9/50), and intestinal helminth (Enterobius vermicularis) (2%; 1/50) were the most prevalent and less prevalent parasites, respectively. Statistical significance difference was not seen between presence of intestinal parasites and type of immunodeficiency.
    Conclusion
    Our findings showed the high prevalence of intestinal parasites with majority of Blastocystis. Indeed, this study suggested that due to complicated immune conditions of TB patients with immunodeficiency disorders, this group of patients are at higher risk of infection by intestinal parasites.
    Keywords: Tuberculosis, Immunodeficiency disorders, Intestinal parasites, Iran
  • Fatemeh Dokhaee, Sogol Mazhari, Mohammad Galehdari, Ayad Bahadori Monfared, Kaveh Baghaei * Pages 140-145
    Aim
    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of GKN1 and GKN2 genes as probable biomarkers for gastric cancer.
    Background
    Gastric cancer is a multifactorial process characterized by the uncontrolled growth and dissemination of abnormal cells. Survival rates of gastric cancer tend to be poor, a plausible explanation is a combination of a late-stage diagnosis and limited access to treatment. In this regard, finding relevant and measurable biomarkers is urgently needed.
    Methods
    27 samples of gastric cancer tissues were enrolled into this study, according to their pathological responses. The alteration of genes expression were evaluated by Real-Time PCR technique.
    Results
    Our findings showed the significant reduction of Gastrokin-1 and Gastrokine-2 genes expression in the cancerous specimens in comparison with the normal tissues. (P = 0.008 and P = 0.004 respectively).
    Conclusion
    Our findings showed the significant reduction of Gastrokin-1 and Gastrokine-2 genes expression in the cancerous specimens in comparison with the normal tissues. (P = 0.008 and P = 0.004 respectively).
    Keywords: Gastric cancer, Gastrokine-1(GKN1), Gastrokine-2 (GKN2), Real-time PCR
  • Maryam Nasserinejad, Mohammad Amin Pourhoseingholi *, Sama Rezasoltani, Setareh Akbari, Ahmad Reza Baghestani, Sadjad Shojaee, Mohammad Yaghoob, Taleghani, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini, Mojarad Pages 146-148