فهرست مطالب

Herbmed Pharmacology - Volume:8 Issue: 1, 2019
  • Volume:8 Issue: 1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/12/26
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Waleed Ali , Samah Saeed*, Mona Schaalan , Abeer Elmaidomy , Hossam Hassan , Elham Amin , Mona Hetta Pages 1-7
    Introduction
    The development of multi drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) TB, increased the interest in the usage of medicinal plants that are complementary to antibiotics to improve anti-TB efficacy. The present study aimed to confirm the anti-TB efficacy of volatile oils (VOs) isolated from different parts of Premna odorata in vivo, and moreover, to test the possible involvement of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in its anti-TB efficacy.
    Methods
    Thirty mice were divided into six equal groups. Group 1: healthy mice (negative control). Groups 2-6 were injected intravenously with a positive TB solution of purified MeDiPro Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) antigen for 7 days to induce tuberculosis. Group 3-6: TB-injected mice treated respectively with leaves VO (300 μL/d), young stems VO (300 μL/d), flowers VO and a combination of the three essential VOs (1:1:1). Various immunologic factors and antioxidant activity were evaluated and compared in the groups.
    Results
    TB-infected mice showed a significant increase in the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL) 1-β and the mRNA expression levels of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) & nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and a decrease in IL-10 & total antioxidant capacity (TAC). While pretreatment with VOs extracted from leaves, flowers, young stems and a combination of the three oils reversed these effects.
    Conclusion
    The immunomodulatory effects of VOs extracted from different parts of P. odorata against TB infection involve the TLR-4/NFκB signaling pathway as well as, antioxidant effects, recommending that the use of this plant may help TB infected patients.
    Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Premna odorata, TLR-4, NF-?B, IL-1?, TNF-?
  • Hassan Sadraei*, Seyed Mostapha Ghanadian , Saeideh Moazeni Pages 8-13
    Introduction
    Dracocephalum kotschyi is an Iranian indigenous herbal plant which has been reported to have antispasmodic activity in vitro. The antispasmodic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of D. kotschyi is reported to be due to its flavonoids constituents including apigenin and luteolin. The objective of this research was to compare antispasmodic activities of hydroalcoholic and flavonoids extracts of D. kotschyi on ileum contractions in vivo. In addition, spasmolytic activity of apigenin, luteolin and apigenin-4'-galactoside were compared.
    Methods
    The hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by percolation method. Flavonoids extract was obtained by solvent-solvent extraction. Antispasmodic effect of the test compounds was assessed by measurement of percent small intestine transit following oral administration of a charcoal meal and compared with control group and standard drug loperamide.
    Results
    Biochemical assessment of flavonoids content of the extracts showed that ethyl-acetate fraction contained higher quantity of flavonoids. Loperamide (2.5 mg/kg) reduced charcoal meal movement by 58% in comparison to control group. Hydroalcoholic extract of D. kotschyi (20 mg/kg) and its ethyl-acetate fraction (20 mg/kg) reduced the intestinal charcoal meal transit by 32% and 90%, respectively. Apigenin, luteolin and apigenen-4'-galactoside with oral dose of 20 mg/kg inhibited intestinal movement of the charcoal meal 93%, 89% and 45%, respectively in comparison with the vehicle treated control groups.
    Conclusion
    This study confirms that both the hydroalcoholic and flavonoids extracts of D. kotschyi have antispasmodic properties in vivo. Antimotility of apigenen-4'-galactoside in mice is probably due to release of apigenin in the gastrointestinal tract.
    Keywords: Dracocephalum kotschyi, Apigenin, Luteolin, Apigenin-4'-galactoside, Ileum meal transit
  • Marshanty Obem Oyama , Adeola Oluwagbemileke Egbebi , Fred Coolborn Akharaiyi * Pages 14-20
    Introduction
    Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to available antibiotics is in alarming rate to put this into control with the use of natural products of plant derivatives. The aim of this research is centered on comparative study of plant extracts and antibiotics on S. aureus isolates from hospital patients.
    Methods
    A total of 106 human clinical samples were collected and analyzed for S. aureus isolates from urine, noses, ears and wounds of patients. The isolated S. aureus species were subjected to inhibition with plant extracts in comparison with commercial antibiotics. Twenty S. aureus isolates from the subjects’ samples were analyzed for multidrug resistance to antibiotics and plant leaves aqueous extracts. Out of these isolates, 9 were obtained from urine, 3 from noses, and 4 each from ears and wounds samples. These isolates were identified with code numbers
    Results
    The highest inhibition created on the isolates with modern medicine was between 11 and 35 mm while for traditional medicine inhibition of the isolates was between 11 and 36 mm. Alkaloids and saponins were more than others in the plants extracts where value of alkaloids was between 2.42 and 3.63 and saponins between 2.60 and 3.27.
    Conclusion
    The plants extract inhibition was comparable to the antibacterial potency of commercial antibiotics on the tested bacteria species. The antibacterial activities observed from Terminalia catappa, Mangifera indica and Acalypha wilkesiana are probably due to several bioactive compounds contained in the plants and may serve as templates alternative medicine to treat infections caused by S. aureus.
    Keywords: Plant extracts, Herbal medicine, Medicinal plant, Staphylococcus aureus, Nigeria
  • Ari Estuningtyas*_Tri Wahyuni _Pustika Amalia Wahidiyat _Ernie H Poerwaningsih _Hans_Joachim Freisleben Pages 21-27
    Introduction
    Thalassemia is a hereditary anemia usually treated with regular blood transfusions, which can result in elevated levels of total iron in the body. As soon as the capacity of iron-regulating proteins (e.g., ferritin, transferrin) are used up, free plasma iron increases generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress. Hence, blood transfusions should be accompanied by iron-chelating therapy, e.g., deferiprone (DFP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mangiferin (M) and an aqueous leaf extract of Mangifera foetida L (EMF) as alternative iron-chelating antioxidants in an animal model.
    Methods
    Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups: normal control, iron overload (IO), IO+DFP, IO+M, and IO+EMF. Iron overload was induced by intraperitoneal iron dextran injection with a total dose of 90 mg/mouse (15 mg Fe/mouse every 3-4 days for 3 weeks) followed by oral administration of DFP 462.5 mg/kg, mangiferin 75 mg/kg, or EMF 2.930 g/kg for 7 days.
    Results
    Body weight (BW) increased in all groups during the 4 weeks of experiment, except for the IO group. As expected, DFP decreased significantly the total plasma iron and increased iron excretion via urine in iron-overloaded rats (positive control), mangiferin and EMF had similar – although slightly smaller – effects than DFP. The antioxidant activity of M and EMF were stronger compared to DFP as determined by plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity.
    Conclusion
    Mangiferin and EMF have iron-chelating and antioxidant effects and might be used for the treatment of iron overload in the body.
    Keywords: Thalassemia, Mangiferin, Mangifera foetida, Iron overload, Iron chelation, Iron excretion
  • Ali Sharifi, Rigi , Esfandiar Heidarian* Pages 28-34
    Introduction
    Paraquat is a quaternary nitrogen herbicide which induces kidney toxicitydue to producing oxidative stress. We have investigated the potential protective effects ofsilymarin on paraquat-induced renal toxicity.
    Methods
    Twenty-four male rats were divided into three groups, group 1, control group;group 2, rats that received paraquat only (25 mg/kg b.w./day, po); animals in group 3, wastreated with paraquat (25 mg/kg b.w./day, po) and silymarin (50 mg/kg b.w./day, po). Then,the serum and tissue parameters of the oxidative stress and renal histopathological changeswere examined.
    Results
    In group 2 which received paraquat only, a remarkable increase (P<0.05) was observedin serum creatinine, urea, malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl, and tumor necrosisfactor alpha (TNF-α). Also, there was a significant decrease in renal superoxide dismutase,catalase (CAT), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and vitamin C in the second group.Oral administration of silymarin significantly decreased serum urea, creatinine, proteincarbonyl, MDA, and TNF-α as well as renal histopathological changes.
    Conclusion
    The present study suggests that silymarin has anti-inflammatory andnephroprotective effects against nephrotoxicity caused by paraquat.
    Keywords: Silymarin, Paraquat, Kidney injury, Oxidative stress, TNF-?
  • Shahrzad Shaygan , Alireza Khodavandi* Pages 35-40
    Introduction
    Fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans is one of the biggest problems faced in clinical practice. Using of natural pure compounds such as menthol could be one of the most frequently ways to solve this problem. The aims of this study were to investigate the hypha formation and gene expression profiling of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans treated by menthol.
    Methods
    Colonizing vaginal isolates of C. albicans were recognized and fluconazole-resistant detected by WHONET software. The relative MICs of menthol were determined by broth microdilution for fluconazole-resistant isolates. The potency of menthol to inhibit hypha formation exploited using a light microscopy. Finally, the expression of SAP1 was measured using quantitative Real Time RT- PCR.
    Results
    Out of colonizing vaginal isolates of C. albicans, 100% were found to be fluconazol-resistant. MIC90 for menthol was reported in fluconazol-resistant isolates at 1.6 to 25 μg/mL. Additionally, all isolates treated with menthol showed the significant reduction in hyphae and number of planktonic cells. Furthermore, the expression levels of SAP1 were increased by 1.53- and 1.43-fold at concentrations of 2 × MIC and 1 × MIC, respectively, in the fluconazol-resistance C. albicans cells treated with fluconazol. While, treatment with menthol was down regulated of SAP1 expression by 2.02- and 1.85-fold at concentrations of 2 × MIC and 1 × MIC, respectively (P ≤ 0.05).
    Conclusion
    These findings suggest that menthol could has potential applications in the treatment of infections due to fluconazole-resistance C. albicans. In addition, SAP1 could be probable molecular target of menthol in C. albicans.
    Keywords: Candida albicans, Fluconazole, Menthol, SAP1
  • Muhammad Ahsan , Alvin Valentino Gonzalez , Sartini Sartini , Elly Wahyudin , Firzan Nainu* Pages 41-46
    Introduction
    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a major threat for worldwide communities. To overcome such serious problem, the discovery of novel antibacterial agents through exploration of diverse potential sources is essential. The aim of this research was to investigate the in vivo anti-staphylococcal activity of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) calyx extract against S. aureus in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) model of infection.
    Methods
    Roselle calyces were dried and extracted with ethanol using maceration method. Wildtype fruit flies were infected with S. aureus and subjected to survival assay, bacterial load examination, and gene expression analysis, in the presence or absence of roselle calyx extract. Survival and bacterial load analysis were subsequently performed on immunodeficient fruit flies using similar protocols.
    Results
    Reduction of host survivorship accompanied by increasing level of bacterial proliferation was observed in group of wildtype fruit flies infected with S. aureus. These phenotypic events were further augmented in mutant flies devoid of component for antibacterial immune responses. Nevertheless, reduction of bacterial load and improvement of host survival were demonstrated in either wildtype or immunodeficient fruit flies upon treatment with roselle calyx extract after bacterial challenge, irrespective of immune status.
    Conclusion
    Collectively, our results demonstrated the in vivo antibacterial activity of roselle calyx extract against S. aureus in Drosophila model of infection and this was not due to induction of immune response in the host.
    Keywords: Antibacterial, Staphylococcus aureus, Roselle, Fruit flies
  • Afshin Hasanvand , Yahya Ebrahimi , Asghar Mohamadi * Pages 47-50
    Introduction
    Evidence from animal studies suggests that Zingiber officinale (ginger) may help prevent ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI) in heart. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ginger on inducing preconditioning on patients undergoing angioplasty.
    Methods
    Thirty-four patients, referred for elective angioplasty, were randomly divided into the control (17 patients) and ginger groups (17 patients). Subjects in the experimental group were provided 250 mg ginger powder in Zintoma capsules per day for 10 days, whereas those in the control group received placebo. The patients underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) (One 45-second balloon inflation and 2 minutes reperfusion). Chest pain scores were assessed immediately after angioplasty and cardiac injury biomarkers were assessed 12 hours later.
    Results
    The average pain score during the balloon inflation in the ginger group was significantly lower than the control group (2.1±1 versus 3.8±1.5, P = 0.04). Troponin I was elevated in both groups after angioplasty, but there was not any significant difference between groups in this regard (P = 0.12 and 0.10, respectively).
    Conclusion
    The use of ginger reduces chest pain during coronary angioplasty but its effect on the release of biochemical markers of myocardial damage is obscure.
    Keywords: Ginger, Herbal medicine, Medicinal plant, Preconditioning, Coronary angioplasty, PTCA
  • Dheeraj S Randive*_Mangesh A Bhutkar_Somnath D Bhinge _Kiran P Shejawal_Poonam R Sanap_Pranoti D Patil_Suhas A Mane Pages 51-55
    Introduction
    The aim of the current analysis was to judge the hypoglycemic action of the phyto-extracts of Lagenaria siceraria, Cynodon dactylon and Stevia rebaudiana using suitable in vitro approaches.
    Methods
    The hypoglycemic activity of the phyto-material extracts was evaluated by employing various in-vitro methods namely glucose diffusion, amylolysis kinetics and glucose adsorption capacity.
    Results
    The extracts of L. siceraria, C. dactylon and S. rebaudiana exhibited glucose dialysis retardation indices (GDRI) of 48.14%, 37.03% and 29.62%, respectively at 60 minutes which were reduced to 15.78%, 10.52% and 18.42%, respectively at 120 minutes. All the plant extracts used in the study adsorbed glucose and their adsorptions markedly enhanced with increase in sugar concentration.
    Conclusion
    From the outcome of the assay it can be concluded that the extracts of L. siceraria, C. dactylon and S. rebaudiana have hypoglycemic activity as observed in various in-vitro assays. However, the beneficial actions require to be verified by adopting various in vivo techniques along with clinical trials for their efficient use as potential remedial moiety.
    Keywords: In vitro-Hypoglycemic, Lagenaria siceraria, Cynodon dactylon, Stevia rebaudiana, Amylolysis kinetic
  • Hassan Sadraei*, Gholamreza Asghari , Mojtaba Rahmati Pages 56-63
    Introduction
    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill) is a herbal medicine widely used for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. However, its pharmacological action on isolated ileum has not been studied. In this research effect of hydroalcoholic extract of L. angustifolia on isolate ileum contractions was studies and compared with loperamide.
    Methods
    Hydroalcoholic extract of the plant was prepared by percolation method. The total flavonoid contents were assessed by colorimetric technique. A portion of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode’s solution. The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. The tissue was stimulated with KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 2 μM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Effect of the L. angustifolia extract was studied on ileum contractions and compared with that of loperamide.
    Results
    The yield of hydroalcoholic extract was 17% with total flavonoid content of 185 μg/mL in the stock solution. Loperamide in concentration dependent manner inhibited ileum contractile response to KCl, ACh and EFS. Hydroalcoholic extract of L. angustifolia (8-512 μg/mL) concentration dependently inhibited ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50 = 88 ± 21 μg/mL), ACh (IC50 = 119 ± 251 μg/mL) and EFS (IC50 = 87 ± 33 μg/mL). The vehicle had no significant effect on ileum contractions.
    Conclusion
    From this study it was concluded that L. angustifolia extract at microgram concentration shows an inhibitory effect on rat ileum smooth muscle. Therefore, isolation and identification of active ingredients are recommended.
    Keywords: Lavandula angustifolia, Spasm, Medicinal plant, Ileum contraction
  • Pedram Moshaei, Nezhad , Seyed Mohammad Hosseini , Mohsen Yahyapour , Maryam Iman*, Ali Khamesipour Pages 64-68
    Introduction
    The aim of the study was to evaluate the protective effect of Hedera helix (ivy) leaf extract on paracetamol-induced oxidative stress and renal toxicity in mouse model.
    Methods
    Sixty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into six equal groups. Group A: as the control group, received NaCl 0.9%. Group B: received a single (i.p.) injection of paracetamol (600 mg/kg). Pretreatment groups: included T1 (50 mg/kg), T2 (100 mg/kg), T3 (200 mg/kg), and T4 (300 mg/kg) which were treated with ivy leaf extract in different doses. The mice were sacrificed under mild anesthesia and the blood samples were collected to titrate the levels of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and, uric acid. Kidneys were removed for histopathological examination.
    Results
    Paracetamol administration significantly increased the BUN, creatinine and uric acid levels (P < 0.05). Treatment with Ivy leaf extract resulted in a significant reduction in serum creatinine, uric acid and BUN concentrations in comparison with the paracetamol group. Ivy leaf extract treatment similarly reduced histological alteration induced by paracetamol.
    Conclusion
    This study can be used as prove of reading that ivy leaf extract might be used to prevent renal damage induced by paracetamol.
    Keywords: Ivy leaf extract, Oxidative stress, Medicinal plant, Protective effect, Kidney