فهرست مطالب

Humanities - Volume:25 Issue: 1, 2018
  • Volume:25 Issue: 1, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/12/04
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • Rahmat Abbasnejad Seresti *, Mehdi Rezaei Pages 1-18
    Lorestan’s Balageriveh, is a lowland passage area, located in between two rivers, Dez and Kashkan in South Central Zagros; the area itself is divided into three parts, northern, southern and central. In previous studies in Lorestan, a form of complete shift was depicted from sedentary lifestyle to a mobile one, in transition between the Late Chalcolithic and the Middle Bronze Age. Central Balageriveh is important to be studied on this matter due to its central position among Susiana (Elam), Central Zagros, Bakhtiyari region, Posht Kouh and Mesopotamia, as well as paleoclimatology and archaeological studies conducted over there. Due to the above reasons, the present study has taken into account paleoclimatology and archaeological data, the transition process from Chalcolithic Cultures to the Bronze Age, a change in settlement patterns and the role of socio-economic and environmental changes in this pattern alteration. The findings indicated that long-time climatic change which occurred in the middle of 4th millennium B.C. in the region cannot be regarded as the cause of the complete cultural gap and the change of settlement pattern at the time. Instead, it seems that with the collapse of the Uruk System and its commercial organization, the areas like Balageriveh which were intermediary in this commercial network, lost their charm. When people like Kura-Araxes, on whom some would put the blame of the Uruk collapse as they were mobile pastoralists, settled in some areas which the previous power had lived, the commercial paths withered and Balageriveh’s intermediary role diminished and instead due to socio-political reasons, the lowland characteristics of the area became highlighted and the change in settlement pattern occurred.
    Keywords: Central Balageriveh, Chalcolithic, Bronze Age, Uruk, Mobile Lifestyle
  • Ali Reza Barikloo , Zahra Al Eshaq Khueyni * Pages 19-37
    Stability and instability of family, as the most important and fundamental social organ, has significant effect on the destiny of a society. The increasing rate of divorce, including legal or emotional ones, is a major social dilemma where the role of family cannot be ignored in fixing it. This is a problem that can be solved by altering the approach of lawmakers i.e. an approach based on 'Consolidation Principle' leads to the stability of family. In other words, this as a general legal principle has been in line with the Sharia law. Based on this principle, whatever causes the family stability is accepted and is in accordance with the religious decree and whatever leads to instability and shakiness of the family foundation is hateful and unaccepted. The consolidation principle is based on rationality, expediency, notoriety and necessity. Similarly, this principle, in clerical way from accessories to totalities, is based on the holy Qur’an and Islamic Traditions.
    Keywords: Family Stability, Family Instability, Consolidation Principle, Rights
  • Abdolhamid Esmaielpanahi *, Ali Mohammad Poshtdar , Ali Mohammad Gitiforuz , Hossain Yazdani , Ziba Parishani Pages 38-51
    Este’areh is one of the most important poetic devices and of portraiture elements in carrying imagination in poetry to an extreme. History of this rhetorical topic dates back to Aristotle's Poetics and the topic of Este'areh in Arabic and Persian literature emanates from the same source. English equivalent of Este'areh is Metaphor. But, are these two exactly the same or they differ from each other? Here, pointing out the opinions of Sakkaki and Jorjani, the definition of Este'areh and its various types are given briefly first; then its difference from Metaphor is investigated. The result of the investigation is that although Metaphor, too, is a variation of metaphoric expression, its aim is not expression of beauty of simile, but transfer of meaning. Este'areh and Metaphor differ from each other because the former is based on simile and similarity, but the latter is based on "free association."
    Keywords: Este'areh, Metaphor, Simile, Imagery, Lakeoff, Association
  • Fathiyeh Fattahizadeh , Marzieh Zakeri * Pages 52-66
    This paper explores the method Allāmeh Muhammad Husayn Kāshif al-Ghiṭā, a famous Muslim theorist of the 18-19th centuries, employed in his critique of Christianity. Although, his method for looking into the Bible is similar to that of Christian and Jewish scholars, his assumptions and results are different. Based on his viewpoints on the Bible, he believes in impeccable revelations. He examined superstructure, namely accuracy of attribution of books and pamphlets to their authors as well as personality and credibility of Jesus Christ’s disciples and apostles. Lack of credibility of the twelve original disciples of Jesus Christ and unreliability of the Gospels are proved. Moreover, he has carefully examined the content as infrastructure of the New Testament. As such, incongruities can be observed between the New Testament and the Old Testament. There are contradictions in the Bible itself. He prefers to apply argumentative tactic for general readers. In addition, his application of comparative step in his critique is considerable. This paper studies Kāshif al-Ghiṭā's approach to review the Bible in order to figure out Muslim scholars' viewpoints on the Christianity.
    Keywords: Methodology, K?shif al-Ghi??, Christianity, The New Testament, The Bible
  • Nadia Maftouni * Pages 67-76
    The term ‘SciArt’ refers to bilateral relations between art and science, including artistically-inclined science, science-minded art, and intertwined SciArt activities. In this definition, different disciplines from metaphysics to physics are reckoned as science, as different types of art- from literature to music are counted as art. The SciArt approach, in the fields of philosophical inquiry, can be accounted for by Farabi’s works. As Farabi holds, rational well-being and rational truths just might be brought to mind of people via imagery and analogy. In Islamic philosophy, two representatives of the field are Ibn Tufail and Suhrawardi. I will compare and contrast the main characters of these two major figures in chronological order. Plus a few more philosophical and mystical issues Ibn Tufail developed in scientific matters like anatomy, autopsy, and vivisection in the non-allegorical style. Contrary to Ibn Tufail, Suhrawardi explains mystical vs. philosophical problems in his fictions, using the allegorical style. He represents the world of spheres and the sublunary realm by a variety of imageries like nine shells, eleven layers of a basin, and eleven mountains. Both Ibn Tufail and Suhrawardi use fictional manner to explain mystical as well as philosophical themes.
    Keywords: Fictional, Literal, Metaphorical, Rationality, Imagery
  • Javad Shekari Niri * Pages 77-93
    The Maragheh observatory site was excavated in 1970. Prior to the excavation, there was very little known about this architectural masterpiece. The observatory was constructed on the top of a hill called "Rasad Dāghi". In fact, Samarkand and Jaipur observatories had derived the idea and astronomical units from the Maragheh construction. So, we can use those as comparisons while aiming to better understand and interpret the existing works in order to properly reconstruct the Maragheh observatory. Compared to similar monuments in India, the Maragheh observatory can be renovated only using the Maragheh architectural units. Comparing existing evidence of observation, including archaeological, historical and scientific evidence, will lead us to better understand the realities of the original design. With the reference to the architecture of the existing ancient observatories, the hypothesis was that through a comparative study, an architectural algorithm/pattern could be found and used to determine the shape and arrangement of the Maragheh observatory. The main objective here is to compare the historical and archaeological evidence of Iran's observation instruments with other countries in order to develop the knowledge of Archaeoastronomy. The sky and astronomical phenomenon provided the tools for time reckoning, calendar organization and celestial navigation that supported those human voyages.
    Keywords: Maragheh Observatory, Jantar Mantar, Samanid Temple, Archaeoastronomy, Samarkand Observatory