فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 31 (پاییز و زمستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/11/27
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • محمود آقاخانی بیژنی *، اسحاق طغیانی، محسن محمدی فشارکی صفحات 9-28
    در داستان های غنایی شاهنامه بر ویژگی های مثبت و منفی عشق پریان به پهلوانان تاکید شده است و معمولا در جامعه شکارگر و در مرز دشمن در کنار بیشه زار ها نمودار می شوند که سعی در اغوای پهلوانان دارند. هدف آنان ربودن تخمه پهلوان همراه با عشق ورزی، زیبایی و بعضا خواب و جادو است. در داستان بیژن و منیژه، رستم و سهراب، سیاوش و زال و رودابه، به ترتیب منیژه، تهمینه، مادر سیاوش و کنیزکان رودابه با خویشکاری پری با بیژن، رستم، گیو، کیکاووس و زال رابطه برقرار می کنند. هدف این پژوهش تحلیل الگوی خویشکاری و ساختار سیاسی اجتماعی پریان در داستان های غنایی شاهنامه و چرایی عشق ورزی آنان به پهلوانان است. روش این پژوهش، تحلیلی توصیفی است. پس از یاری گرفتن از منابع گوناگون و تحلیل ابیات شاهنامه می توان چنین گفت که برخی از الگوهای ساختاری پریان در داستان های غنایی شاهنامه بدین گونه است: 1. جامعه شکارگر و به شکار رفتن پهلوان، 2. پیوند پری با بیشه زار و آب در مرز دشمن، 3. پیکرینه شدن پری و رویارویی با آن، 4. زیبایی، جادوئی و فریبندگی خیره کننده پری و… مهم ترین کارکرد ساختار سیاسی اجتماعی آنان، الگوی باروری و زایش و اغوای قهرمانان و شاهان برای ربودن تخمه و نابودی قبیله دشمن است.
    کلیدواژگان: داستان های غنایی شاهنامه، عشق ورزی پریان، پری، پهلوان، ساختارگرایی
  • علی خضری* صفحات 29-46
    احساس مسئولیت ادیب در برابر مسائل مربوط به جامعه را تعهد ادبی می گویند که یکی از مهم ترین موضوعات ادبی در چند دهه اخیر به شمار می رود. شاعر یا نویسنده ای که به ارزش های انسانی پایبند است و احساس می کند که آن ها در حال سست شدن و تباهی هستند و خود را ملزم به انعکاس چنین مسائلی در شعر و نثر خود می داند، در حقیقت در راه تعهد ادبی گام برداشته است. هاشم الرفاعی شاعر معاصر مصری نیز از جمله کسانی است که با تاثیرپذیری از اوضاع سیاسی و اجتماعی حاکم بر جامعه، شعرش را وقف رسالت خویش و بیان رنج ها و آرزوهای مردم سرزمین مصر نموده است. در این پژوهش با روشی توصیفی- تحلیلی به این سوال اصلی پاسخ داده شده است که عوامل پیدایش و مهم ترین جلوه های تعهد ادبی در شعر هاشم الرفاعی چیست؟ یافته ها نشان می دهد که اوضاع نابسامان جامعه مصر به خاطر حاکمیت استبداد و نفوذ استعمارگران از عوامل اصلی گرایش شاعر به انجام تعهد ادبی وی است. او مدافع سرسخت ظلم ستیزی و دعوت به اتحاد بوده و بدین طریق هنر خویش را در خدمت هدفی والا و رسالتی انسانی قرار داده است. ستایش آزادی خواهان و مقابله با حاکمان فاسد از درون مایه های پربسامد در شعر شاعر است.
    کلیدواژگان: شعر معاصر عربی، تعهد ادبی، مصر، هاشم الرفاعی
  • مهدی ده رامی* صفحات 47-66
    مرسوم است شاعر قبل از شروع متن اصلی منظومه ، بخش هایی را به عنوان آستانه منظومه می آورد که حکم دروازه ورود به متن اصلی دارد. این سنت قدمتی دیرین دارد و در کهن ترین آثار ایرانی همچون اوستا و کتیبه های هخامنشی و منظومه های پهلوی دیده می شود و در منظومه های دری نیز استمرار یافته است. این تحقیق با روش توصیفی تحلیلی و با بررسی 19 منظومه فارسی تا قرن ششم، در پی آن است که نشان دهد مقدمه ها از نظر محتوا و ساختار شامل چه مواردی است؟ آیا می توان سیر و تطوری برای آن در نظر گرفت؟ مقدمه های منظومه های مورد بررسی در سه دسته دارای مقدمه های عمومی (یازده مورد) ، تخصصی (پنج مورد) و بدون مقدمه (سه مورد) جای می گیرد. در مقدمه هایی اختصاصی، شاعر به اقتضای موضوع اثر، آستانه ای متناسب با آن برای ورود به متن اصلی سامان می دهد. مقدمه های عمومی که از رایج ترین مقدمه هاست، شامل مباحثی چون تحمیدیه، نعت رسول (ص) و صحابه، معراج نامه، آفرینش، بخش آزاد وصفی، مدح ممدوح، سبب تالیف کتاب (اشاره به پیشینه و نقد آنها، دشواری کار، دلیل سرایش) و بستر نهایی است. فردوسی را می توان پیشرو مقدمه سرایی عمومی دانست و بعد از وی مقدمه به مرور تحولاتی همچون بسط اجزای مقدمه، افزودن مقدمه منثور یا بخش های دیگری همچون معراج نامه را داشته است.
    کلیدواژگان: منظومه فارسی، دیباچه، مقدمه سرایی، قالب مثنوی
  • امید ذاکری کیش صفحات 67-86
    شعر غنایی در یکی از مهم ترین مفاهیم خودش شعری است که بیانگر احساسات و عواطف شاعر یا یک شخصیت شعری باشد. یکی از انواع مختلف احساسات که همواره در شعر مورد استفاده قرار گرفته احساس غم گوینده در سوگ از دست دادن کسی است؛ به این نوع شعر مرثیه می گویند. در این مقاله این نوع شعر از دیدگاه نظریه ارتباط کلامی بررسی شده است. بررسی مرثیه فارسی از این منظر نشانگر این است که در صمیمی ترین و عاطفی ترین این نوع اشعار اغلب جهت گیری پیام به سوی گوینده است؛ بنابراین خواننده با کارکرد عاطفی زبان مواجه می شود. زبان، ساده و عامه فهم است. جملات و ساخت های نحوی تکرار می شوند و در متن از استعاره هایی استفاده می شود که ژرف ساخت آن قلمرو عاطفی گوینده است. همچنین شاعر از شبه جمله های عاطفی زیاد بهره می گیرد. در این گونه شعری رابطه گوینده با متوفی اغلب یک رابطه خانوادگی است از این رو خواننده با گزاره های عاطفی مواجه می شود. این مقاله به روش توصیفی – تحلیلی پرداخته شده است و اهمیت آن در این است که مرثیه کلاسیک فارسی را از منظر نظریه ادبی نوین واکاوی می کند و تلاش می کند آن را حتی الامکان بدون توجه به عوامل برون متنی تحلیل کند.
    کلیدواژگان: شعر غنایی، مرثیه، تحلیل فرمالیستی، آشنایی زدایی، صمیمیت عاطفی
  • رحمان ذبیحی *، یونس جلوداری صفحات 87-106
    یوسف و زلیخا از مشهورترین داستان های غنایی ادبیات سامی است که در کتاب مقدس و قرآن کریم نقل شده و در تاریخ ادبیات فارسی بارها به نظم درآمده است. یکی از سرایندگان این داستان ناظم هروی (م: 1081 ه. ق.) است که منظومه او با روایت قرآن کریم واجد برخی تفاوت ها است. این تفاوت به منشا داستان در کتاب مقدس و تاثیرپذیری مفسران و مولفان قصص الانبیاء از آن و ورود این عناصر به منظومه هایی چون یوسف و زلیخای منسوب به فردوسی و جامی بر می گردد که بر شاعران ادوار بعد اثر گذاشته اند. کثرت تصویرسازی، نوآوری در تصاویر، غلبه استعاره، وفور و تنوع ترکیبات نوآیین و نزدیکی به زبان رایج روزگار، از مهمترین ویژگی های یوسف و زلیخای ناظم هروی است که در پیوند با روایت جذاب و قدرت شاعر در عرضه قصه، آن را به یکی از موفق ترین منظومه های غنایی تبدیل کرده است. سوال اصلی این پژوهش که به روش توصیفی تحلیلی و با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه ای انجام گرفته این است که ناظم هروی کیست و سرچشمه روایت متفاوت منظومه یوسف و زلیخای او از کجاست و ارزش های روایی، زبانی و بلاغی این منظومه چیست؟
    کلیدواژگان: ناظم هروی، یوسف و زلیخا، روایت داستان، منابع روایت، عناصر شعر
  • معصومه شصتی *، اشرف چگینی، محمدعلی شفایی صفحات 107-126

    داستان عروه و عفراء، داستان عشق عذری عربی است عیوقی با اقتباس از منابع عربی، این داستان را به صورت منظومه ای عاشقانه در آورده و موضوع حماسه و عشق را با هم درآمیخته است. نظامی، با استفاده از روایت های عربی، داستان لیلی و مجنون را به نظم کشیده است. این منظومه ها: «عروه و عفراء» ، «ورقه و گلشاه» و «لیلی و مجنون» ریشه در روایت عربی دارند هر سه نمایانگر عشق عذری اند و نگاه مردم سالاری جامعه ی عرب در مورد زن، ناکامی و مرگ، گره های کور هر سه داستان می باشد. این مقاله با روش تحلیلی - تطبیقی ماجراهای عاشق و معشوق را بررسی و مقایسه می نماید و جدول تطبیقی نقش مایه های هر سه روایت و نمودارهای حرکتی را ترسیم می نماید و به این سوال اصلی پاسخ می دهد که آیا می توان میان مضامین این سه روایت، رابطه ی مشخصی ایجاد نمود؟ نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش نشان می دهد که حضور اندیشه
    عقل گرا، در انتخاب شخصیت ها و جایگاه آنان تاثیر فراوانی دارد. مضمون و نقش مایه های هر دو روایت ایرانی برگرفته از داستان «عروه و عفراء» می باشد که هر دو نمودی از عشق عذری است.
    کلیدواژگان: مضامین عاشقانه، ساختارشناسی، عشق عذری، داستان های منظوم
  • عبدالاحد غیبی *، نسرین حسینی توانا صفحات 127-146
    پدیده تبعید و مهاجرت به دلیل فقدان آزادی عمل و بیان و هم چنین خفقان و استبداد سیاسی _ اجتماعی حاکم بر جامعه اتفاق می افتد. این پدیده در زندگی بسیاری شاعران معاصر عراق، و به تبع آن در ساختار و محتوای آثارشان تاثیر چشمگیری گذاشته است. برخی از این شاعران بخاطر مقابله با مسئله استبداد، مجبور به ترک وطن شدند و در تبعید به بیان آراء و نظریات خویش پرداختند. در این میان، یحیی السماوی و عدنان الصائغ از شاعران معاصر عراقی در تبعید هستند که هر دو به دلیل فشارهای سیاسی موجود در زمان حزب بعث و صدام حسین مجبور به ترک وطن شدند. دوری از وطن در دیدگاه و افکار این دو شاعر پرآوازه، تاثیر درخور توجهی گذاشته به طوری که این تاثیرگذاری هم در محتوا و هم در ساختار شعریشان هویداست. سلاح السماوی و الصائغ زبان شان است که به وسیله آن به مقابله با بیداد و بیدادگران برخاسته و به افشای جنایت های آنان پرداخته اند. مقاله حاضر با روش تحلیلی- توصیفی، اشعار این دو شاعر عراقی را با رویکرد تطبیقی مورد بررسی قرار داده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد تبعید و دوری از وطن، باعث شکل گیری ساختار و مفاهیم مشابه در اشعار این دو شاعر هم چون صراحت و وضوح بیان، یادآوری خاطرات گذشته، بهره گیری از طبیعت و عشق به وطن شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: تبعید، عراق، یحیی السماوی، عدنان الصائغ
  • اعظم فروغی پویا، عباس نیکبخت*، محمد امیر مشهدی صفحات 147-170
    پژوهش حاضر به بررسی و مقایسه ساختاری یک غزل از حافظ و دیگری از نشاط اصفهانی پرداخته است، که غزل نشاط به تقلید از غزل حافظ سروده شده است. بررسی ساختاری از رویکردهای جدید در نقد ادبی است که همگام با پیشرفت های زبان شناسی نوین ظهور یافت، این رویکرد متاثرازدیدگاه های ساختارگرای قرن بیستم (پراگ) و مبتنی بر این اصل است که برای نقد و بررسی ساختاری یک اثر، باید اجزای آن را در ارتباط با کل سیستم بررسی کرد و هدف آن ، تعیین تناسب اجزا با کل سازه های متن است. تحلیل عناصر یک متن و تاثیر آن در محتوای شعر، باعث دقت بیشتر منتقد در بیان شاعر می شود. این پژوهش به منظور بررسی ساختاری و با شیوه تحلیل مقایسه ای در جهت این امر که؛از لحاظ ساختار و ارتباط عناصر کدام غزل منسجم تر از دیگری است؟پس از اشاره به تعاریف ساختار، مکتب ساختار گرا و ارائه ویژگی های ساختاری، به تحلیل اجزای هر دو متن از لحاظ توازن ها و قاعده کاهی ها، تناسب میان اجزاء و محتوا پرداخته است. تحلیل ها حاکی از آن است که هر دو شاعر بین عناصر صوری و معنایی شعر برای انتقال پیام، ارتباط برقرار کرده اند، اما میزان تناسب در غزل حافظ، به دلیل هنجار گریزی ها و قاعده کاهی های آوایی، واژگانی و بلاغی نمود بیشتری دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: فرمالیسم، بررسی ساختاری، غزل، حافظ، نشاط اصفهانی
  • پرند فیاض منش *، علی صفایی، رضا چراغی صفحات 171-194
    نشانه های بلاغی، نقشی برجسته در فرآیند شکل گیری محتوا دارند و متناسب با محدوده رمزگانی بافت متنی از آن ها استفاده می شود. شمس لنگرودی از شاعران معاصر ایران است که در شعرش متناسب با محتوا و هدف، استفاده ای قابل بررسی از نشانه های بلاغی دارد. با توجه به ارتباط بارز عاشقانه های شمس با این نشانه ها، مقاله حاضر به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی، نشانه های بلاغی پرکاربرد و نقش و کارکرد تعیین کننده آن ها را در شعر شمس بررسی می کند. تحلیل اشعار عاشقانه شمس، نشان می دهد محتوای عاشقانه ها دارای سه ضلع برجسته معشوق، عشق و شعر در یک مثلث عاشقانه است که شاعر از انواع نشانه های بلاغی برای تشریح آن استفاده نموده است. پربسامدترین نشانه ها در این اشعار در دو بخش نشانه های شمایلی و نمایه ای قرار می گیرد که به ترتیب، شامل تناسب، هم حروفی، تشبیه، استعاره مکنیه و مصرحه ، تکرار در سطح جمله و نشانه های بلاغی سبک ساز در این سروده ها به ترتیب: تناسب، هم حروفی و تشبیه است که در گسترش و تقویت نظام عاطفی مسلط بر عاشقانه ها نقش دارند. همچنین تراکم و ترکیب نشانه ها، خوشه های نشانه ای را پدید آورده است که تاییدی بر وجود رمزگان بلاغی در این سروده ها است. کارکرد نشانه ها و خوشه ها مخاطب را با شعر شمس، دنیای ذهنی و تجربه های زیستمانی او آشنا می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: نشانه شناسی، نشانه های بلاغی، شعر معاصر فارسی، عاشقانه ها، شمس لنگرودی
  • فاطمه وظیفه دان ملاشاهی، محمد بارانی (، مریم خلیلی جهان تیغ صفحات 195-212
    وکروم اروشی نام نمایشنامه ای از کالیداس ،شاعر قوی طبع هندی است که تجربه ای عرفانی را در آسمانی خیالی و مثالی به تصویر می کشد و در قالب اسطوره، رمز و نماد بیان می کند. از سوی دیگر وکروم اروشی، شخصیت اصلی نمایشنامه ، زنی آسمانی نژاد، و پری ای خیالی است که متضمن معنی آنیمای یونگ ، «دئنا» ی اوستا و بازتاب صفت جمال الهی و عشق در عالم عرفان است. اهمیت تحقیق حاضر که به روش توصیفی تحلیلی،با تکیه بر منابع کتابخانه ای انجام شده، در پاسخ به این سوال است که تجربه عرفانی در نمایشنامه مذکور چه ابعادی دارد؟ و نشان می دهد که چگونه زبان نمادین شاعر، عشق، صور و اطوار آن را در این نمایشنامه شرح داده است. عشق پادشاهی که در آسمان خیال با پری جمال برخورد می کند؛ به هدایت او گوهر گرانبهای حیات را می یابد و در نهایت از بطن پری شاهزاده ای به عمل می آید که شکارگر مرگ و پیام آور زندگی جاوید است. شاهزاده ای که همان جان جلایافته و ضمیر روشن شاه است که پس از طی طریق، رخ نموده است و خلعت شاهی به راستی شایسته ی او و از آن اوست.
    کلیدواژگان: وکروم اروشی، کالیداس، نمایشنامه هندی، تجربه عرفانی، عشق
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  • mahmoud Aghabezhani*, eshagh tighyani, mohsen mohammadifesharaki Pages 9-28
    1.Introduction
    The word “Pari” (fairy in English) is related to “pairikâ” from Avesta which was worshiped in the past in some parts of eastern Persia as the goddess of fertility and reproduction. In the Shahnameh as well as in the stories of Rostam & Sohrab, Siyavash, Bijan & Manijeh and Zal & Rudabeh, respectively, Tahmineh, the mother of Siyavash and Manije as well as all the maids appear with the fairy function. Some researchers believe that the contact of Rostam and Sohrab with the enchantress in the fourth stage of the Shahnameh and the quality of relationships between Zal and Rudabe have roots in the fairies community. With the conversion of Gashtasb to Zoroastrianism, the definition of the Persians’ national identity also changes, in such a way that the stance of some elements such as religion, religious culture, and the political-religious system becomes salient. Thus, by embracing the religion of excellence and relying on the teachings of Avesta, the element of religion with a Zoroastrian reading takes the most significant stance in the Persians’ national identity. Conversion to this religion leads to the negation of the gods of Indo-Persian community and the pre- Zoroastrian beliefs and worship of fairies. However, in the folk beliefs as well as in the texts reaming from pre-Islamic periods including the Shahnameh Ferdowsi, there is a bi-directional view towards fairy. It is positive, on the one hand, with functions of beauty, fertility, association with water, green areas and community of fairies and their feathery dressing which in indicative of their functions as demon among the Arian peoples. On the other hand, it is negative, trying to lure the youth and champions off the right path, with the final consequence of this bond being displacement, death, and harm. The present research mainly aims to portray the reasons and ways of the presence of fairies in the Shahnameh and their background in mythology, along with an introduction to structural models, analysis of function as well as their political-societal structures in the Shahnameh.

    2- Research Methodology
    This is a fundamental research conducted based on library studies using the descriptive-analytic method with intra-textual evidence from the Shahnameh Ferdowsi.

    3.Discussion
    In the Shahnameh, while fairy is introduced in two forms of negative (Zoroastrian view) and positive (pre- Zoroastrian view), the champions are in a religious and ritual fight with them. Fairy in its positive pre- Zoroastrian aspect, appears as a holy creature who is pretty and good, having even charisma and personal appeal, sometimes coming into battle with the devil by helping the people. In its negative profile in the Shahnameh, fairy is a demon who lures the kings and champions off the path, thus misleading them towards displacement, death and harm. The fairy in both its negative and positive profiles appears in the Shahnameh in the story of Rostam & Sohrab, Siavash and Bijan & Manijeh and Zal & Rudabeh with the similar structural elements, often being associated with the woodland, enchanting, embodiment in the form of a hunting animals (e.g. zebra and deer), sleep and dream, romance, reproduction and fertility, beauty and youth. As seen in these three stories, it onsets with the champions going to hunting, and the repetition of the word “hunting” in this story manifests clearly that it is a hunting community, with this repetition keeping the theme of hunting and highlights its importance. Fairies are associated with water and woodland, with champions usually coming across them with their astonishing and enchanting beauty in this place. Fairies in the form of hunting, dear and zebra; i.e. appearing in different forms, thus directing the champions towards themselves. In the stories of Rostam & Sohrab, Siyavash, and Bijan & Manijeh, with champions going to hunt in a plain full of zebras gives the impression that the presence of zebra is a sign of flirtation and toying of fairies, which lures the champion towards them. As from the old days, fairy was characterized with its association with insanity and dream. In the story related to fairies, they appear at nights, sleep and dream to lure and create love, where the man falls in love. This theme is maintained in the story of Rostam & Sohrab, Syavash, and Bijan & Manijeh. The fairies usually express their love to the kings and/or champions, being in complete relation with their reproduction and fertility function, as it is shown in the stories of Shahnameh, by Tahmineh, the mother of Syavash and by Manije towards Sohrab, Kekavous and Bijan. The fairies in love with the kings or champions, make them fall in love with her and by intercourse between them, they carry out their fertility function. Tahmineh and the mother of Siyavash, thus, conduct their mythological function, i.e., fertility, by giving birth (parenting) to Sohrab and Siyavash. In the story of Bijan and Manije, such theme is maintained in the light of the variations in the story, as an strange woman, deceives Bijan (the champion) and while there is no mention of the birth of child in the story, the final result is the fight between the two tribes. After childbirth, fairy is removed from the story and the champion or the king are affected by displacement or death after having relation with the fairy, as Sohrab, Syavash and Bijan get hurt.

    4.Conclusion
    In the story of Rostam & Sohrab , Siyavash and Bijan & Manijeh, some positive characteristics such as beauty, association with woodland and water, expressing love to the champion and bearing from him (pre- Zoroastrian view) and negative such as luring the champion, enchanting, relation with sleep, embodiment in the form an animal and an inauspicious end of fairies (Zoroastrian view) is emphasized, usually showing themselves in the hunter communities and at the borders of enemy at the vicinity of woodlands, trying to lure the champions, and have an Indio-utopian theme; therefore, Tahmineh, the mother of Siyavash, Manije as well as the maids of Rudabeh with the function of fairies, make relation with Rostam, Giv, Tus and Keykavous, Bijan and Zal. The presence of similar and repeating (high-frequency) elements such as hunting, the presence of zebra and deer, woodland and water, relation at night, enchanting beauty, romance and falling in love with the champion, having intercourse with beautiful woman and the inauspicious end from this association in the three stories is indicative of a model that shows the living structure of fairies. Considering the frequency of the similar and repetitive elements and drawing on various resources and analysis of the verses in the the Shahnameh, the fairies function in the Shahnameh can be outlined as follows:1. The champion goes hunting at the border of the enemy, 2. There he hunts zebra and deer, sometimes luring him towards the woodland, 3. The champion comes across a pretty woman at the vicinity of woodland and water, 4 the woman is described as very beautiful, trying to lure the champion, 5. The pretty woman approaches to the champion (while sleeping or dreaming), 6. Expresses her love to the champion, 7. Lets the champion understand her intention of bearing and giving birth, 8. After giving birth, the fairy suddenly disappears, 9. The champion is affected by displacement (death) due to his relation with her. Sometimes due to the tradition of transfer from mythology to epics, this harm is transferred form the champion to his child.
    The most important social-political function of fairies is their model of fertility and birth and luring the kings and champions to extinguish the descent and tribe of the enemy. In the story of Bijan & Manijeh, this function is contradicted by Manijeh, thus Afrasyab starts to dislike and discard her.

    References

    1. Avesta, Report and Research Jalil Friendhah, Sept. 17, Tehran: Pearl, 2013.
    2. Asadi Tusi, Abunaser Ali ibn Ahmad, Garshaspamnameh, Correcting Habib Yaghmaei, Third Edition, Tehran: World of Books, 2014.
    3. Spraham, Samin, Encyclopedia of Iranian Culture, First Edition, Vol. II, Tehran: The Great Islamic Encyclopedia, 2016.
    4. Aidanlou, Sajjad, "A hypothesis about Siavash's mother", Letter of the Academy of Sciences, vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 2746, Persian language and literature academy, Azar, 2005.
    5. Pourwardwood, Ibrahim, Yasna, Tehran: Mythology, 2001.
    6. Khaleghi Motlagh, Jalal, Notes of Shahnameh, vol. 13, first edition, Tehran: Islamic Encyclopedia, 2010.
    7. Khaleghi Motlagh, Jalal, the Flame of Old Tragedy, by Ali Dehbashi, Tehran: sales, 2009.
    8. Dallasho, M.Loofler, Ramsey Language Parivarian Tales, Translation by Jalal Sattari, First Edition, Tehran: Toos, 1987.
    9. Dehkhoda, Ali Akbar. Dictionary Tehran: Tehran University, 1998.
    10. Diakonov, Igor Mikhailovich, Median History, Translated by Karim Keshavarz, Fifth Edition, Tehran: Cultural Science, 2000.
    11. Rastegar Fasaei, Mansour. Petitioners in mythology. Tehran: Institute of Humanities and Cultural Studies, 2009.
    12. Rastgarinejad, Sahar and Bagheri, Masoumeh, "The Presence of Old Believers in Shahnameh", Literary Papers, Years 48, Number 1, Pages 6786, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Spring, 2015.
    13. Razi, Hashem, Encyclopedia of Ancient Iran, Vol. I, First edition, Tehran: Sokhan, 2002.
    14. Sattari, Reza and Khosravi, Sogol, "Parity Characteristics in Epic Poems after the Shahnameh", Literary Research, Vol. 48, No. 3, Pages 115140, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, autumn, 2015.
    15. Sarkarati, Bahman, Pari, Philosophical Research, Year 23, Number 97 100, Pages 132, Tabriz, 1971.
    16. Shayest nashayest, translated: Katayon Mazdapur. First Printing, Tehran: Institute for Cultural Studies and Research, 1990.
    17. Azimi Pour, Nasim, Demon in Shahnameh. First Printing, Tehran: Sokhan, 2013.
    18. Ferdowsi, Abolghasem. Shahnameh. Volume 1-5 in the endeavor of Jalal Khaleghi Absolute. Printout 1. Tehran: The Great Islamic Encyclopedia Center, 2014.
    19. Freezer, James George. Golden branch. Translated by Kazem Firoozmand. Print 6. Tehran: Agah, 2009.
    20. Mokhtariyan, bahar, An Introduction to the Mythic Structure of Shahnameh, Second Edition, Tehran: agah, 2013.
    21. Mazdapur, Katayon, "The Lady's Signs on Some Marriages of Fiction in Shahnameh", Culture and Life, Nos. 19 and 20, pp. 94-121, 1975.
    22. Mazdapur, Katayoun, "Afsaneh Pari in Thousand Oaks", Understanding the Identity of Iranian Women, by Shahila Lahiji and Mehrangiz Kar, Fourth Edition, Tehran: Enlighteners and Women's Studies, 2008.
    23. Malikzadeh, Mehrdad, "The land of fairyland on the land of the land", Letter of the Academy, vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 147191, Persian language and literature academy, Azar, 2002.
    24. Hinelz, John Russell. Understanding myths of Iran. Translation by Mohammad Hossein Bajlan Farrokhi. Print 4. Tehran: Asatir, 2014.
    25. Jung, Carl Gustavo, Man and his Symbols, Translated by Mahmoud Soltanieh, Seventh Print, Tehran: Jami, 2010.
    Keywords: stories lyric of Shahnameh, Loving of fairy, Peri, Hero, structuralism
  • Ali khezri* Pages 29-46
    1.Introduction

    Literary commitment is one of the most important literary issues in recent decades. A poet or writer who adheres to human values and feels that they are losing ground and who are required to reflect the problems of society in their poetry and prose, in fact,have embarked on a literary commitment. Hashem al-Rahai, the Egyptian contemporary poet, is one of the poets who influenced by the political and social conditions prevailing in his community devoted his poetry to politics and to expressing the suffering and aspirations of the people of his homeland. In this study, we are going to study the most important effects of literary commitment in Hashem al-Rafa'i's poetry, and in fact we seek to find out that the literary commitment in his poetry has been demostrated in stating what issues.
    2 .Detailed
    Method
    In this research, considering the purpose and the questions, we examine the most important effects of literary commitment in Hashem al-Rahai's poem by descriptive-analytical method. In the first instance, the issues related to the problems of the poet's community are extracted and then analyzed from the perspective of the literary commitment.

    3.Discussion
    The period of colonial rule over the Middle East and the Middle East, often threatened and humiliated nations, made those who felt the pain of the community to be self-proclaimed and ignore the pain of society. Hashem al-Rafa'i is also one of the poets who put his poetry at the service of upbringing his homeland. He always gives hope to his allies that the victory is very close, and that the Egyptians will have the fruit of jihad and effort soon. He promises that the morning beam will itself blow away the dark curtains. He even swore in the name of martyrs in the bloody scene that the fury of anger would eventually come to fruition, and the warriors would bring joy to the people by overwhelming the enemies.
    The expression of the suffering and tragedy of the people that is the result of the colonial domination is also very high in Hashem al-Rahai's poetry. He is very uncomfortable with the disasters that his co-workers have suffered. The events that colonialism and the rulers of their puppet in the hearts of the people are so large that they snatched the sleep from the eyes of the people and filled their hearts with sorrow and discomfort, so that the poet could not be calm and arranged. The poet finds the disasters that the colonialists and tyrannical rulers bring to the people so large that they are likened to large masses of the cloud, and the wounds created in the hearts of the people are so great that they can never be healed. But the poet is not just about the sadness of the people of his homeland, but also the events of many Islamic countries such as Tunisia, Libya, Algeria and Sudan. Therefore, the poet has not enclosed himself in the geographical area of his homeland, but also the language of other Muslims, which, of course, is one of the characteristics of the prominent Muslim poets that do not overlook the pain of other Muslims.
    The intellectual class of society, including the poets, had the duty to inform the people with their poems and to make them aware of the cruelty of the ruthless rulers. Society's thinkers, when they know their true self and become conscious of their existential capabilities, always invite the audience to gain knowledge and cognition in their statements and works of art. Hashim al-Rahai is no exception.
    He considers the call for integrity to be important, and it is an important issue for victory. That is why he invites his compatriots to unity and asks them to eliminate divisions, for it is the basis of every failure. Therefore, one of the main concerns of the poet is the lack of unity among the people, and most of his poetry revolves around this theme. He not only invites his homeland to unite against enemies, but is also unhappy with the lack of unity among Muslims, and speaks in a complaining language.
    From among Arab countries, Egypt has always been invaded by the British colonialist country, hence Hashem al-Rafa'i, is always addressing the old colonizer the Great Britain. The poet calls on his people not to neglect the wolf-like English characters. He sometimes likens them to the wolf, which is a hideous temperament, and sometimes they are likened to the fox, who are thinking of deceiving other countries. Sometimes the poet portrays the image of the men at war with the colonialists of the time to strengthen the enmity for colonizers in his comrades. In one of his odes, he refers to Dr. Mossadeq and how he stood up against the colonialism and nationalized the oil.

    4.Conclusion
    The analysis of Hashem al-Rahai's poems shows that he is one of the influential poets of his community, whose most important feature is his attention to "mission and commitment" in his poetry. He supports the efforts of his country's children to freedom of worship and expresses the pain and suffering that all the oppressed people in the world suffer from. He has always played a significant part in waking up the people and instilling the spirit of hope in provoking the Egyptian people against their colonial rulers and their puppet rulers. In fact, with his enlightening poems, he has made clear the face of colonialism, especially British colonialism, for his compatriots. One of the most prominent features of the poet's style is his explicit language, to the extent that his poem is written without conservatism as much as possible.
    Key words: contemporary Arabic poetry, literary commitment, Egypt, Hashim Al-Rifiai.

    Keywords: contemporary Arabic poetry, literary commitment, Egypt, Hashim Al-Rifiai
  • mehdi dehrami* Pages 47-66

    1-Introduction
    "In the term, the poetry collection is a narrative or non-narrative poem that has a thematic unity and has a previous design and is more often written in the form of couplet" (Dehrami, 2015:2). There is less poetry, and even a literary work, that the author begins after the title immediately. One of the important features of the poetry collection is to have an introduction to entry to the subject matter. The purpose of this article is to examine the Introduction of the poetry collection. The questions of this research are: Who introduced the first introduction to the poem? What are the contents of the content and structure? Is it possible to consider it?
    2- Research
    methodology
    This paper has been done through a descriptive-analytical method based on library studies. Initially, 19 Persian poetry collection were collected till sixth century, and their introduction was categorized and reviewed.

    3-Discussion
    One of the important parts of each poetry collection is its beginning. That is the gateway to entry the original text. The introduction section is independent of the original text but provides important information that helps for understanding and interpreting the text. The author of Haft Aseman has considered the introduction necessary for any poetry collection: "The introduction is essential for any poem, whether short or long. A few things are essential for introduction of couplet: Oneness, prayers, praise the Prophet, praise the king, definition of speeches and speakers, the reason for writing a book " (Agha Ahmad Ali, 1983:42) The tradition of preface and introduction in Iranian texts has a long history. In some Achaemenid inscriptions, the text has been started with the description of Ahura Mazda and his creations, then it has been linked to the owner of the inscription creatively and coherently: "The great god, Ahura Mazda, who created the earth, created the heavens, created people, created happiness, made Darius the king…" (Narman Sharp, 2009:85) In introduction of Pahlavi works is also at works such as Yadgar Zariran (Re: Jamasb J Asana, 1992:49). Introduction, in the post-Islamic literature, has become widespread because of the religious advices on starting things in the name of God.
    Introduction of persian poems are divided into three categories: general introduction, special introductions and no introduction. Some poems have no introduction and the poet enters the main part in this poem suddenly. This has many reasons. the introduction is usually set after the completion of the poetry collection. If the poet does not end the poetry collection, his poem will be without introduction. The shortness of the poetry collection and the educational aspect also play a role in the absence of an introduction. Sa'adatname of Naser Khosrow and poetry collection of Rashid Vatvat is without introduction (Vatvat, 1945:68). In the special introductions, the poet starts his work based on the subject and content of the book with a background, so that he can enter the subject matter. Karname Balkh of Sanaee which has started with description of the wind, is the important poems written in this way. The wind is a messenger in the literary tradition and the poet has paid attention to it: ویحک ای نقشبند بی خامه       قاصد رایگان بی نامه (Sanaei, 1954:299-300) Another poetry collection is Sier al-Ebad of Sanaee with this kind of introduction, which has been also started with description of the wind.

    General introduction is the most common type of introduction and it is seen with a little displacement of components and deletions and additions in most of the poems. The public introduction includes the followings: praising the Lord, praising the Prophet and his companions, creation, description, reverence of the king, the history of the work and its critique, the difficulty of the work, and the final substrate. Ferdowsi is the founder of introduction and the first poet to provide a complete and comprehensive introduction at his work. His introduction has almost all the components of the general introduction. After Ferdowsi, there were changes in the introduction, one of which was the extension of the introduction. Another change was the addition of prose introductions to poetry. The first poetry collection with this feature is the Rahat al-Ensan of Badaee Balkhi. One of the most important sections of the general introduction is saying the reason why the book was written, which is valuable and important information about the poet, his purpose and work. This section includes smaller sections such as: the purpose of the poet, the name of the work, the source and history of the work and their critique, the difficulty of the work and the book list and content.

    3-
    Conclusion
    Introduction is the gateway to entry to the original text and it has an important place in providing information, comprehension and harmony. Introduction of poetry collection are divided into three categories: no introduction, general introduction, with special introductions. Some poetry collection has not have an introduction because the poet has not ended it or they have an educational approach. Special introductions are diverse and have been written in line of the main theme of the poetry collection and the creation of a suitable ground for entry into the original text. The most important poet is Sanaee in this way for example Karname Balkh and Seir Al-Abad. The public introductions include the followings: praising the Lord, praising the Prophet and his companions, creation, description, reverence of the king, the history of the work and its critique, the difficulty of the work, and the final substrate. The initiator of this kind of introduction is Ferdowsi. One of the sections of the general introductions is the reason for writing the book. This section includes smaller sections such as: the purpose of the poet, the name of the work, the source of the work and their critique, the difficulty of the work and the book list and content.

    References
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  • omid zakerikish Pages 67-86

    1.Introduction
    Elegy is one of the most prominent types of literary genres. One of the first structural definitions of elegy is that of Schiller’s. He describes elegy as a text in which the poet confronts art with the nature and the reality with the ideal and in this way sets his passion for the ideal (Wellek, 1994: 307). This definition goes with most of the masterpieces of the Persian verse. Poets have shown great emotions in literary and artistic terms; but, relying on this definition, it still remains to be questioned whether the most beautiful elegies are the most artistic ones, or the most successful of them are the most idealistic ones, and whether it is possible to measure the purity and intimacy of the passions in elegy merely according to the poet's artistic expression? In this article, we will answer the above questions, while presenting a model for formalistic analysis of the elegy; we will also determine the different examples of the elegy by referring to their linguistic and formalist features. In general, in the analysis of Persian classical elegies, most external factors, such as historical, social and biographical facts have been considered. In this article, the author's attempt is to examine the classical Persian elegy with the perspective of the literary theory of formalism; this method has not, of course, been taken into account in research studies.

    2.Methodology
    This article is done by descriptive-analytical method. First, the most important examples of the classical Persian classical elegies have been chosen and analyzed according to the framework of literary theory of formalism, especially the theory of verbal communication of Jacobson. Accordingly, the orientation of the message in the components of the verbal communication in the elegy is determined and analyzed.

    3.Discussion
    If there is an orientation in the message to the subject or context of the message, we encounter with a narrative or descriptive text. In this type of poetry, at first sight, the referential aspect is dominant in the poetry. The speaker focuses much more on what has happened and when that incident happened rather than how it is expressed. This feature reminds us of the events of the newspapers rather than a literary emotional text. In these texts, the subject is more prominent than the form. So, with we are faced with a kind of historical report and event description, not an emotional propositions. In the latter case, the message orientation may be directed towards the audience. In the cases where the message is directed toward the audience, we are faced with two types of audience. The first is the audience that is alive and the speaker is sure he is listening and the second is the presumptive and the speaker is aware that he does not speak. In this latter type, the method of presenting poetry is like soliloquy. The third mode of verbal communication is when the message is directed towards the speaker. These elegies are the most emotional ones. Another topic that is important in the analysis of elegy is what the relationship between the poet and the dead person who is often addressed is, and how this relationship is seen in the literal language. The speaker sometimes has to compose and elegy as a compulsory task. Some of court elegies, that is, the elegies written for the death of the king or one of the courtiers, have this feature. On the other hand, the speaker may be one of the close relatives of the dead person. This kind of elegy is called personal or family elegy. Most researchers consider these sorts pf elegies to be the most affectionate and most intimate ones (see Imami,1990: 50)

    4.Conclusion
    Lyric poetry is one of the most important literary types in Persian poetry. In this type of poem, expressing feelings and emotions is very important. One of the most emotional of this kind is elegy. The emotional depth of an elegy is rather recognizable through its analysis from the point of view of the theory of verbal communication. In elegies, the orientation of the message may be towards the subject, the audience and the speaker. In addition, the poet can, in view of his dominance in expressing feelings in the language of poetry, simultaneously make the messages be oriented towards the message itself. If the orientation of the message is directed toward the subject, the reader encounters a sort of descriptive report; no matter how the poet strengthens his poetic work, the emotion of the latter is often peripheral and less intimate. If the message is oriented towards the audience, either the poet's audience is a hypothetical audience or a deceased person; in the first instance, his discourse is depicted as a soliloquy, and in the latter case, it finds a form of an internal soliloquy. In this latter type, emotional intimacy is more intense than previous ones. In addition, the poet can in the same way address things: in this case, the poet highlights the emotional color of his speech with the element personification and causes the de-familiarization to occur. The most emotional elegies are those that are directed toward the speaker. If the speaker and the deceased are from the same family, the emotional intimacy is highly reflected in the language of poetry; In this kind of elegies, which in this article is called lyric elegies, language has an emotional function and words and phrases are simple and easily understood. In these poems, the poet employs a lot of emotional sentences and repeats syntactic constructs and sentences and emotional words in poetry. These repetitions always carry a kind of music and tone through the language to the audience. In the lyric elegies, the reader also faces metaphors, whose seep structure is the emotional domain of the speaker.

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    Keywords: lyric poetry, elegy, verbal communication, defamiliarization, emotional wholeheartedness
  • rahman zabihi*, younes jelodari Pages 87-106

    Introduction

    Lyric poetry, which expresses human sentiments through a sensational dialect, manifests in Persian literature in a variety of forms and instances and embraces many subjects and themes as love, praise, description, lamentation, complain, etc. Numerous lyrical stories have occurred in the history of Persian literature, some with Iranian origins and some stemmed from Semitic or Islamic culture. The poems of Bijan-o-Manijeh and Weys-o-Ramin are examples of the first group that are rooted in Parthian era (Khaleghi Motlagh, 1980, p. 284-289), while Wargha-o-Golshah, Leily-o-Majnoon and Yusuf-o-Zuleikha represent the second group. The last example, Yusuf-o-Zuleikha, is a well-known lyrical story that comes from the Book of Genesis in The Bible. It is also narrated in the Yusuf Surah in the Holly Quran and has often been poeticized in Persian literature. Nazem Heravi is an 11th century (AH) poet whose Yusuf-o-Zuleikha, with more than five thousand couplets, is one of the best instances of the poetic story in the Persian literature. This study aims at introduction, criticism and analysis of Heravi’s Yusuf-o-Zuleikha. To this end, first Nazem Heravi and his works are discussed according to ancient references. Then his narration and the references of its components are reported and finally elements of his poem and his poetic art are discussed. The main study questions include: Who is Nazem Heravi and how important is his Yusuf o Zuleikha?
    What are the origins and history of the sources of his narrative components?
    How important are his elements of poetry and poetic art in Yusuf-o-Zuleikha?  
    Research methodology

    This study will be conducted via descriptive and analytic method on the basis of library resources. In every section attempts will be made that the study be on the basis of ancient and first hand sources and references and the findings will be presented as clearly as possible.
    Discussion

    Molla Farokh Hosain Heravi, wrote under pseudonym of Nazem. His father, Shah Reza Sabzvari, was also a famous Indian style poet in 11th century (AH). Apparently Nazem was born in 1016 (AH) (Safa, 2007, p: 1267). Since his father was from Sabzavar, he is said to be born in this city too (Bahari Sistani, (n. d.), p: 398). Nazem Heravi’s teacher was Fasihi Heravi (Saba, 1964, p: 797). After learning common sciences of his time, Nazem joined Hasan Khan Shamlou,s members of court. Shamlou was designated, after his father, as commander in chief of Khorasan (see Eskandar beig Torkaman, 2003, p: 942, 1084). Nazem served him and his son who was also appointed as his father’s successor by Shah Safi in 1959 (AH) (Bigdeli, 1993, p. 1047). He eulogized his masters and was respected in life. Nazem was a Shiite poet and has often showed his devotion to the Prophet’s family (Nazem Heravi, 1995, p, 405, 415, 424; ibid, p, 14). In some references, some of his personality traits like kindness and good will has been praised (Nasrabadi, 1938, p, 330; also see Nazem Heravi, 1943, p, 190, 191). Although historians disagree on the year of his death, 1081 (AH) is most probable last year of his life (Khayampour, 1989, p, 916; Nazem Heravi, 1995, p 52). Some of his works include Poetical Works, Monshaat (collection of official correspondences), and Yusuf-o-Zuleikha among which the last one is the most famous. A detailed account of this story has been narrated in a historical style in Torat (Bible, 2004, Genesis: 51 – 102). Also we can find this story with a little of brevity in Holy Quran. This story has also been explained and interpreted with some details in the books of Qusas-Al-Anbia (The Story of Prophets) which sometimes refer to the Torat and its interpretations (Khayampour, 1958, p, 418, 421). However, there are some differences between the Quranic rendition of the story and its biblical version. Other than the afore mentioned references, there are some Persian interpretations and references from the category of Isra’iliyyat, that has influencedPersian renditions of the story including that of Nazem Heravi’s. In Nazem Heravi’s Yusuf-o-Zuleikhasome main parts of the story are omitted. In fact Nazem’s Yusuf-o-Zuleikha does not cover the incidence of famine; the departure of Jacob’s sons to Egypt and the adventures of this journey as Benjamin's stay with Joseph; the return of the brothers and the cure of Jacob's blind eyes at sniffing the shirt and forgiving the brothers for their sins, which are all the parts of the story in the Holy Qur'an and the Bible (see: Holy, 1383: 82 –94). Apart from his facinating narration which partly strengthens the content and affections of this text, other poetical elements are also specially prominent and contribute to the success of hisYusuf-o-Zuleikha. Another specific formal feature of this poet is the presence of Saki-Nameh in it.
    Conclusion

    The story of Joseph and Zuleikha is one of the most famous lyrical stories of Sami literature that has been narrated in the Book of Genesis of Bible and in one of the Surahs of Holy Qur'an, and has been entered to the Persian literature due to various fascinating elements from a long time ago. A number of Persian poets such as Shamsi, Khajeh Massoud Qomi and Jami have poetized it. One of the narrators of the story is Nazem Heravi, a prominent Indian style poet of 11th century (AH), whose work merits high values in terms of narrative, linguistic and rhetorical aspects. From the narrative point of view Nazem Heravi’s cast of Yusuf-o-Zuleikha, compared to Quranic or Biblical narration, has a number of additions and omissions which are due to the differences in references and sources before his time. Despite commonalities in many aspects, the narrations of this story in the Bible and Quran, are also different that has led to some of the discrepancies mentioned above. Another reason for the additions and omissions, is that the details of the story has been reported differently in different interpretations and books of Qusas-Al-Anbia which have been sources of dissimilarity in the various versions of this story including Nazem’s poet. In this study it was shown that many fascinating parts of the story were drown from sources like Tabari’s Interpretation, Surabadi’s Interpretation, Abu al-Fotuh Razi’s Interpretation, Farahi Heravi’s Hadaegh-ol-Haghaegh, Tabarsi’s Majma-ol-Bayan, Tusi’s Alastin Aljame-ol-Lataef Albasatin and the poetical versions of this story before Nazem Heravi. Linguistic and rhetorical dimensions of Nazem’s Yusuf-o-Zuleikha are also important. The most prominent linguistic feature is the poet’s special emphasis on composition of words. Proximity to colloquial language, the width of vocabulary and special attention to the proverbs and sayings are other features of this poem. From the imagination point of view, the abundance of images, the innovation in the images, the links between the images and verbs, the profusion of abstract elements, and the wealth of metaphors, similes and personifications are among special characteristics of this poem. Nazem Heravi’s Yusuf-o-Zuleikha is among the most successful and outstanding poetry of Joseph and Zuleikha in the history of Persian literature, both in terms of narrative element and its origins and in terms of poetry elements such as language, imagination and affection.
    References:

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    Abolfotuh Razi, H. Roz ol-Jenan wa Rouh ol-Janan fi Tafsir el-Quran, 11th Volume, Mashhad: Astan e Ghods e Razavi, 1988.
    Azad Belgrami, Gh. Sarv-e Azad, by Zohreh Namdar, Tehran: Enteshar, Co. 2013.
    Azar Bigdeli, L. Atashkadeh,Corrected by: Sadat Naseri, H. Tehran: Amirkabir, 1959.
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    Bahador, M. Tazkarah ye Shame Anjoman, Corrected by: Kahdui, M. Yazd: University of Yazd, 2007.
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    Derayati, M. The Directory of Iran Manuscripts (Dena), 11th Volume, Tehran: The Library of the Parliament, 2010.
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    Farahi Heravi, M. Hadaegh-ol-Haghaegh Interpretation, (yusuf Surah),2nd Print, by Sajadi, J. Tehran: Tehran University, 2005.
    Ferdowsi, A. Interpretation of Yusuf Surah or Yusuf and Zuleikha, Tehran: Islamieh Library, (n. d.).
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    Hoseini, M. Tazkareh ye Hoseini, Lucknow: Nolkshore Print’s, 1875.
    Jami, A. Masnavi-e Yusuf va Zuleikha, by Nikoubakht, N. Tehran: Avay-e Nour, 1998.
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    Mosleh, Sh. Nazem Heravi: the Famous Poet of 11th Century, Tehran: Samt, Center for Research and Development of Humanities and the Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan, 2011.
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    ------------------, Yusuf-o-Zuleikha, Lithography, by Hosein Taslim, M.Lucknow: Nolkshore Print’s, 1869.
    ------------------, Yusuf-o-Zuleikha, Lithography, by Mehman Khan ebn Mozafar Khan Toureh, Tashkand: Poursof Print’s, 1904.
    Neishabouri, A. Qusas-Al-Anbia, by Yaghmaei, H. Tehran: Scientific & Cultural, 2007.
    Nikouhemat, A. A Tour in Yusuf-o-Zuleikha Masnavis, Magazine of Vahid, No. 127, p, 305-309, 1974.
    Qomi, Kh, M. Yusuf and Zuleikha, Corrected by: Al-e-Davoud, A. Tehran: Fredos, 2004.
    Saba, M. Tazkareh ye Rouz-e Roshan, Corrected by: Roknzade Adamiat, M. Tehran: Razi Library, 1964.
    Safa, Z. The History of Literature in Iran, 5th Volume, 4th Edition, Tehran: Fredos, 2007.
    Sarkhosh, M. Kalamat ol- Shoara, Corrected by: Lahori, S. Lahore: Penjab University, 1942.
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    Keywords: Nazem Heravi, Yousof-o-Zoleikha, story narration, sources of narration, poetic elements
  • masoumeh shasti*, ashraf chegini, mohammadali shafaei Pages 107-126

    1.Introduction
    One of the most famous literary forms is "Encyclopedia of Literature." In Persian and Arabic literature, this type of poem has become more widespread. The story of "Varghe and Golshah", based on the story of "Orve and Afra," is the first story of Arabic exorcism, and Ayooghi, a Persian poet, made it to the Farsi order in the fifth century, with the name Varghe and Golshah, and also epic and heroic themes. Added to it. On the other hand, the story of "Leyli and Majnoon" is similar to the Lilac and Golshah of Ayooghi derived from "Orve and Afra", which are of Arabic origin.
    The comparative study of Persian love poems as an example, its measurements, and its position with other other systems, including Arabic and Russian, have been the main goals and issues of research in this field. In this research, we want to find out whether the poems of romance Farsi, have the ability to investigate with folkloric analytic theories, including the Arabic and Russian love poems. Therefore, the present research attempts to explore the romantic themes of these three fascinating stories with the model of the function of Vladimir Prop's personality and create a distinct relationship between these romantic poems. Since the poems of "Varghe and Golshah" and "Leyli and Majnoon" and "Orve and Afra" all represent love of excuse and purity, the quest for the adventures is that the adventures that occur for lover and beloved and the reactions of each Check it out and compare it. And the presence of rational thought and rational thinking and love, which is rooted in Iran's ancient civilization and culture, will be clearer in this study.
    In addition to analyzing and interpreting the results of these stories, it will reveal some of the theoretical issues and the application of folklore structuralism and the importance of this method in Persian and Arabic, Russian and European fiction scripts, and the generalization and inclusion of folklore And whether these designs are global and general, or limited to certain areas or specific cultures, are the objectives of this research.
    2-Research
    Method
    This is a descriptive-analytical method and content analysis. The theoretical foundations of the research are based on the love of excitement and sources of Persian and Arabic literary riches and the work of the Vladimir Prop's Russian character. Since the story of Lilly and Majnon Military and Varghe and Golshah Ayooghi derived from Orve and Afra, which are of the original Arabic, this study, based on Arabic sources such as the book of Orve and Afra, narrate Asbat-e-bne eesa Alozri in the book of Aboul Faraj Isfahani and Varghe and Golshah Ayooghi and Lily and Majnon are military and in the function of the character of the story, relying on the book of Morphology of Vladimir Prop.

    3-Discussion
    Excitement love: love excellence is a love that lover and beloved, in addition to deep affection towards each other, must adhere to principles. Because among the Arabs, this kind of love is attributed to the tribe of Bani-Alozre of the tribes of Yemen's Qahtan, it is known for the love of exorcism. The love of pure exaltation or love was attributed to the tribal "Bani al-Zarra", which loves love with desires Material did not infect. The three couples belong to the most famous Arabic devotees: Orve and Afra, Qays and Lobni, Jamil and Bethinah (Karachofsky, 1368: 139).
    Comparative study of romantic themes:The careful examination of the role of the motifs and the acts of fiction of all three roman themes reveals that all three poems end up with a series of the motifs, events, and reactions of the characters of the story, all of which seeks to reveal the features and The themes of love are pure and amphibious, such as:1. The beginning of love 2. On the mystery of love's love 3. Involve joiner 4. External deterrent factor:in the story of Varghe and Golshaq → Poverty - In the Arabic narrative → Mahri Sangin - In the military narrative of turmoil → (Qase) Insane of Lilly's love 5. War for the lover 6. Traveling in love 7. Seeing lover and lover 8. The way to return and the reaction of the lover 9. Death of the lovers 10. The end of the story

    4.Result
    By comparing the course of events and adventures that occur for two lovers and beloved in the stories of "Lily and Majnoon" and "Lilac, Golshah," and "Orve and Afra", we have reached the main themes of love for excitement and tribal and tribal brigades Arabs and Ajam, and related to the ideals, manners and worldviews of this people, and depicted the character and the role of the three systems according to the Propp model.
    As part of the story of the three stories, the narrators of the military story in Lilly and Majnoon, Ayooghi in Varghe and Golshah and Arabic and Arabic, tried to create a common logical course for their stories, with the themes. The three stories in essence represent the formation and the beginning of a pure and simple love in a tribal life with a picture of the rituals and traditions of the patriotic Arabs. However, military and intelligence bring the cornerstones of Iranian culture and thought into the story in order to make their story more attractive and sweet. On the other hand, primitive Arabic thought plays a significant role in the process of the adventures of three stories in the failure of love for exorcism.
    With regard to the features and themes of love excuse, in all three stories, love starts from childhood (in school and in tribal space) gradually rising. The beginning of love and the revealing of the mystery of love comes from this era. After its disclosure, the process of events and adventures in each of the three stories brings the reader to himself, seeing the intervention of the excitement and inner hardships that are on the way to love, ultimately make this tragic love Slowly In all three stories, Arab zeal and fanaticism and coercion on the fate of Arab women are a deterrent. Lily, Golshah, and Afra are going to the dignity of a married couple under the influence of this factor. On the other hand, qais is open to joining his beloved, for the sake of being insane, lilly, and Varghe, and Orve for the crime of not having wealth and property (economic factor); factors outside the control of the lovers and the factors that are considered in the context of the neglected Arab culture.
    After marriage, lover and beloved in all three stories are also deprived of their visit for a while, and this adds to the passion of the lovers of paralysis and the theme of loyalty to the lover and the continuity of his memory at all moments of love, which is one of the most important features Love is excitement, the better it is. Although the end of love in this world ends in the death of a lover and beloved, but in three stories, it is interesting to note that at the end of each of three stories, the victory of Azari and Afif love we are witness. Considering this end for all three stories reflects the attitude of the narrative unit to the love of excitement.  
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    Keywords: Romantic themes, structuralism, exorcism, poetic tales
  • Abdolahad Gheibi*, Nasren Hosseini Tavana Pages 127-146
    1-Introduction

    Exile is one of the social phenomena that is occurred by the disruption of social and political conditions in human societies. Throughout the history of this phenomenon, many people have been struggling to rise and revolt against tyranny and colonialism. Since the poets hold their selves the responsibility of clarifying and expressing the unpopularities and somehow their works reflect the events of their homeland, they have faced this ominous phenomenon. In the contemporary Arab world, Iraq is one of the countries that, due to its unfavorable political and social conditions, has more poets and writers in immigration or exile compared to other Arab countries. One can point out to great poets such as Abdul Wahhab Bayati, Sa'di Yusuf, Yahya Al-Samawi and Adnan Al-Sayegh, who each Resurrected against oppression at different times but with a common goal, which led to their exile from homeland; therefore, they had to express their ideas to improve the deteriorating situation in Iraq. Yahya Al-Samawi and Adnan Al-Sayegh are both well-known Iraqi poets who were forced to leave Iraq in response to the repression and tyranny of the ruling community during the of dictatorship ruling of Saddam Hussein, have played a significant role in waking their compatriots to liberate Iraq. In this research, it is tried to investigate the common concepts including clarity, recollection of the past memories, exploitation of nature and love of the homeland in the poems of Yahya A-Samawi and Adnan Al-Sayegh through analytical-descriptive method. At the end, the following two basic questions will be answered: 1. How did the Iraqi political situation in the twentieth century affect the views of these two poets? 2. What are the most important common concepts in the lyrics of these two poets? The present study aimed at achieving Yahya Al-Samawi's and Adnan Al-Sajag's thoughts and feelings and expressing the effect of exile on their poems.

    2- Research methodology

    In the present research, it is tried to investigate the common concepts including clarity, recollection of the past memories, enjoying nature and love of the homeland in the poems of Yahya Al-Samawi and Adnan Al-Sayegh through analytical-descriptive method.

    3-Discussion

    Yahya Al-Samawi and Adnan Al-Sayegh were Iraqi contemporary Iraqi poets who were in exile because of the dictatorial government of Saddam Hussein. Exile and the resulting effects have changed the thoughts of these two poets towards their surroundings and appeared in their poems. Among the main issues of exile that were found in Yahya Al-Samawi and Adnan Al-Sayegh's Divans are: 1. Clarity and explicitness, 2. Reminding of past memories, 3. The use of nature, 4. Love of the homeland. One of the most prominent features of the contemporary poets of Resistance Period is their explicit language which is tangible in their poems. The two poets, without any horror, have politically and explicitly revealed the ruling regime and the crimes of the colonial countries as fully as possible. Nostalgia in psychology is referred to a method of writing based on which the poet or writer draws up a past time or a land in his/her thoughts humbly and painfully in his/her poem or writings (Anousheh, 1997: 2/2006). To reduce their sadness and due to being away from home, poets tend to remember the sweet or bitter memories to achieve relative quietness. Al-Samawi and Al-Sayegh are the contemporary poets that nostalgia is visible in their poems. One of the main issues in Al-Samawi and Al-Sayegh's Divans is the tendency toward nature. These two poets mostly take their topics from the realm of nature, because the poets in exile are inspired by elements of nature to narrate their plagues and sufferings and use these elements in the direction of their purposes, and express their thoughts using similarities and themes. In Al-Samawi and Al-Sayegh's poems, inspiration comes from animate and inanimate nature. For many years, human being has a special interest to the homeland and his/her heart goes for the homeland everywhere in this planet. This is especially true in the poetry of poets whose territories were burned out in the war and colonialism. This issue has forced many poets to defend their country in order to excite the passion and saga in their nation (Masbough et al, 2011: 132). The both exiled poets pursue the problems of the homeland, as if not only the memories of homeland has not decreased their pains and sufferings but also brutalize the poets’ soul more than before; therefore, they can’t be indifferent to the affairs of their country such as displacement, war, bloodshed, etc. For this reason, patriotic is observable in the Divans of the two poets.

    4-Conclusion

    The issue of exile exists from a very long time ago and it is not a new issue in the world. This phenomenon occurs by some factors such as confrontation against tyranny and colonization in a society. In today's world, the impact of exile is obvious in the contemporary poets' Divans, including the Iraqi poets. Yahya Al-Samawi and Adnan Al-Sayegh are two of the exiled poets being far from homeland is apparent in their poems and any reader feel it from their poems. Both poets have used various forms of language such as clarity and explicitness to express their intentions to escape their societies from tyranny and colonialism, and to alert their countrymen. It seems that both poets point out the crimes of foreigners in the simple words and call people to unite to take steps to improve the situation. Remembrance of the past memories is the common concept in the poems of these two poets, by which they review bitter and sweet memories, thus calming their soul and soul. The symbolic inspiration of nature in the poems of both poets has caused the ambiguity in the expressions of their views. Love of the homeland is the most important subject of the poetry in exile, which is clearly seen in all the works of exiled poets, especially in Al-Samawi and Al-Sayegh poetry. Both poets have been able to express their goals and intentions with their artistic talents and language of poetry.


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    Keywords: Romantic themes, structuralism, exorcism, poetic tales
  • Azame foroughipouya, Abbas nikbakht*, mohammadAmir mashhadi Pages 147-170
     
    Expanded abstract

    The source of a structuralism Is a Russian formalism.In the first half of the 20th century, Russian and CzechFederation theorists tried to expanded theory that is about literacy.they Wanted to answerThere question about what is the distinguishes between literary Texts from common text?
    Formalisms Believed that literary Language by using technics Getting away from auto language and routinLanguage and familiar forms ,It’s because to alienation And eventually makes a distinction from other texts.
    The structuralists Pursue the formalists ,Extended allegation alienation.
    they contrastWith formalists ;So they considered the text as one structure and they put up alienation in it.
    The structuralists By Borrowing from psychological studies,they subrogated the accentuate instead of alienation.
    TheDistinguishes between structuralists from formalists Was that formalists Take less attention to the elements InContext we’d have no direct relation with alienation process,While the View point of is structuralists All the elements four main rules in Formation of text performance.
    The most important idea of the structuralists of Parague Is the Attention to literary text,As a coherent structure in which all exsisting Elements are mutually interdependent and they’re Reinforced.
    From their point of view,There is nothing in a literary trace that can be distinguishes and visible .
    Every individual elements have the Specific Performance and by that it’s linked in the whole text.
    Hafez Is one of the Poets who lived with his poetry,This is the Mysterious of lasting his poem.
    khoramshahi Says about the secretary of the novelty and immortality of the words of Hafiz: Hafiz’s Works is not just an Office and a work he is beyond literature.
    Hafiz is Noble who has deep thought of wisdom, theosophical deep sentiment hummanity.Hafiz among the poets choose as an International poet is due to they made poem but Hafiz made life.In one ward he talked about wishes and routine suffered of human and he tend to Eternal issues instead of literary issues.(Farsian & Rezai 1391,54)
    Abdolvahab penname to Neshat was born in 1175 A.H. in Esfahan where it’s his birthplce.Neshat In addition to dominated to Persian Language he was learnt Turkish and Arabic language. he became Proficient : in literacy knowledge ,rationale wisdom, normal and Math.
    He returned to Tehran At age of 43 in 1218 and at the court of The king of the time,Fath ali shah, Was called Motamedo dowle.
    He’d go to clerical and then he adopted as management of Rasael court.Neshat Wrote Royall sentences ,married certification and court correspondence with Beautiful hand writing.
    He was accompanied by King for many years in travelling and another things that.until He was Died because of tuberculosis Sickness.what was left of him was he is famous book named (Gangineh)at 5insertion Includes poems and writing that have been written over their life time .Another novel of Neshat is treaties on the method of Golestan saadi.Which was In the presence of the Bahar master.
    1-1 Proposition Statement and questions of research:The proposition is this research is that in terms of structure and relation of structural elements which sonnets Is more coherent than the other?
    1. Imitation Neshat of Hafiz in terms of structure is the absolute or relative imitation?
    2. Does the relation between the structural elements constituting The structure in both sonnets are eurythmics and harmonious.
    1-2 The target of this research is investigate between two sonnets that’s one of them is written by imitation of one anotherAnd which has Written with several intervals centuries Which relationship between components is more Is tracked Raleigh consistent.and in which a structural elements have more harmony and coordination in line with content and issue.
    1-3 Research history
    Regarding the comparison or influence of Neshat sonnets from Hafiz ,Many research have been done that majority of them are in stylist district investigation.
    Including them stylist influence (Neshat from Hafiz)Article that written by Abdolah vasegh Abasi (Bahar adab magazines,fourth year ,first number ,1390 in spring ,seeial number 11)With a stylist impacted Neshat from Hafiz :Eterion and Side music, language and lexical axis, themes and poetric themes And expression are the context he was dealing with them .Into coherent structure
    of Hafiz’s sonnets Written by Teimoor Malmir ,(Journal of literary techniques ,First year, number wrong, autumn and winter 1388).
    For the purpose of the structure of longitudinal Relationship and their semantic cohesion of sonnets and structural element and investigate them As it is at tension in a structuralist It doesn’t relevant.Also Een investigate the language style of Neshat Esfahani article.
    That’s written by Amin Rahimi & Amin Rezai (Science literary magazine, fiefs year, seven number, autumn and winter 1394) .The stylistics of Neshat Esfahani has been studied.

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    Keywords: structure, comparison, hafez, neshat esfahani
  • parand fayazmansh*, ali safayi, reza cheraghi Pages 171-194


    1-Introduction
    Semiotics is knowledge of understanding and analysis of linguistic and non-linguistic signs and semiotic criticism is the study of structure and signs of a text in two vertical and horizontal axes. Poetry is an open discourse with proper setting for interplay of signs; “signs that as a text are related with multilateral interaction” (Sojoodi and Kake Khani; 2008, 294). In a poem, signs find meaning in relation with each other and the context in which they are put. The interplay of signs leads to movement of poetry and extension of meaning which provides the ground for a new reading.
    One of the human emotions, that has been central to the literature of nations since the old times, is love. Using special tools and signs, this emotion creates noteworthy and decisive manifestations in literary works. Rhetorical symbols are among important tools used to express poets’ thoughts and feelings. Shams Langroudi is a prominent contemporary poet who uses rhetorical signs to give artistic form to his poetry and reflects life in his through language, image, and imagination. Romances of Shams have simple and folksy language tailored to the taste and interests of man of his day. Given what was said above, in order to achieve the role and function of rhetorical symbols as well as rhetorical codes in Shams' romance, this research addresses his romantic poetry and answers the following questions:1- Do rhetorical signs contribute to the formation of Shams Langroodi's romantic poetry?
    2- What are different types of rhetorical signs in prominent spheres of romance and what are their functions?
    3- Given the prominent aspects of romantic discourse of Shams, what are the most frequent rhetorical signs and stylistic rhetorical signs?

    2- Reserch
    Methodology
    The research method is descriptive-analytical and analyses are based on content and statistics derived from rhetorical signs. In this research, theoretical basics are explained first. Then, types of romantic signs grounded on three aspects of beloved, love, and poetry are studied, some examples that are identified with figurative clusters are analyzed, and the function of signs is explained by evidence.

    3-Discussion
    Romantic poetry is product of romantic discourse and its dominant system, i.e. emotional system. Shams Langroodi's romantic poems are artistic romance in which love is highlighted with his special codes, by relying on signifiers and signifieds and the relationship between them, so as to influence the readers and arouse their feelings. In these romances, the poet gives a warm look to the world to link his experiences together. He bridges the lover, love and beloved, and creates an unbreakable bond among them.
    Total number of romantic poems of Shams Langroudi is 262 composed based on three aspects of love, beloved, and lover and born from love and beloved. Considering the three aspects and their rhetorical signs, discussion is processed as follows: because of the vast scope of the subject, evidence and avoidance of iteration, charts are set in each section which indicates the prevalence of rhetorical signs in the process of romance formation. Also, given the frequency, content diversity, and possibility of classifying beloved-based poetry, compared to the other two aspects, as well as better connection of readers with romantic poems of Sham, sub-sections are considered for this aspect of romance. So, tables are arranged in two high and low frequency modes. The criteria for this process is to compare frequency rate of rhetorical signs with each other. Since figurative clusters have played a significant role in the formation of romance, they are studied in a separate section and their chart is drawn according to the frequency of clusters.

    4-Conclusion
    Rhetorical signs are key determinants of discourses of Shams Langroudi. Through hidden power of these signs, Shams presents the formation process of his romantic poetry. Shams' romantic poetry is formed within the three areas of beloved, love and poem, for processing of which Shams uses rhetorical signs in two ways. He uses these signs in some of his romances, but in most poems, he composed his romances using rhetorical signs. In these poems, density and intensity of signs in figurative clusters create romantic discourse where differentiation of signs breaks up the text and leaves its meaning unfinished. Beloved is the most prominent aspect of Shams' romantic poetry. In these poems, he describes the organs and their existential dependents, distance and homesickness, desires and wishes, addresses and conversations, expression of love, and comparison of lover and beloved. In each of these subsets, rhetorical signs have a definite role. In all subsets of beloved, signs of appropriateness, alliteration, and simile are at the top. But in the subset of desires and wishes, metaphorical signs are used more than simile since they are relevant to the subject. The use of iconic sign in metaphor to describe the beloved, desires and wishes, and addresses and conversations indicates the connection between Shams and tangible and inhuman phenomena in replacement tailored to the issue. Contradiction used in the subsets of describing the beloved, desires and wishes, and addresses and conversations are most common in comparison of lover and beloved and expresses mutual mentality of the poet's descriptions of lover and beloved, that are manifested in poems by this sign. Also, repetition of signifier letters (Sh, S, B, D, T, and G) in each subsection represents the dominant content. The other aspect of Shams’ romantic poetry is love. Langroudi look at love with simple, objective, live, and rational eyes full of affection which link individual and society and the poet uses rhetorical signs in defining and mentioning the characteristics of love. For vivid and tangible representation of love, Shams uses iconic sign in metaphor. Where logic is set a basis of definition, he puts indexical signs of appropriateness and contradiction beside iconic signs and when he wants to link love to community, he uses a multi-layer figurative symbols. Here, Repetition of signifiers letter (SH, S, R) reveals Shams's mental codes in his definition of love. In these romances, Shams believes poetry gives birth to love and beloved so he wants his poems understand the language of love. In description of poem and love, Langroudi uses the rhetorical signs of appropriateness, simile, alliteration, and metaphor. To describe the aspects of poem and beloved, added to above symbols, he also uses two other rhetorical signs of chiasmus and allusion. Repetition of signifiers letter (SH, S, T) reveals poems link with these two aspects. In general, according to the frequency of rhetorical signs in Shams' romantic poetry, the most frequent iconic and indexical signs in these poems appropriateness, alliteration (colliteration of T, S, D, R, and SH shows strength, softness and flow), simile, explicit metaphor, implicit metaphors (Mosarahe), and iteration – at sentence level. Also, in these romantic poems, indexical signs of appropriateness and alliteration as well as iconic signs of simile, whose second signifier is explanatory, are stylistic and arousing signs that that engage the reader's mind and make him a productive reader. Based on evidences of the three aspects, the functions of rhetorical signs in romances of Shams - tied to different signs of nature, phenomena, object, time and place – are: A) involving the reader by influencing him/her but not making the reader bored; B) shifting and arousing emotions; C) creating relationship between the poet and the reader; D) associating; E) explaining the meanings intended by the poet and helping to understand the meaning and fix it in the reader's mind; F) objectifying; G) creating dynamics, cohesion and highlighting themes; H) expressing experiences of life (public and personal); I) locality; and J) coherence, beauty and musicality of poem.

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    Taheri, Qudratullah, Va Taqi PourNamdarian. A Critical Review of Contemporary Iranian Poetry. Faslname Oloom-e Ensani Daneshgah-e Alzahra, No.56 and 57. Tehran, pp 1-18, 2005.
    Keywords: Semiotics, Rhetorical signs, Contemporary Persian poetry, Romantic poetry, Shams Langroudi
  • fatemeh vazifehdanemolashahi, Mohammad Barani*, maryam khalilijahantigh Pages 195-212
     
    introduction
    Vikramurvaśī is the name of a play with the concept of love by the broad-minded Indian writer, Kālidās. He has been the most popular classic writer of Sanskrit literature and the greatest poet of the famous King, Vikramāditya. It is likely that the inspiration for choosing the name Vikramōrvaśīyam for the mentioned play has come from the name of this king (Kalidas, 1962: 6-5). He has written his plays based on religious/ritual themes. Deities play a central role in his plays. The events in his stories are amazing and exemplum, and the movements of the characters in his plays are vertical; they have one visage on the earth and another one in the heaven; these movements remind us the imaginary travels and inner journeys and associate the mystical experiences. The mystical experience is the epistemic knowledge obtained from a certain reality; it is a fact that cannot be expressed through intellect and intuition, nor by human language, but which is the result of an inner development and a cryptic journey followed by a spiritual intuition that is expressed in an allegorical and symbolic language. Everyone believes that the mystical experience is a kind of immediate awareness of the status of divinity (Faali: 2005: 349). In mystical experiences, the goal is to reach the heavenly pole of one’s being, namely the one’s self, as someone in whom the God has manifested himself at the beginning of creation in the unseen world, and through whom the God has portrayed himself (Corbin, 1995:86). This is an eternal memory which is common in the psyches of all human beings and causes them to be drawn towards the God and the truth that is their very eternal form. "Here we deal with the common psychological layers of all the people who share an ethnicity and civilization, and hence it is called the collective unconscious "(ibid). Jung believes that the collective unconscious is not directly recognizable, but it is represented in the form of an archetype. (Sokhanvar 2000: 29) One of the most important archetypes is Anima serving as the soul or spirit, that is, the early origin of living creatures, and the breath or the magic flame of life "(Moreno, 2007: 60). A representation of Anima is "Sophia. Another representation of Anima is "Daena (Razi, 2003: 298) Daena is the "celestial self” and the “heavenly origin of the soul." (Poornamardian, 1996: 294). In folk tales, Anima is sometimes called "Pari".

    2- Research Method
    This research is done through content analysis and its theoretical foundations are explained relying on library sources and tools. At first, we briefly introduce the famous Indian playwright and the work which is investigated here, followed by a summary of the play, Vikramōrvaśīyam, and subsequently an analysis of his mystical representation is presented.

    3-Discussion
    The main theme of the play "Vikramōrvaśīyam" is love and the effects of love. The king is the very same as the wayfarer who is considered as the God’s deputy. The fact that the hero of the play is the king not only associates the kingship of Adam over the world, which has been mentioned in the play by the king himself. (Kalidas, Bita: 170), but also reminds the kingdom of soul over the whole body. Given the fact that the king "Pururavas" is an offspring of the sun and the moon (ibid: 106 footnotes), this demonstrates his luminous background and ancestors; and this definition, strengthens the kingship of the soul. "The soul is luminous, celestial, and heavenly (Bukhari, 1984: 857-856)."A soul that has not forgotten its divine origin. This light and this flame is the dignity. Dignity is the greatness, knowledge, happiness, glory and magnitude granted by the God to those who deserve it (Razi, 2005: 34), so the main character and the hero of the play is a wayfarer who has granted the dignity of divine kingdom because of his glorious and celestial spirit.
    The king has a close relationship with the sun. He is in the heaven and comes from the sun worship and meets the fairies at the top of the mountain. The sun has often been depicted in the center of the universe and considered as a sign of the wisdom of the universe. The place of sunrise and its main position is the east. In the mystic world, the word “east” implies the spiritual world and orientemeiur, from which the intellectual sun rises, and the Orientals are those whose inner being accepts this fire inside them. (Corbin, 1990: 44) Now that the wayfarer has been adorned with enlightenment and illumination light, he is ready to join his inner love. "He can face his spiritual companion; the blessed self appears as a woman resembling the spirit of the wayfarer and they marry each other "(Berry, 2006: 192). The king in this play marries Shakuuntala who is a fairy in this tale. The fairy, as mentioned above, is in fact the celestial replica of the self and the transcendental ego from which the soul has fallen apart during its fall to this world. Meeting and joining this celestial ego, and the heavenly witness and beloved, is the ultimate wish of the mystics and the final goal of wayfarers. The experience of such a bonding and meeting which is the presence of ego against self is the realization of another birth as well as the development and expansion of personality beyond the invisible part of the experimental ego and achieving a great source of the non-acquired power, knowledge and wisdom, and a promotion to the angles’ rank. (Pournamdarian, 2001: 129)
    Following Urvashi, the king walks in Kumar jungle, a very beautiful and marvelous jungle introduced as the God’s jungle or Indra, and as stated by king Pururavas, this is a forest "which is the home of love" (Kalidas, Bita: 184). We call this land the heart of man. The heart is the essence of the entire universe and the divine house of privacy. (Abedi and Tarachand, 1968: 148) Entering into the heart, the king finds a treasure which is the self and for the Sufis it is the same as divinity" (Barri, 2006:232)
    Eventually, a vulture mistakenly steals the gem of union instead of meat, which is then hunted by the king's son. The king's son hunts the death (vulture) and gains immortality (the gem). Certainly, the king’s son is not a person other than the king himself and his inner being and his soul. As stated in "Al-Valad al-Ser Abyeh" (Lahiji 2002:268), the king reaches the level of unity with the superior self.

    4.Conclusion
    Vikramōrvaśīyam is the name of a celestial fairy with which the play is also. She is the female hero of the play, and a manifestation of love faced with a terrestrial king with ascension capabilities. The king comes from the moon and sun worship who meets the fairies on top of the mountain; the heaven, the sun and the mountains have a sacred side, so at the very beginning of the story, the spiritual and sacred atmosphere of the play is clearly understood; though it should be noted that moving and travelling to the heaven and exploring it cannot be done by every terrestrial human being, but this requires another type of humanity, a person who has turned into a heavenly being. Therefore, the king's journey to heaven is not of a materialistic thing, but rather it is a mystical journey and experience.
    The king is not a body, but a he is spirit that has removed its attachments and has freely and lightly flown to the heaven.
    The king in this land (the heaven) falls in love with the fairy, who is a representation of divine joy and a reflection of his own being, which has been called Anima by Jung. The fairy or the love, empties the king or mystic from bodily attachments and material desires and removes all of them, and then becomes his guide in reaching the essence of immortality, purity, unity and mortality.
    And eventually, she reveals the love, the soul, and the discovered origin of the king (the king's son) to him; with her aid, survival is achieved, and the mission of the fairy comes to an end.

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    Keywords: Vikrama Urvashi, Kalidasa, Indian play, mystical Experience, Love