فهرست مطالب

هنرهای زیبا - معماری و شهرسازی - پیاپی 74 (تابستان 1397)
  • پیاپی 74 (تابستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/06/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • عیسی حجت، مجید صالحی نیا ، سحر رخ * صفحات 5-16
    "پیری در خانه" یکی از یافته های روانشناسی محیطی سالمندان می باشد که در آن بر ماندن سالمندان درخانه و همسایگی آشنا و داشتن حق انتخاب در نوع زندگی تاکید می شود.
    در این پژوهش هدف آن است که ویژگی های مطلوب محیطی برای سالمندان جهت دستیابی به "پیری در خانه" استخراج و مفاهیم سازگار با این هدف در معماری ایران معرفی شود. و سوال این است که محیط مناسب سالمندان جهت "پیری در خانه" دارای چه ویژگی هایی است؟ و معماری ایران چگونه با این ویژگی ها منطبق می شود؟
    روش این پژوهش از نظر هدف، کاربردی می باشد که با توجه به ماهیت موضوع از روش توصیفی تحلیلی استفاده شده است.
    یافته های پژوهش حاکی از آن است که محیط با ویژگی احترام به سالمند و توانایی ادغام سالمندان در خود، تامین کننده اهداف "پیری در خانه" می باشد و برخی از مفاهیم معماری ایران با این اهداف مطابقت نموده و نشانه های احترام به سالمند در آن نهفته است. همچنین با نگاهی به الگوهای معماری بومی شهر کرمان پیشنهادهایی جهت استفاده از این الگوها و در عین حال حفظ آن ها ارایه می شود که ضمن ایجاد فضای مناسب سالمندان، از معماری بومی محل نیز صیانت شود.
    کلیدواژگان: پیری در خانه، معماری ایران، معماری بومی، سالمند، کرمان
  • مریم فرهادی ، احمد حیدری * صفحات 17-30
    در پژوهش حاضر تطبیق نقش پیکره بندی فضایی محیط و نقشه های شناختی حاصل از آن بر رفتار های اجتماع پذیر افراد سنجیده شد. در همین راستا ساختار فضایی دو دانشکده ی هنر و معماری در نرم افزار نحو فضا مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در حین پژوهش از روش های کمی و کیفی بهره گرفته شد بدین ترتیب که، متغیر کیفی رفتارهای اجتماعی افراد از طریق مقادیری کمی، در روش چیدمان فضا مورد سنجش قرار گرفت. همچنین به منظور پیمایش محیط در رویکردی کیفی، مشاهده و مصاحبه توامان با پرسش نامه (که حاصل شناخت فضایی ساکنان از ساختار فضایی محیط است) و نقشه های رفتاری تهیه شده توسط محققان، مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. در نهایت با تطبیق نقشه های شناختی و نقشه های روش نحو فضا به شناسایی فضاهای عمومی اجتماع پذیر در بستر هر دو دانشکده اقدام شد. به نظر می رسد تطبیق نقشه های شناختی زایشی- غیر زایشی و نقشه های پیکره بندی فضایی، با دستیابی به رویکردی جامع در بازشناسی محیط های اجتماع پذیر رابطه معناداری دارد. به علاوه یافته های پژوهش، گویای نقش پیکره بندی فضایی در تشخیص راهکارهای کم هزینه در راستای بهبود ساختارهای فضایی محیط های آموزشی به لحاظ اجتماعی می باشد.
  • شاهین حیدری، محمود قلعه نویی، مریم قاسمی سیچانی ، فاطمه سادات مجیدی * صفحات 31-42
    به طور طبیعی هدف رفتار انسان، رسیدن به آسایش است، ولی حتی در فضاهای مشابه، محدوده آسایش حرارتی برای همه یکسان نبوده و به تنوع افراد حاضر، تجربیات و انتظارات، سطح رضایت از شرایط محیطی، نوع فضا، ساختار، بافت و غیره باز می گردد. از این رو این مقاله می کوشد تا به تحلیل و تعیین شرایط و حدود آسایش حرارتی در فضاهای باز عمومی محلات مسکونی در دو فصل زمستان و تابستان پرداخته و نتایج را در محلات قدیمی و جدید مقایسه کند. در پژوهش حاضر، ابتدا ویژگی های اقلیمی شهر اصفهان معرفی شده و سپس محله قدیمی جلفا و محله جدید مرداویج، جهت انجام مطالعات میدانی انتخاب شدند. در همین راستا، متغیرهای اقلیمی شامل دما، رطوبت نسبی و سرعت جریان باد با استفاده از دستگاه های دیتالاگر، اندازه گیری و پرسشنامه ها توسط کاربران در فضاهای باز عمومی محلات منتخب و در ماه های بهمن، اسفند و مرداد تکمیل شدند. نتایج حاصل از مقایسه حدود آسایش در محلات مورد مطالعه نشان می دهد که محله قدیمی جلفا در هر دو فصل سرد و گرم در محدوده آسایش بوده و محله جدید مرداویج در فصل سرد در محدوده آسایش و در فصل گرم خارج از این محدوده می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: آسایش حرارتی، فضاهای باز عمومی، محلات قدیم، محلات جدید، شهر اصفهان
  • کاوه ایروانی*، حیدر جهانبخش صفحات 43-52
    در ده های اخیر اثرات مخرب مصرف بی رویه سوخت های تجدید ناپذیر و کم توجهی به مفهوم پایداری، صدمات قابل ‏توجه ای را به محیط زیست وارد کرده است. طبق آمار مراکز معتبر پژوهشی حدود چهل درصد از انرژی مصرفی بشر ‏در بخش ساختمانی به مصرف می رسد، بنابراین توجه به بخش ساختمان از اهمیت بالایی برخوردار است. از اصول ‏معماری پایدار مصرف بهینه انرژی و کاهش تلفات حرارتی و بهره گیری از انرژی های تجدید پذیر می‎ ‎باشند. دیوار ‏خارجی دارای عایق آیروژلی هوشمند (هوشمندی عایق به صورت دستی اعمال شد) ، برنامه اصلی این پژوهش تجربی ‏و نوآورانه می باشد. آزمون ها بصورت تجربی بر روی دو اتاق آزمون و کنترل صورت گرفت و نتایج مورد مقایسه ‏واقع شد. علت بکارگیری عایق آیروژلی نخست به دلیل ممتاز بودن خاصیت عایق گرمایی این ماده بود و دیگر اینکه ‏طبق نظر متخصصین دانشکده شیمی دانشگاه تهران امکان ساخت آیروژل با خاصیت عایقی هوشمند، نسبت به ‏محرک های محیطی امکان پذیر می‎ ‎باشد. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش فوق نشان داد که با فرض مشخصات اتاقک ها؛ ‏اتاق آزمون دارای دیواری با دو لایه عایق آیروژلی هوشمند، نسبت به اتاق کنترل کاملا مشابه اما فاقد عایق؛ در طول 24 ‏ساعت 0/9 ‏‎±‎‏ 28/8 کیلو ژول انرژی بیشتری را به داخل اتاقک آزمون انتقال می دهد. ‏
    کلیدواژگان: دیوار خارجی، عایق آیروژل، هوشمندی، اتاقک آزمون، انرژی
  • احمد خلیلی* ، اسفندیار زبردست، محمد مهدی عزیزی صفحات 53-66
    در مطالعه حاضر به تدقیق در ویژگی ها و گونه های مختلف سه کلان مفهوم رشد شهری، گسترش شهری و پراکنده رویی شهری، و در راستای گونه شناسی از انواع زیر گونه های آنها در مطالعات مختلف برنامه ریزی شهری و منطقه ای پرداخته شده است که همواره در متون مختلف، مشابه هم به کار رفته اند. به عبارت دیگر، هدف این مقاله تبیین مفهومی و فضایی از واژه هایی همچون رشد شهری، گسترش شهری و پراکنده رویی شهری و گونه های مربوط به آن است و به دلیل تشابه و جایگزینی این مفاهیم در ادبیات جهانی، تا حد ممکن، حد و مرز هر یک از آنها و نقاط تشابه و افتراق را شناسایی نموده و در نهایت چارچوب مفهومی مشخصی برای شناسایی آنها ارائه نماید. روش تحقیق در این مطالعه نیز تلقیقی از روش های اسنادی و روش تحلیل اکتشافی مبتنی بر تدقیق در ادبیات موضوع و تبیین تطبیقی مطالعات جهانی است. بر اساس یافته های این مطالعه، مقاله حاضر بعد از رسیدن به 10 الگوی مشخص از سه کلان مفهوم مربوطه در حوزه ادبیات شهرسازی، در نهایت، گونه شناسی خاص این مطالعه را با تکیه بر یافته های نظری پژوهش ارائه داده است.
    کلیدواژگان: گونه شناسی، الگو، رشد شهری، گسترش شهری، پراکنده رویی شهری
  • علیرضا باوندیان * صفحات 67-74
    معماری در فرهنگ های دینی و سنتی همواره مفاهیم باطنی خود را در قالب نماد ارائه داده است؛ زیرا اعتقاد براین بوده است که حقایقی در جهان وجود دارد که با زبان متعارف نمی توان آن را بیان داشت. درواقع زبان عبارت قاصر از تبیین حقایق وحیانی و معنوی است و زبان اشارت را باید در این وادی به کاربست. نماد، ابزاری است برای ابراز مفهومی است که از حیطه حواس ما غایب است. بیان نمادین به معنی ایجاد زمینه ای ادراکی برای انتقال برخی مفاهیم خاص است.
    درسنت خانه های ایران،حوض برای کاستن گرما وتامین رطوبت هوا، وضو ساختن، شستشو و ذخیره آب و آبیاری ساخته می شد. در حیاط های بزرگ معمولا حوض ها دربرابر اتاق ارسی یا پنجدری بود. غالبا حوض را در یکی از محورهای اصلی فضای خانه می ساختند، به طوری که طول حوض در امتداد طول خانه قرار گیرد. حوض ؛ افزون بر این ظرفیتی برای انعکاس زیبایی های خود ساخته و مصنوع پیرامون بود. برغم این همه حوض، کارکردی نمادین هم داشت. این مقاله که به روش مطالعات توصیفی تحلیلی به رشته نگارش درآمده در اندیشه تبیین وجوه دیگر حوض و نمایاندن خصایص مکتوم آن معماری سنتی ایران است.
    کلیدواژگان: معماری سنتی ایران، حوض، اخلاق، آب، نماد
  • زینب تقی پور اناری ، الهام اندرودی * صفحات 75-86
    منظرشهری تاریخی میراث شهری را فراتر از مراکز تاریخی یا مجموعه ها، به زمینه ی جغرافیایی وسیع خود گسترش می دهد. این مفهوم لایه های مختلفی از ارزش های تاریخی را با طبیعت و بستر، تجارب فرهنگی و اجتماعی و ابعاد معنوی پیوند می زند. این پژوهش با روش کیفی و راهبرد استدلال منطقی به دنبال واکاوی نظریه های مرتبط با منظرشهری تاریخی بویژه بازتعریف ارزش های چند لایه و میان مرتبط بر مبنای مراجع موجود، اسناد بین المللی، و نظرسنجی متخصصین و مردم در بستر یکی از مهمترین نمونه های منظرشهری تاریخی تهران یعنی خیابان ولی عصر است. هدف پژوهش اولویت بندی فعالیت های مدیریت حفاظت مبتنی بر شناسایی محدوده های بحرانی و نامتعادل و محور آن ارزیابی ارزش های خیابان بر اساس نظر مردم است. بدین ترتیب ارزش های بازتعریف شده در بخش های مختلف با کمک روش شناسی ابزاری یعنی نظرسنجی مردمی از طریق پرسشنامه ارزیابی شده و توزیع فضایی ارزش ها با نقشه نگاری با PPGIS بدست آمده است. تحلیل نتایج نشان می دهد که ارزیابی ارزش ها از نگاه مردم در طول محور یکسان نیست و ارزش های منظر طبیعی و یا ارزش های یادبودی و خاطره ای، سایرین را ارتقاء داده اند. بدین ترتیب بخش جنوبی با وجود اهمیت تاریخی کمترین توزیع و پراکندگی ارزش ها را داراست و در اولویت بازآفرینی با هدف ارتقای همه جانبه ی ارزش ها قرار دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: منظر شهری تاریخی، ارزیابی ارزشها، خیابان ولیعصر، نظرسنجی مردمی، PPGIS
  • سام مرادزاده، احد نژاد ابراهیمی * صفحات 87-98
    بوشهر با اقلیم گرم و مرطوب دارای مساجدی متناسب با اقلیم این منطقه است. مطالعات نشان دهنده تفاوتهایی در الگوی این مساجد با الگوی معماری مساجد ایران می باشد؛ هدف این پژوهش شناخت ویژگی های کالبدی و فضایی مساجد شهر بوشهر در دوره قاجار می باشد تا عوامل بوجود آورنده این الگو ها تعیین گردند. این مقاله با مطالعه مولفه های معماری مساجد بوشهر در دوره قاجار و با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی به تبیین گونه ها پرداخته و به طبقهبندی نمونه ها می پردازد؛ اطلاعات تحقیق بصورت کتابخانه ای و پیمایش میدانی جمع آوری شده است؛ به نظر می رسد مساجد شهر بوشهر شیوه خاصی در ایجاد روابط فضایی، فرم و ساختار سازه ای دارند که شباهت هایی با مساجد الگوی شبستانی دارند ولی این تشابه ها یکسان نیستند و ویژگی های خاص، متناسب با شرایط مکانی دارند. یافته های گونه شناسانه گویای دو گونه مساجد شبستانی دارای صحن و مساجد شبستانی فاقد صحن می باشد. مطالعه الگوی مساجد تاریخی بوشهر بعنوان نتایج تحقیق، نشان می دهد مولفه های طراحی؛ ساخت و ساز مساجد در نوع معماری بومی به لحاظ برون گرا یا درون گرا بودن موثر بوده است و نیز محل قرارگیری در کنار توانایی مالی، مصالح و عوامل فرهنگی نیز در شکل گیری این الگو تاثیر داشته اند.
    کلیدواژگان: الگوی معماری مسجد، گونه شناسی مسجد، مساجد تاریخی بوشهر، معماری دوره قاجار
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  • Isa ahojat, Majid Salehinia , Sahar Rokh* Pages 5-16
    "Aging In Place" is one of the Environmental Gerontology findings which as a result of increasig number of elderly people in whole world, becomes one part of its dictionary. "Aging In Place" emphasis on remaining at home and familiar neighborhood and having the right to choose the kind of life. And its goal is to provide a supportive physical and psychological environment for the elderly in which they become normal functioning members of the community, rather than passive service recipients. The purpose of this research is to find desirable features of environment for elderly to reach "Aging In Place". and by knowing what the elders demand from the environment and identifying built and spacial elements that could strengthen their presence in the environment, the basis of their participation in society will be provided. and as a result of an interaction between elderly and environment, society can benefit from elderly presence in the environment. Then by identifying compatible concepts with this goal in Iran architecture, some practical solution are introduced to achieve the "Aging In place”. so the research questions are: what characteristics have a society with respect to elderly and with ability to integrate elderlies in society? And how Iran's architecture adapt with these features? In order to introduce the theory of "Aging In place" and find and apply it into Iranian architecture, Research method is practical and according to the nature of the subject analytical method is used. In the theoretical perspectives and literature review, descriptive methods are applied. For data collecting in this research, documentary method is used to identify "Aging In Place" theory and it's related concepts. as well as through field study some environmental measures associated with the concept, identified and collected. Analysis method in this research is also descriptive and comparative in a way that after reviewing various sources, the findings from the study were matched with existing examples. in this way results and strategies stated for the intended purpose. The data consists of two parts: the first part of the data related to the theory of "Aging In place" and the second part of it related to the architectural features of Iran, associated with the elderly and compliance with the theory of "Aging in place" and finally with accumulation and comparison of data the final conclusions are reached. Research results suggest that, an environment with features like respect for the aging and the ability to integrate seniors can provide the purposes of "Aging In Place" and some of Iranian Architect 'concepts have conformity with "Aging In Place" purposes. For instance, it has the ability to encourage elderly people to continue an active life and maintain their customs and habits in familiar neighborhood and environment. therefore it potentially has some signs of respect for the aging. Also considering local architecture of Kerman city, some suggestion are presented for using and preserving these architectural patterns, Eventually with creation of an elderly friendly place, local architecture can be protected too
    Keywords: Aging In Place, Iran Architecture, Local Architecture, Elder, kerman
  • maryam farhadi , ahmad heidari* Pages 17-30
    The research problem is that in order to study the educational environment's impact on the formation of social and spatial behaviors among students in educational environments, one can not ignore the students who are the main users of educational spaces and, using only quantitative methods, for the relationships between components Evaluating the environment and judging it based on the social behavior of individuals,Especially that human behavior is a result of the individual's motives and needs, the environment, the mental image of his perception of the outside world and the meaning that this image holds for him.in this regard, students in educational spaces, in addition to teaching instructor, need education during their collective life while attending their college environment, which also contributes to their growth. For this purpose, in assessing the spatial structure of the environment, you must In addition to the relationships between space components, users' spatial perception of the spatial structure of the environment is also considered.
    This article is the result of research that pay to the issue of the environment and its impact on people's behavior. The literature on the relationship between humans and the environment, Indicators and analysis methods and extraction of the ambient space structure (which somehow affect on individuals spatial cognition, and can predict the movement of people in space) the method of extracting spatial cognition of the structure of the ambient space, checked in order to measure the physical semantic potential to support the behavior of individuals to be employed. In this regard, the spatial structure of two faculties of Art and Architecture shahid Beheshti University (Tehran )and Bu Ali Sina University (Hamadan) In order to investigate of semantic perception roles in both schools general spaces (Which has been influential in shaping the behavior of students) The Space syntax application being examined. The research in the literature and theoretical foundations step is descriptive _analytical approach with logical reasoning. During the research of qualitative and quantitative methods were used. In this way, individuals social behavior is a qualitative variable, through quantities amounts in space layout approach (visibility graph analysis (VGA)) were measured .In addition to environmental scanning from tools such as observation and interviews were used both by a questionnaire plan-like In this regard, the qualitative approach, reproductive and non-reproductive cognitive maps which is as a result of residents special cognition of the spatial structure of the environment were prepared. Finally, with the implementation of cognitive maps and maps obtained from space syntax method to identify sociality common areas in the context both the faculties were acting, It seems that matching cognitive maps generative - non - reproductive and maps of the spatial configuration, with access to a comprehensive approach in recognizing the socially environments has a significant relationship. In other words, it is worthy that the ambient spatial configuration solely and regardless of the users and their spatial cognition, for recognition the sociability environments (And thus identify low-cost ways in order to improve the physical -spatial structures of learning environments) aren't used until the results to be achieved with more reliability.
    Keywords: cognitive maps, educational space, space syntax, social behavior, public space
  • shahin Heidari, Mahmoud Ghalenoei, maryam ghasemi sichani , fatemeh alsadat majidi* Pages 31-42
    Comfort in open spaces is one of the main bases of the use of these spaces by citizens, and it is essential to create an appropriate environment for them by protecting against inappropriate climatic conditions. In addition, providing comfort is associated with the basic human needs and how to respond to it is effective in the quality of space. On the other hand, the purpose of human behavior is to achieve comfort, but even in similar spaces, the comfort range is not the same for all and it depends on the variety of people present, experiences and expectations, level of satisfaction with environmental conditions, structure and type of space, etc. In this regard, due to the importance and significance of thermal comfort in the residents' thermal satisfaction with the public open spaces of residential neighborhoods as common spaces, this study aims to evaluate and analyze the thermal comfort situation in public open spaces of residential neighborhoods.
    In addition, by the help of review of literature of researches, it can be concluded that despite the necessity and importance of thermal comfort in urban open spaces, the studies devoted to this issue are less than evaluation of the thermal comfort in buildings and closed spaces.. However, no specific research has ever been done to compare the thermal comfort levels in old and new neighborhoods. Therefore, the present study tries to compare the thermal comfort range in the old and new neighborhoods, as well as studying and analyzing the thermal comfort situation in the open spaces of residential districts of Isfahan.
    In this research, an old neighborhood and a new district in Isfahan were under study and field analysis. Based on this, the thermal comfort range in selected residential areas was estimated using field observations and applying correlation and nickel methods estimate. Based on the nickel method, 100 questionnaires were considered to survey 100 people in each square under study (each neighborhood and each season) where a total of 400 questionnaires will be completed randomly by the users of the two selected neighborhoods in two cold and hot seasons.
    In the present study, firstly, the climatic features of the city of Isfahan were introduced and then the old neighborhood of Jolfa and the new district of Mardavayj were selected for field studies. In this regard, climatic variables including temperature, relative humidity and wind speed were measured using data logger instruments, and the questionnaires were completed by users in selected public spaces of the selected neighborhoods in Bahman, Esfand and Mordad months (February, March, August). The results of comparing the comfort levels in the studied neighborhoods indicate that the old Jolfa neighborhood is within the comfort zone in both warm and cold seasons and the new Mardavayj neighborhood is within the comfort zone in the cold season and outside this area in the warm season. In the end, based on the findings of the research, solutions have been developed to improve the comfort conditions in the open spaces of the neighborhoods of Isfahan.
    Keywords: Thermal comfort, Public Open spaces, old neighborhoods, new neighborhoods, Isfahan city
  • heidar jahanbakhsh , kaveh iravani* Pages 43-52
    In recent decades, the destructive effects of excessive consumption of non-renewable fuels and lack ‎‎of attention to the concept of sustainability have caused significant damage to the environment. ‎Eliminating natural resources and making destructive climate change is a direct ‎impact of human ‎effort on achieving modernity, an endeavor which has a ‎positive purpose but destructive manner. ‎The problems created, including rising ‎ground temperatures and many of the problems raised, have ‎attracted the attention ‎of the people of all countries. According to reliable reports of research ‎centers, about 40% of energy consumed by human is ‎consumed in the building sector, so attention ‎to the building sector is very important. From the ‎principles of sustainable architecture are optimum ‎energy consumption and reduced thermal losses ‎and the use of renewable energy.‎‏ ‏Today, modern ‎technologies of the word "intelligence" is very important. In fact, it could be argued, that in the near ‎future an important part of modern technologies, will be related to intelligence. These changes will ‎happen in the building industry and even today it is visible start. The purpose of this study was the ‎comparison check of the thermal conductivity coefficient of a particular type of an external wall ‎with smart Aerogel insulation compared with the thermal conductivity coefficient of the same type ‎of wall but without insulation. In the studies, a similar sample of this case was not observed, this ‎research is innovation and unique. Two test chambers one to test and the other to control were ‎constructed for the purpose of the research. The southern walls of the two test chambers (the main ‎wall) were designed to make changes to independent variables. The purpose of the research is to ‎use smart Aerogel in external building covers, and because of the intelligence or controllability has ‎not yet been made, the intelligence function is ‎performed by simulation ( the function of the smart ‎Aerogel is simulated by hand) and its results will be ‎investigated.‎The external wall with smart ‎Aerogel insulation (intelligence is ‎manually applied) is the main program of this experimental and ‎innovative research and the results ‎of the tests were compared to the control chamber, which was ‎completely similar and just without ‎insulation. The first reason for the use of the Aerogel insulation ‎was due to the excellent insulation ‎properties of the material (the Aerogel is the best insulation in ‎the world which has been ever discovered), and the second reason was because of according to the ‎some research institutes ‎in the science of materials ‎‎(Department of Chemistry in the University of ‎Tehran)‎‏ ‏the possibility of ‎making smart Aerogel insulation is possible which they response to ‎environmental ‎‎stimuli.‎‏ ‏‎.‎‏ ‏The results of this study proved the positive effect of the external wall with two layers of the‏ ‏smart ‎Aerogel insulation‎ compare to the same type of wall but without insulation ‎and ‎The research showed that the test chamber with the smart Aerogel insulation, considering all ‎test ‎conditions compared to the same control chamber without insulation Transmits ‎more than 28.8 ‎‎± 0.9 KJ into the test chamber during the 24 hours.‎‎ ‎
    Keywords: External Wall, Aerogel Insulation, Intelligence, Test Chamber, Energy
  • Esfandiar Zebardast, Mohammad Mehdi Azizi , Ahmad Khalili* Pages 53-66
    In this paper, explicating the characteristics and various patterns of three main concepts -urban growth, urban expansion and urban sprawl- aiming to typology from their sub-patterns in various studies of urban and regional literature have been reviewed. In other words, the aim of this paper is conceptual and spatial explanation of these words: urban growth, urban expansion and urban sprawl and their related concepts. Together with technologies and consumption styles, the form of settlements and the way human activities are organised in geographical space represent crucial research fieldsand sources of pre- occupation as far as ecological equilibria are concerned. In fact, in principle, the resource-efficiency of different settlement patterns is subject to wide variations with reference, at least, to two scarce natural resources: land resourcesand energy resources.Land consumption depends directly on the relative compactness of human settlements and on residential density; energy consumption.The question of the environmental or social costs of urban form is increasingly attracting attention in spatial policy, but scientific debate in this field is often marred by prejudices and abstract visions; empirical analyses are very rare.Urban growth topic and their patterns with the growth management policies, as important topics, affect various urban and regional plans. For example urban growth is in essence a complex subsystem; it involves actors with differing patterns of behavior at various spatial and temporal scales. It centres on understanding the dynamic interactions between the socio economic and built environments and major natural environmental impacts. Complexity in the domain of urban growth can be divided into such classes as spatial, temporal and decision-making processe. The causes of urban growth are quite similar with those of sprawl. In most of the instances they can not be discriminated since urban growth and sprawl are highly interlinked. However, it is important to realise that urban growth may be observed without the occurrence of sprawl, but sprawl must induce growth in urban area. Some of the causes, for example population growth, may result in coordinated compact growth or uncoordinated sprawled growth.Because of similarity and replacement of these concepts in urban planning literature, the aim of paper is the identification of similarities and diversities of their various patterns. The concept of pattern has special definitions in different disciplines. In geographical terms, pattern refers to a "regular arrangement or logic ordering of objects in geo-space", the manner in which a phenomenon is distributed in time and space .Space logic is called spatial pattern. In addition, a temporal pattern can be defined for changes over time. The research main method is a combination of attributive methods and explanatory analysis methods which based on explanation of topic literature and comparative comparison of global studies. Research findings show that the creation of clear line among these three concepts and their sub-patterns is very difficult and there is no consensus between professionals. Finally, after investigating ten theories and extracting of twelve specific patterns, the current paper presents a special Urban Pattern Typology (UPT) in three sections including: conceptual model, relative share and spatial sphere.
    Keywords: Typology, Pattern, Urban Growth, Urban Expansion, Urban Sprawl
  • alireza bavandian* Pages 67-74
    What is so- called spirituality in Islamic art and architecture has always been present and has guided artists and architects Towards perfection. The pool, in spite of various uses, also has symbolic dignity. Symbolism is a manifestation of human thought and he never separated from it. Symbols are the Possibilities that human beings can see within the hidden world. Human mind, inevitably, wants to cross the appearance to the hidden. And this important request never stops. In other words, he is always looking for reasons. This pursuit of the underlying causes If continues Brings up the man To the same main destination. As a matter of fact,He sees only one cause for all phenomena, and this is The religious perspective. Therefore, it is natural that religious art and architecture has a symbolic nature. The symbol always says something. The same things that can not be expressed in normal conditions by man.by the way; The symbol does not produce art but rather than this is human direction creates art. as the same way, Instability images reflected from the building in front of the Stagnant water hordes has a reminder aspects. And it is not just a reference to the transience of this world and the thought Annihilation everything other than the essence of the greatness of nature. The truth of excellence that does not change, does not die, and will not die. The shaky images Tell us that Everything is unstable except for God.
    In traditional and religious civilizations , Architecture has expressed its inner concepts as a symbol. Because that it was thought there were truths in a world that should only be to be expressed in transcendental language not Normal language. The language of the word can not express the hidden truths of this world and you have to hire sign language. The symbol is an instrument for expressing a concept that is absent from our senses. Symbolic expression means for creating a perceptual context for the transfer of Specific concepts. In the tradition of Iranian houses, the pool was constructed to reduce heat and humidity of the air, to abort, wash and store water and irrigation. Pool was ponds in the large courtyards commonly in front of the "Panjdari" is a large room that is often flanked to the main "Talar"(hall) of the house, and most often connected to a large balcony, where five large contiguous windows provide primary views to the main courtyard of the house. Often, architects built pool on one of the main axes of the home space, so that the length of the pool is along the length of the house. Moreover, The pool was a capacity to reflect the beauties of nature and surrounding buildings. In spite of all these words, The pool also has a symbolic function. This article that is written in descriptive and analytical research seeks to explain the hidden and symbolic aspects of the pool.
    Keywords: Iranian traditional architecture, pool, Ethics, water, symbol
  • Zeinab Taqipou Anari , Elham Andaroodi* Pages 75-86
    Historic Urban Landscape (HUL), a notion which was introduced in 2011 by UNESCO, has a broad perspective larger than 'historic centers' or 'complexes' and consider the vast environment of a city in its geographic setting. This notion combines multiple interrelated layers of historical and cultural values, social experiences, economic processes and intangible, emotional and perceptional measures. This research tried to provide a typology of the multilayered values of one of the most important cultural and historic axis of Tehran, the Valiasr street based on the available state of the art, specifically people's opinion. The aim of the research was to prioritize the conservation plans with HUL approach and focus on the zones with the unbalanced situation of values. For this purpose, different values of the street were assessed by using PPGIS based on the people's opinions. Valiasr street with more than 12 decades of history represents different pieces of evidence of HUL such as gradual evolution, interaction with the geographical setting (like the topography), and natural or built green landscapes. The street has a length of 17.2 km and hosts varied urban functions such as commercial, green spaces and recreational, residential, administrative and educational activities. The research started with the study of the notion of Historic Urban Landscape and its values based on different national or worldwide theories and documents of WHC, ICOMOS, etc. It continued with identifying different layers of HUL values of the Street such as a memorial and historical, landscape and aesthetic, natural and ecological, cultural and recreation, and economical and usage. These values were elaborated by field surveys and interviews with people in the street. Later, the street was divided into 12 zones and a questionnaire was designed to asses the values by acquiring people's opinion (300 people on the street) in each zone. The weight of each value and the spatial distribution of the results was conducted using Public Participation GIS, specifically Average Nearest Neighbor analytic tool. The results of the research were reflected as point density on the site plan of the street. The map showed that areas with the natural landscape, mixed-functions or spectacular monuments have the highest density of values, even if they are not historically important. Specifically, this street is recognized by rows of plane trees on both sides, view of Alborz mountains in the north, or famous parks with a mixed border with sidewalks. People considered zones with these features as the most valuable ones. However, the southern part which is adjacent to the historic core of Tehran showed the lowest assessment. Superimposing the results of the assessment on the functional or physical attributes of the street can demonstrate the contradictions between the low assessment of the values by people and the rich historical and cultural contexts such as the south part of the street. It helps management plans to prioritize the conservation activities and focus on critical zones to be able to flourish all the multilayered values of heritage places specifically with a focus on natural or aesthetic values.
    Keywords: Historic Urban Landscape, Value Assesment, Valiasr Street, Public Participation Survey, PPGIS
  • sam moradzadeh, Ahad Nejad Ebrahimi * Pages 87-98
    Even though the fact that mosques have a certain pattern in architecture but different patterns are found in each region's climate and culture، Bushehr is one of the hot and humid climates with neighborhoods mosques that are suited to the climate of the region. The studies show differences in the pattern of these mosques with the architecture pattern of mosques in Iran. The purpose of this study is to identify the physical and spatial characteristics of the mosques of Bushehr city during the Qajar period in order to determine what factors contribute to this pattern of Mosque in Bushehr. This research identifies the architectural criteria of constructing mosques in Bushehr during the Qajar period، and describes the species through a descriptive-analytical typology and with the basis of the typology of the data، the classification of the samples under study and the collection of information through library studies and Reconnaissance and Inspection of Mosque of Bushehr. Mosque in Bushehr seems to have a special way in creating spatial relationships، form and structural structures that are similar to mosques in the pattern of hypostyle mosque، but these similarities are not entirely identical and have specific characteristics، in accordance with local conditions. The pattern of mosque architecture has been studied in some Iranian cities, but such research has not been done in Bushehr. The city of Bushehr has distinctive mosques compared to other parts of Iran. Therefore, studying in this field is essential for the understanding of the structural and physical characteristics of these mosques. The importance of Bushehr during the Qajar period led to the development of the city's architecture, as the Bushehr port was one of the most important ports of its time, and the point of connection between Iran and the world was considered by the south of the country which means the entrance of modern. In the form of concepts. The typological findings indicate that there are two types of mosques with a courtyard and mosques without a courtyard، and also studying the pattern of Bushehr's historical mosques as the results of the research، shows that the components of mosque design in the type of extraneous or intrinsic native architecture The orientation has been effective، as well as the state of the land، facilities and facilities in terms of financial rehabilitation and materials and cultural and traditional factors have also influenced the formation of this model. Studies show that at first there was a mosque in each of the neighborhoods of Bushehr, and naming the name of the mosques from the name of the Guardian neighborhood was based on this claim, but gradually the number of these mosques according to social conditions, Political, economic and cultural. The factors influencing the emergence of such buildings in the architecture of the mosque should be considered in the first stage, the climate and the second, the architectural compatibility and sustainability of this architectural style with the spirit and thought of the people of the region.
    Keywords: mosque architecture pattern, mosque typology, Bushehr historic mosques, the Qajar dynasty architecture