فهرست مطالب

Mining and Environement - Volume:10 Issue: 1, Winter 2019

Journal of Mining and Environement
Volume:10 Issue: 1, Winter 2019

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/12/14
  • تعداد عناوین: 20
  • B. Unver *, M.S. Unal Pages 1-26
    A daunting mine disaster took place in 13 May 2014 at Soma and 301 men lost their lives. Brief information about the Eynez coal mine and some of the inherent characteristics of the field in terms of their effects on mining are presented. This paper basically concentrates on the factors that played an important role in the occurrence of this disaster. Progress of mine fire, firefighting, and rescue activities were only given in basics. Mine fire started suddenly without giving any sign at the hearth of the mine. Sudden occurrence of mine fire and start location properties reveal that the root cause of this disaster was probably not directly related to spontaneous heating of coal. Analysis of roof caving mechanism, subsidence profiles, production history, and overall conditions in the mine showed that the mine fire most probably started as a result of a sudden caving above the nearby sealed out old production panels. Upon caving, pressure of the gas present in uncaved voids and unconsolidated goaf must have increased and gas must have overflown through abundant cracks towards the mine. Gas exuding under moderate pressure might possibly be ignited by a non-ex-proof belt conveyor drive motor starting the mine fire.
    Keywords: Soma Mine, Mine Fire, Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC), Strata Control, Subsidence
  • R. Mikaeil *, Y. Ozcelik, M. Ataei, S. Shaffiee Haghshenas Pages 27-36
    Evaluation and prediction of performance of diamond wire saw is one of the most important factors involved in planning the dimension stone quarries. The wear rate of diamond wire saw can be investigated as a major criterion to evaluate its performance. The wear rate of diamond wire saw depends upon non-controlled parameters related to rock characteristics and controlled parameters related to characteristics of the cutting machine and operational parameters. Under the same working conditions, the wear rate of diamond wire saw is strongly affected by the rock properties. This is a key factor that required in evaluating the wear rate of diamond wire saw. In this work, the four major dimension stone properties uniaxial compressive strength, Schimazek F-abrasivity factor, Shore hardness, and Young's modulus were selected as the criteria to evaluate the wear rate of diamond wire saw using the harmony search algorithm (HSA). HSA was used to cluster the fifteen different andesite quarries located in Turkey. The studied dimension stones were classified into three classes. The results obtained show that the algorithm applied can be used to classify the performance of diamond wire saw according to its wear rate by only some famous physical and mechanical properties of dimension stone.
    Keywords: Dimension Stone, Diamond Wire Saw, Wear Rate, Harmony Search Algorithm
  • V. Radmehr, Seyed Z. Shafaei *, M. Noaparast, H. Abdollahi Pages 37-47
    This paper presents a new approach for flotation circuit design. Initially, it was proven numerically and analytically that in order to achieve the highest recovery in different circuit configurations, the best equipment must be placed at the beginning stage of the flotation circuits. The size of the entering particles and the types of streams including pulp and froth were considered as the basis for specialization of the flotation processes. In the new approach, the flotation process plays as the two functions of primary and secondary concentrations. The proposed approach was applied to a lead flotation circuit of a lead-zinc flotation plant. The results obtained showed that in most traditional-oriented circuits, a large part of the streams containing valuable metals were returned to the rougher stage, which, in turn, reduced the efficiency and caused perturbation. In the new approach, providing more control over unit operations in the circuit could provide a higher performance. In addition, in cases where zinc minerals are liberated from their gangue in coarse size, the new approach, by generating coarse-grained tailing, can prevent excessive grinding of zinc minerals in the feed into the zinc flotation circuit.
    Keywords: Froth Flotation, Circuit Design, Specialization, Lead Flotation Plant, Primary, Secondary Concentrations
  • B. Shokouh Saljoughi, A. Hezarkhani * Pages 49-73
    The Shahr-e-Babak district, as the studied area, is known for its large Cu resources. It is located in the southern side of the Central Iranian volcano–sedimentary complex in SE Iran. Shahr-e-Babak is currently facing a shortage of resources, and therefore, mineral exploration in the deeper and peripheral spaces has become a high priority in this area. This work aims to identify the geochemical anomalies associated with the Cu mineralization using the Spectrum–Area (S–A) multi-fractal and Wavelet Neural Network (WNN) methods. At first, the Factor Analysis (FA) is applied to integrate the multi-geochemical variables of a regional stream sediment dataset related to major mineralization elements in the studied area. Then the S–A model is applied to decompose the mixed geochemical patterns obtained from FA and compare with the results obtained from the WNN method. The S–A model, based on the distinct anisotropic scaling properties, reveals the local anomalies due to the consideration of the spatial characteristics of the geochemical variables. Most of the research works show that the capability (i.e. classification, pattern matching, optimization, and prediction) of an ANN considering its successful application is suitable for inheriting uncertainties and imperfections that are found in mining engineering problems. In this paper, an alternative method is presented for mineral prospecting based on the integration of wavelet theory and ANN or wavelet network. The results obtained for the WNN method are in a good agreement with the known deposits, indicating that the WNN method with Morlet transfer function consists of a highly complex ability to learn and track unknown/undefined complicated systems. The hybrid method of FA, S–A, and WNN employed in this work is useful to identify anomalies associated with the Cu mineralization for further exploration of mineral resources.
    Keywords: Geochemical Anomaly, Wavelet Neural Network, Spectrum-Area Multi-Fractal Model, Cu Mineralization, Shahr-e-Babak
  • S. Abbaszade, F. Mohammad Torab *, A. Alikhani, H. Molayemat Pages 75-86
    In geochemical exploration, there are various techniques such as univariate and multivariate statistical methods available for recognition of anomalous areas. Univariate techniques are usually utilized to estimate the threshold value, which is the smallest quantity among the values representing the anomalous areas. In this work, a combination of the Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) and Gap Statistics (GS) methods was utilized as a new technique to estimate the threshold and to visualize the anomalous regions in the Hararan area, which is located in SE Iran, and consists of copper mineralization that seems to be connected to a porphyry Cu-Mo system. Furthermore, the most important advantage of this method is the reliable assessment of the anomalous areas. In other words, the anomalous areas were discriminated in terms of their probability values. The regions with high probability values were reliable and appropriate to locate the drilling points for a detailed exploration. It not only decreases the risk, cost, and time of exploration but also increases the drilling point reliability and precision of reserve estimation after drilling. In this research work, the results of analysis of 607 lithogeochemical samples for the element Cu were used. The SGS method was performed on the transformed data and 50 realizations were obtained. In the next step, the back-transformed realizations were utilized to obtain an E-type map, which was the average of 50 realizations. Moreover, the results of the GS method showed that the Cu threshold value was 228 ppm in the area. Therefore, using the E-type map, areas with values greater than 228 ppm were introduced as the anomalous areas. Finally, the probability map of the exceeding threshold values was acquired, and the anomalous districts located in the southern part of the studied area were considered as more reliable regions for future detailed exploration and drilling.
    Keywords: Sequential Gaussian Simulation, Threshold, Gap Statistics, Reliability, Hararan District
  • Y. Kianinia, M. R. Khalesi *, M. Abdollahy, A. Khodadadi Darban Pages 87-94
    Processing of gold ores with high sulfide minerals is problematic as they consume cyanide and reduce gold leaching. Optimization of gold leaching and cyanide consumption requires a methodology to estimate the amount of exposed cyanicides, their leaching kinetics, and speciation of cyanide complexes that consume the free cyanide and compete with gold. In this paper, a physico-chemical approach is presented to estimate the liberation and exposure of cyanicides to the leaching solution, and then prediction of the speciation of all possible related species in the solution. The results obtained show that this methodology not only could successfully estimate the gold leaching and cyanide consumption based on the mineralogical data with a lower number of parameters compared to existing empirical models, but also offers the prediction of formation of all the possible complexes that could be used for optimization purposes.
    Keywords: Leaching, Liberation, Cyanide Consumption, Kinetics, Speciation
  • Seyed S. Mousavi, M. Nikkhah *, Sh. Zare Pages 95-112
    In this work, we tried to automatically optimize the cost of the concrete segmental lining used as a support system in the case study of Mashhad Urban Railway Line 2 located in NE Iran. Two meta-heuristic optimization methods including particle swarm optimization (PSO) and imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) were presented. The penalty function was used for unfeasible solutions, and the segmental lining structure was defined by nine design variables: the geometrical parameters of the lining cross-section, the reinforced feature parameters, and the dowel feature parameters used among the joints to connect the segment pieces. Furthermore, the design constrains were implemented in accordance with the American Concrete Institute code (ACI318M-08) and guidelines of lining design proposed by the International Tunnel Association (ITA). The objective function consisted of the total cost of structure preparation and implementation. Consequently, the optimum design of the system was analyzed using the PSO and ICA algorithms. The results obtained showed that the objective function of the support system by the PSO and ICA algorithms reduced 12.6% and 14% per meter, respectively.
    Keywords: Meta-Heuristic Optimization, Segmental Lining, Particle Swarm Optimization, Imperialist Competitive Algorithm, Tunnel Boring Machine
  • Seyedeh M. Ehsani, M. Unesi *, R. Tamartash Pages 113-124
    Changes in the tailing properties (increasing clay mineral content and fine particles) and poor operation of the dewatering systems have negative impacts on the Tailing Storage Facilities (TSF) of the Shahrbabak copper complex. The design solid concentration of the thickened tailings is 63 wt.% in the Shahrbabak paste plant but it is well below the design value right now (approx. 55 wt.%). The aim of this work is to find the effects of the clay mineral and dewatering operations on the water recovery and tailing dam capacity. The understudied samples were taken from the thickener underflow and prepared at the required solid concentrations (55, 60, 65, and 70 wt.%). The results obtained showed that the initial settled density varied from 1.044 to 1.146 t/m3 by increasing the solid concentrations from 55 to 63 wt.%. Furthermore, the shrinkage limit density of the two solid concentrations was recorded at 1.52 and 1.62 t/m3, and the crack volume was estimated at 6.3% and 7.2% of the final sample volume. Also the sub-aerial tailing beach slope in the upper quarter and the remainder of TSF was too low and exhibited 2.0% and 1.0%, respectively. However, it is far from the design values (3.5%, 2.5%, and 1.7% from head of the beach to the end). Thus it is clear that the clay minerals and fine particles hold more water in their inner network and occupy a more TSF volume. Nevertheless, the beach slope can be increased by improving the thickener performance and removing the leakage and other periodic water, although it seems impractical to achieve the design value due to the changes in the tailing properties.
    Keywords: Clay Minerals, Tailing Storage Facility, Initial Settled Density, Shrinkage Limit Density, Beach Slope
  • M. Lak, M. Fatehi Marji *, A.R. Yarahamdi Bafghi, A. Abdollahipour Pages 125-138
    The explosion process of explosives in a borehole applies a very high pressure on its surrounding rock media. This process can initiate and propagate rock fractures, and finally, may result in the rock fragmentation. Rock fragmentation is mainly caused by the propagation of inherent pre-existing fractures of the rock mass and also from the extension of the newly formed cracks within the intact rock due to the explosion. In this work, the process of extension of blast-induced fractures in rock masses is simulated using the discrete element method. It should be noted that, in this work, fracture propagation from both the rock mass inherent fractures and newly induced cracks are considered. The rock mass inherent fractures are generated using the discrete fracture network technique. In order to provide the possibility of fracture extension in the intact rock blocks, they are divided into secondary blocks using the Voronoi tessellation technique. When the modeling is completed, the fracture extension processes in the radial and longitudinal sections of a borehole are specified. Then a blast hole in an assumed rock slope is modeled and the effect of pre-splitting at the back of the blast hole (controlled blasting) on the fracture extension process in the blast area is investigated as an application of the proposed approach. The modeling results obtained show that the deployed procedure is capable of modeling the explosion process and different fracture propagations and fragmentation processes in the rock masses such as controlled blasting.
    Keywords: Rock Mass Explosion, Dynamic Fracturing, Crack Extension, Discrete Element Method, Discrete Fracture Network
  • M. Bavand Savadkoohi *, B. Tokhmechi, E. Gloaguen, A.R. Arab, Amiri Pages 139-149
    Computer graphics offer various gadgets to enhance the reconstruction of high-order statistics that are not correctly addressed by the two-point statistics approaches. Almost all the newly developed multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) algorithms, to some extent, adapt these techniques to increase the simulation accuracy and efficiency. In this work, a scrutiny comparison between our recently developed MPS algorithm, the cross-correlation-wavelet simulation (CCWSIM), and a well-known MPS algorithm, FILTERSIM, is performed. The main motivation to benchmark these two algorithms is that both exploit some digital image processing filters for feature extraction. Indeed, both algorithms compute the similarity (or dissimilarity) between data events in simulation grid and training image in the feature space. In order to compare the accuracy of the algorithms, some statistics such as facies proportion, variogram, and connectivity function are computed. The results obtained reveal an excellent agreement of the CCWSIM realizations with the training image rather than FILTERSIM. Furthermore, on average, the required simulation runtime for CCWSIM is at least 10 times less than that for FILTERSIM.
    Keywords: Multiple-Point Simulation, Filter-Based Algorithms, Geostatistical Simulation, FILTERSIM Algorithm, CCWSIM Algorithm
  • M. Jahani Chegeni * Pages 151-161
    A deeper understanding of the milling operation of ball mills helps mineral processing engineers to control and optimize them, and therefore, reduce their consuming power. In this work, the milling operation of ball mills is investigated using two methods, i.e. DEM and combined DEM-SPH. First, a pilot scale ball mill with no lifter is simulated by both methods. Then another pilot scale ball mill with eight rectangle lifters is simulated again by both methods. The effects of lifters on ball shoulder and toe points as well as on creation of cascading and cataracting movements for balls are studied by both methods. At the present time, there is not enough measured data available for dense slurries interacting with the coarse particulates available in the public domain that can be used adequately to validate these types of predictions. The results obtained indicated that fluid slurry in the mill lowered the charge shoulder by about 28 cm and 25 cm in the no-lifter and eight-lifter cases, respectively. However, it raised the charge toe by about 36 cm and 6 cm in the no-lifter and eight-lifter cases, respectively.
    Keywords: Simulation, Ball Mill, DEM, SPH, DEM-SPH Coupling
  • H. Haghnazar *, B. Hashemzadeh Ansar, R. Amini, M. Saneie Pages 163-175
    River bed sand and gravel are utilized more than mountain materials due to their availability and closeness to the transit roads and sites of usage. Excessive and non-technical extraction of gravel and sand bring a kind of interference in them, leading to many negative consequences. Therefore, presenting solutions to reduce these impacts and infilling mining pits are essential. In this research work, through an experimental work, locating two consequent river bed mining pits in the form of the distance between them and also their distance from the walls for the purpose of infilling and extraction management was investigated. The results obtained showed that movement of the downstream pit did not significantly affect the infilling volume and migration of the upstream pit but by movement of the pit towards the wall, the infilling volume of the upstream pit was reduced by up to 25% compared to the channel center. Concerning the downstream pit, the impact of the distance between pits depended on their distance from the wall so that if the pit was close to the channel center, the infilling volume was increased, and if it was located close to the wall, the infilling volume was increased up to a distance equal to 9 times the flow depth, and after that the infilling was reduced. In case the pits were excavated towards the channel center and the downstream pit was excavated at a distance equal to 12 times the flow depth, the best state of infilling and pit migration did occur.
    Keywords: Material Extraction, Mining Pit, Sediment Transport, Migration Velocity
  • A. Rezaei, H. Hassani *, P. Moarefvand, A. Golmohammadi Pages 177-195
    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an effective and practical geophysical imaging tool, with a wide set of applications in geological mapping of subsurface information. This research study aims at determination of the geophysical parameter differences in the subsurface geological structures and construction of a 3D fracture model. GPR and resistivity methods were applied to detect the unstable tectonic zones in the C-North deposit. Structural geology investigations were, first, surveyed to detect the faults and fractures in the study area. Based on the structural features, the survey was conducted over an area of 1 km2 with a total of 30 profiles and low-resistivity zones in the C-North deposit which is a great help in reducing their impacts in slope stability studies. GPR sections were, then, obtained from low and high frequency antennas (10 and 50 MHz) to detect fractures and water content zones. The obtained data results demonstrated that the major structural trends in the study area were W–E, NE–SW, and NW–SE while fault zones that can create pathways for groundwater inflow into the deposit in the future. Information obtained from geological and GPR studies were also integrated with drill hole data. The geological information from structures are in good agreement with the actual geological situation. Method and results of this study could be useful in solving problems related to subsurface structures in mining engineering.
    Keywords: Geological structures, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Resistivity, C–North deposit, Sangan
  • A. Behnamfard *, E. Khaphaje Pages 197-212

    Beneficiation of a low-grade iron ore was investigated by combination of the low-intensity magnetic separation and reverse flotation methods. The main constituents of the representative sample were 36.86% Fe, 8.1% FeO, 14.2% CaO, 13.6% SiO2, and 0.12% S based on the X-ray fluorescence, titration, and Leco analysis methods. The mineralogical studies by the X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron probe micro-analyzer, and Fe/FeO titration methods showed that the ore minerals present in the representative sample were magnetite, hematite, and goethite, and the main gangue minerals were calcite and quartz. The effects of the operating parameters including the feed size, solid content, and drum rotation speed were investigated on the performance of the wet low-intensity magnetic separation (WLIMS). The optimum operating conditions of WLIMS were determined to be feed size = 135 μm, solid content = 40%, and drum rotation speed = 50 rpm. Under these conditions, a concentrate of 62.69% Fe grade and 55.99% recovery was produced. The tailing of WLIMS with an iron grade of 28.75% was upgraded by reverse flotation with fatty acids as the collector. The effects of five parameters on two levels were investigated using the 25-1 fractional factorial design in 16 experiments. The optimum flotation conditions were determined to be pH = 12; dosage of collector, 1 kg/t; dosage of Ca2+ as activator, 4 kg/t; and dosage of starch as depressant, 1 kg/t. Under these conditions, a concentrate of 53.4% Fe grade and 79.91% recovery was produced.

    Keywords: Low-Grade Iron Ore, Upgrading, Wet Low-Intensity Magnetic Separation, Reverse Flotation
  • A.R. Ghasemi, A.R. Hasankhoei, E. Razi, Gh.A. Parsapour, S. Banisi * Pages 213-221
    Pelletizing plant of the Gol-E-Gohar mining and industrial company consists of a burner, a dry ball mill (6.2 m × 13 m), and an air separator. The ball mill consists of a 2 m-long drying and an 11 m-long grinding chambers. The iron ore concentrate is fed to the drying chamber by a feed chute. It was found that when the feed moisture content increased from 1.3% to 3.5%, the throughput decreased by 12% (35 t/h) indicating a low performance of the dryer. Monitoring the wear rate of flights for a period of 12 months showed that the first 0.8 m (59%) length of the dryer length did not experience any wear. To overcome this problem, various feed chute designs with different geometries were simulated by the KMPCDEM© software. With the aim of arriving at a proper material trajectory, where the total length of the dryer is used, a new feed chute was selected. The simulation results indicated that if the height of the feed chute is increased from 1.60 to 2.26 m and the slope is increased from 45 to 48 degrees the material arrives at the first 0.48 m of the drying chamber. In this manner, the unused part of the drying chamber decreases from 59% to 36% of the length. After installation of the new feed chute during a period of three months, the throughput increased by 36 t/h.
    Keywords: Pelletizing Plant, Dryer, Feed Chute, Falling Location, KMPCDEM©
  • R. Shafiei Ganjeh *, H. Memarian, M. H. Khosravi, M. Mojarab Pages 223-240
    Dynamic slope stability in open-pit mines still remains a challenging task in the computational mining design. Earthquake and blasting are two significant sources of dynamic loads that can cause many damages to open-pit mines in active seismic areas and during exploitation cycles. In this work, the effects of earthquake and blasting on the stability of the NW slope of Chadormalu mine are compared by a numerical modeling method. The dynamic results show that the maximum displacement under earthquake and blasting loads within the slope are 844 mm and 146 mm, respectively. According to the shear strain results, both the earthquake and blasting waveforms are destructive, while the earthquake waveforms cause more damages to the slope. Moreover, the deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard analyses are carried out to assess the seismicity of the mine area. The experimental results indicate that the maximum values for the vertical and horizontal accelerations are 0.55 g and 0.75 g, respectively. The maximum calculated acceleration is then scaled to the selected earthquake accelerograms. In order to show the effective impact of the established scale, the model is executed using the original accelerograms. The results obtained show that the established scale prevents overestimation and underestimation of the displacement and strain. Therefore, applying scaled accelerograms in a dynamic slope stability analysis in mine slopes leads to more reliable and robust results. The overall results show that a strong earthquake causes plenty of damages to the slope, and consequently, interrupts the mining cycle. Hence, the seismic study and dynamic slope stability should be considered as a part of the computational mining design.
    Keywords: Chadormalu Mine, Seismic Hazard Analysis, Numerical Modelling, Dynamic Slope Stability, Earthquake, Blasting
  • D. Ghoddocy Nejad, M. Taghizadeh *, A. R. Khanchi Pages 241-255
    In this work, thealkaline roasting and sulfuric acid leaching processes were employed to extract vanadium from the magnetite ore of Saghand mine in central Iran. The response surface methodology based on the central composite design model was applied to optimize the parameters involved in the processes. The studied roasting parameters were temperature (900-1100 °C), sodium carbonate percentage (30-50 wt%), and time (1-3 h). In addition, the studied leaching factors included temperature (70-90 °C), liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) (5-20 mL/g), sulfuric acid concentration (2-6 M), and time (3-6 h). Under the optimal conditions, the values for temperature, time, and sodium carbonate amounted to 1010 °C, 2.1 h, and 41 wt%, respectively, for the roasting process, while the values for temperature, L/S, sulfuric acid concentration, and time for the leaching process were estimated to be 85 °C, 12.4 mL/g, 4.25 M, and 4.7 h, respectively. Under these conditions, about 83.8 ± 0.9% of vanadium was leached from the magnetite ore.
    Keywords: Magnetite Ore, Vanadium, Alkaline Roasting, Acid Leaching, Optimization
  • M. Hosseini *, A. R. Khodayari Pages 257-270
    In an era of continued economic development around the globe, numerous rock-related projects including mining and gas/oil exploration are undertaken in regions with cold climates. Winters in the Iranian western and northwestern provinces are characterized by a high precipitation rate and a cold weather. Under such conditions, rocks are exposed to long freezing periods and several freeze-thaw (F-T) cycles. It is thus necessary to examine the impact of these cycles on the physical and mechanical properties of rocks. Considering the abundant sandstone resources in Iran, in this work, we focused on the Lushan sandstone by investigating the effects of F-T cycles and freezing temperatures on the uniaxial and triaxial compressive strengths, cohesion, internal friction angle, and elastic modulus of the rocks. To study the impact of the number of F-T cycles on the strength of rocks, the specimens frozen at -16 °C were subjected to 1, 4, 8, 16, and 32 F-T cycles. Similar tests were also carried out on the specimens frozen at -24 °C. Furthermore, a number of tests were undertaken at the ambient temperature (25 °C) on specimens that did not undergo an F-T cycle. According to the results obtained, an increase in the number of F-T cycles and freezing temperatures reduced the uniaxial and triaxial compressive strengths, cohesion, internal friction angle, and elastic modulus due to the growth of the existing cracks and the nucleation of new cracks in the rock. Consequently, the effective porosity increased, whereas the dry specific gravity decreased with more F-T cycles and lower freezing temperatures.
    Keywords: Freeze-Thaw Cycle, Sandstone, Strength Parameters, Triaxial Compressive Strength
  • I. Masoumi, Gh.R. Kamali, O. Asghari* Pages 271-286
    Dilution can best be defined as the proportion of waste tonnage to the total weight of ore and waste in each block. Predicting the internal dilution based on geological boundaries of waste and ore in each block can help engineers to develop more reliable long-term planning designs in mining activities. This paper presents a method to calculate the geological internal dilution in each block and to correct the ultimate grade of each geological block according to the internal dilution values that have already been calculated for each one of them. In this regard, the input data is first indexed based on the lithological logs of drill holes. The occurrence probabilities of ore and waste in each block are calculated via 100 realizations using the sequential indicator simulation. Dilution is computed as the ratio of waste rock tonnage to the total tonnage of ore and waste. Furthermore, joint simulation of the continuous variables is performed for each mining block using the minimum/maximum auto-correlation factors. In the next step, for each block, the final grade variables including iron and iron oxide are computed by considering the calculated internal dilution. These analyses are applied to the Gohar Zamin iron ore deposit, and the actual internal dilution calculated based on the lithological logs of blast holes is compared with the same values obtained based on the proposed method in each block. The results obtained were found to be satisfactory.
    Keywords: Internal Dilution, Geostatistical Simulation, Sequential Indicator Simulation, Minimum, Maximum Auto-Correlation Factors, Gohar Zamin Iron Ore Mine
  • S. Moshrefi, K. Shahriar *, A. Ramezanzadeh, K. Goshtasbi Pages 287-304
    A new failure criterion was presented to predict the ultimate strength of shale under the triaxial and polyaxial state of stress. A database containing 93 datasets was obtained from the results of the uniaxial, triaxial, polyaxial compressive tests, an indirect tensile test was collected from reliable references, and this test was carried out on the shale samples taken from the southwestern oilfields in Iran. The database was used to evaluate the proposed criterion, and its accuracy was compared against the popular failure criteria in rock mechanics, particularly those used for stability analysis such as the Hoek-Brown, Mohr-Coulomb, Drucker-Prager, and Mogi-Coulomb failure criteria. In order to evaluate the model, seven important statistical indices were selected. Subsequently, curves from various failure criteria were fitted to the triaxial and polyaxial data, and the corresponding coefficients and statistical indices were determined. The results obtained indicated that, in all cases, compared to the other failure criteria, the proposed criterion succeeded to predict the ultimate strength at a higher accuracy. Also the proposed criterion was used calculate the uniaxial compressive and tensile strengths with a minimum error. For a further examination of the proposed criterion, a series of results from the triaxial test including the ductile failure data were utilized for evaluation of the applicability of the proposed criterion to the ductile zone. It showed that the criterion could predict the ultimate strength of shale over a wide range of stresses.
    Keywords: Empirical criteria, shale, Wellborn stability, Rock strength, Ductile Failure, mechanical behavior