فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 77 (بهار 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/12/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • سودابه یوسف نژاد *، محمدمنصور فلامکی صفحات 8-18
    در این مقاله پدیده شناسی زمان به عنوان بعد چهارم و اصل موجودیت اجسام در حفاظت و مرمت انجام شده است. مساله این است، بعد زمان در آثار چیست؛ چگونه مورد شناسایی قرار می گیرد؛ چه نقشی در حفاظت و مرمت دارد. برای حل مساله با راهبرد پدیده شناسی زمان انحای پدیدار شدن آن بر آگاهی انسان تحلیل شده است؛ بدین قرار زمان با رویداد، فرهنگ ماده ای ، لایه های فرسودگی، مکان و انسان معادل است و بر آگاهی پدیدار و تقویم می شود. در نتیجه بر مبنای شناخت پدیده شناسانه ی زمان و ارتباط آن با اصل موجودیت اثر، حفاظت سطوح فرسوده به عنوان انباشت لایه های اکنون ضروری است؛ سنجش فرسودگی ها بر مبنای اصول زمان مندی ماده و ارتباط آن با حرکت و دگرگونی امکان زمان سنجی، تحلیل های آسیب شناسی، اتخاذ روش های مناسب حفاظت بهینه را فراهم می کند. پدیده شناسی زمان، انسان را در افق اهداف فرایندهای مداخله ای اثر قرار داده و پاسخگوی سوالات اساسی حفاظت و مرمت پست مدرن است و افزون بر آنالیز ماده ا ی، آنالیز فراماده ای اثر را نیز مقرر می کند. با تمرکز بر مفهوم فرهنگ ماده ای، زمان بدن مند یا زمان انسانی نیز علاوه بر زمان ساخت، زمان سپری شده، زمان مواجهه با اثر، در مرمت مطرح میشود. حفاظت بقایای گذشته، سبب فهم گذشته در زمان حال و آغاز فرایند انتقال گذشته از حال و هم زیستی آن با آینده است.
    کلیدواژگان: زمان، پدیده شناسی، انسان، فرهنگ ماده ای، حفاظت، مرمت
  • محمد حبیبی سوادکوهی *، حسین بحرینی، ایرج اعتصام صفحات 19-28
    با اندکی باریک بینی، تعامل تام وتمام معماری با هر سه عرصه ی معارف آدمی، اعم از علوم انسانی، علوم طبیعی، و هنر، به چشم می آید. این شاخه های شناخت، به ناچار، با یکدیگر سازگاری می یابند و گشادوبست هایی را از سر می گذرانند. این سان، سرمشق های فنی و هنری ای که زمانی بر صدر بودند و قدر می دیدند، در هنگامه ای دگر، زیر تازیانه های تفکرات تازه درد کشیدند و طرد شدند. روزگار پیش از جنگ دوم جهانی را "عصر مجسمه سازی" در تاریخ معماری نام نهاده اند. این مهم، در نتیجه ی ابداعات انقلابی برخاسته از فناوری های پیشرفته و مصالح جدید در صنعت ساخت وساز به ظهور رسید. معماری تندیس وار، که ساختمان را چونان مجسمه ای درسا، به قصد نمایش در معرض دید عموم می گذارد، در درجه ی نخست، به خصایص ظاهری بنا شامل فرم، سازه، و مقیاس، وابسته است. بدین ترتیب، می بایستی که ردپای مصادیق آغازین آن را در ابنیه ی دوران باستان جست. با نگاهی انضمامی بر اولین زمینه، یعنی فرم، جستار حاضر تلاش دارد تا با کاربست راهبرد کیفی و تدابیر استدلال منطقی و بررسی موردی، نشان دهد که برخی از خیزش های هنری مدرنیستی مانند آر نوو، اکسپرسیونیسم، نئو بروتالیسم، کوبیسم، فوتوریسم، و کانستراکتیویسم، الهام بخش معماری-تندیسگری معاصر شده اند، که خود، در بسیاری از سبک های معماری پسامدرنیستی نظیر های-تک، دی کانستراکتیویسم، فولدینگ، پارامتری سیسم، زیست ریخت شناسی، و بایودیجیتال، تجلی چشمگیری یافته است.
    کلیدواژگان: معماری-تندیسگری، اصالت فرم، هنر مدرنیستی، مکتب های پسامدرن، دی کانستراکتیویسم
  • مرجان محمدی، بهزاد سلیمانی* صفحات 29-38
    مفاهیم نهان در یک متن برای ما فضایی خلق می کند که بیشتر، از نوع دنیای مجازی است و ما بی آنکه بدانیم چرا، از خواندن آن احساس سرزندگی می کنیم. می توان باور داشت این مفاهیم است که به تصورات ذهنی در خلق فضاهای عینی کمک می کند، چنانچه اگر مفاهیم مورد نظر را از یک اثر هنری بزداییم بی شک با پیکره ای از بیهودگی ها روبه رو خواهیم شد. تن انسان فقط کانون چشم انداز به جهان پرسپکتیو مرکزی نیست، سرهم تنها جای اندیشیدن نیست چون حواس و وجود جسمانی ما مستقیما معرفت وجودی ما را می سازد و ذخیره می کند. این معرفت با مفاهیم ژرف تری ارتباط دارد که در دنیای امروز کمرنگ شده ولی در ادبیات به خوبی قابل مشاهده است و بعلاوه محتوای زیبایی در گرو معانیست. معنایی که زاییده مفهوم است و به حتم بدون این دو، زیبایی وجود نخواهد داشت. همانگونه که نقاش خانه خود را با رنگ بر بوم می نشاند ، ادبیات نیز با واژگانش تصاویر بدیعی از خانه ها را در ذهن بوجود می آورد استفاده از تصاویر بوجود آمده از یک متن ادبی و عینیت بخشیدن به آن در یک اثر هنری می تواند تبدیل به ابزاری در دست هنرمندان تجسمی گردد، چنانچه تصویرسازی در آثار ادبی از این نوع است.
    کلیدواژگان: مفاهیم ذهنی، ذهن و زبان، تصویر سازی ذهنی، ادبیات، فضاهای عینی
  • حسن زین الصالحین، حسن بلخاری قهی* صفحات 39-48
    جنسیت نه داده ای طبیعی بلکه یک پی آمد اجتماعی-فرهنگی و یک تاثیر پدیداری پیرامون جنس است. موضوعی که باید در بافت تاریخی ایران و در دوره های مختلف مورد تامل قرار گیرد. از سوی دیگر نوع نگرش افراد و جامعه به این موضوع همیشه تحت قید و بندهای معرفتی و روان شناختی بوده است. بازنمایی جنسیت در تصاویر عکاسی می تواند شاهدی برای عینیت بخشیدن به چنین محدودیت هایی باشد. بنابراین می توان پرسید، چه رابطه ای بین بازنمایی عکاسانه ی جنسیت و هنجارهای اجتماعی و روان شناختی موجود در خودآگاه و ناخودآگاه جمعی ایرانیان وجود داشته است. به بیان دیگر، از طریق چه دیدمانی و چگونه بازنمایی جنسیت در دوره ی ناصری شکل گرفته و نقش قدرت در این بازنمایی چگونه بوده است؟ بدین منظور، نظریات میشل فوکو در کنار آراء روان شناختی زیگموند فروید و ژاک لاکان، چهارچوب مفهومی و روش شناختی متفاوتی را برای فهم دیگرگون مسئله فراهم می آورند. اهمیت نظری این نوشته به جهت پرکردن شکاف تحقیقاتی ای است که در این حیطه وجود دارد. نتایج حاکی از آن است که جنسیت در دیدمانی سیاسی مورد بازنمایی عکاسانه قرار گرفته است و روابط قدرت مردسالار، نظم جنسی خاصی را به همراه داشته است؛ روابط قدرت و نظم جنسی ای که می تواند در ساحت خیالی و نمادین جامعه مورد واکاوی قرار گیرند
    کلیدواژگان: عکس، دیدمان، جنسیت، سیاست، بازنمایی، تاریخ
  • الهام طاهریان، محمد کاظم حسن وند * صفحات 49-58
    در دوران معاصر با توجه به شرایط اجتماعی فرهنگی و اندیشه تجددخواهی و بازتاب فرهنگ و هنر غرب، نگارگران ایرانی به ویژه حسین بهزاد، در راستای احیای هویت و فرهنگ ایرانی-اسلامی به نگارگری گذشته رجوع می کنند. این تحقیق با هدف مطالعه نگارگری حسین بهزاد در دوران معاصر با بهره گیری از مفاهیم هرمنوتیک گادامر با رویکرد توصیفی- تحلیلی انجام پذیرفته و گردآوری اطلاعات آن با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه ای استو به این پرسش پاسخ داده است که، نحوه خلق آثار نگارگران این دوران تا چه اندازه با نظریه هرمنوتیک گادامر تطبیق دارد. نتایج نشان می دهد که مفاهیم هرمنوتیک گادامر، قابلیت شرح و بسط در نگاره های معاصر حسین بهزاد را داراست. هنرمند با گذر به افق معنایی روزگار صفویه به مکالمه با آن پرداخته و آن را با افق معنایی روزگار خویش که عصر جدال بین سنت و تجدد است، ممزوج، و اقدام به خلق اثرش نموده است. گادامر معتقد است، مفسر در این میان پیش داوری هایی که متناسب با دوره خودش است را در تفسیر دخالت می دهد و همچنین بافت و زمینه اجتماعی و فرهنگی نیز در خلق اثر موثر است که این مهم در نگارگری معاصر در تلفیقی که بین عناصر سنتی و غربی صورت گرفته قابل مشاهده است.
    کلیدواژگان: نگارگری معاصر، حسین بهزاد، هرمونوتیک مدرن، گادامر
  • الهام اعتمادی * صفحات 59-68
    یکی از رویکردهایی که برای بررسی محتوای متون تصویری غالبا غربی سودمند می باشد رویکرد آیکونولوژی (= شمایل شناسی) است. با در نظر گرفتن پاره ای از ویژگی های خاص نگارگری ایرانی، این رویکرد برای مطالعه برخی نگاره های ایرانی نیز مناسب است. از نگاره های مربوط به داستان عاشقانه لیلی و مجنون، اثر منظوم نظامی گنجوی (12111141م. /608535 ه. ق) ، می توان به عنوان متون تصویری یاد کرد که رویکرد آیکونولوژی برای بررسی آنها، بدون هیچ پیش شرطی، نتیجه بخش است. در این راستا، تمرکز مقاله پیش رو بر خوانش آیکونولوژیک انعکاس تصویری «مجنون» در نگاره هایی از دوران صفویه (17361501م. /1148907 ه. ق) است که وی را پس از ترک قبیله خود به تصویر کشیده اند. هدف از این پژوهش مطالعه بازتاب ارزش های نمادین در نگاره ها و شرح فرهنگی و اجتماعی آنها می باشد، که به صورت آگاهانه یا ناآگاهانه، منجر به تولید ویژگی های بصری شخصیت مجنون در نگاره های مورد نظر گردیده است. نتیجه آن که نوع پوشش مجنون در نگاره های مورد نظر نشان از عدم وابستگی او به هرگونه سامانه و یا جایگاه اجتماعی شناخته شده در دوران صفویه دارد. ازاین رو در این مقاله، پس از معرفی اجمالی رویکرد آیکونولوژی، با استفاده از سه لایه درک معنا در این رویکرد به بررسی و مطالعه انعکاس تصویری مجنون در نگاره های دوران صفویه پرداخته می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: آیکونولوژی، پانوفسکی، صفویه، مجنون، لباس
  • لیلا چهل امیرانی، جمال عرب زاده * صفحات 69-78
    داستان هایی که دارای قدرت تاثیری جهانی هستند، برخوردار از عناصر ساختاری مشترک و جهان شمولی تحت عنوان کهن الگوی سفر قهرمان می باشند که در آنها به مضامینی از جمله مضمون کودکان اسطوره ای (رها شده) پرداخته شده است. موید این مطلب کتاب شاهنامه فردوسی است. متنی جامع و سرچشمه ای که بارها و بارها مورد استفاده ی هنرمندان مختلف از جمله نگارگران قرار گرفته است. بررسی موفقیت نگارگران این نگاره ها در بازنمایی مضمون فوق، هدف محوری این پژوهش می باشد. در همین راستا مقاله ی حاضر، زال را به عنوان نمونه ی مورد مطالعه از کودکان شاهنامه انتخاب و عناصر ساختاری داستان زال را بر اساس مراحل الگوی کمپبل در نگاره ی «گفتار اندر داستان سام نریمان و زادن زال» از شاهنامه طهماسبی، با استفاده از رویکرد بینا متنیت تطبیق می دهد. پژوهش با این روش، به رابطه ی بین دو متن کلامی شاهنامه و متن تصویری (نگاره) می پردازد. فرض اساسی این مقاله بر آن است که شاهنامه طهماسبی، برخلاف بسیاری از نسخه های تصویری شاهنامه ها، با توجه به بافت فرهنگی مذهبی صفویه از عناصری نمادین و در جهت تاکید بر معانی اسطوره ای باستانی بهره برده و موفق به بازنمایی مضمون کودکان اسطوره ای و همچنین اعتقاد مردم دوره صفویه به متافیزیک و باورهای خرافی گشته است.
    کلیدواژگان: کودک اسطوره ای، شاهنامه طهماسبی، بینامتنیت، کهن الگوی قهرمان، کمپبل، زال
  • شهاب شهیدانی * صفحات 79-92
    قلم ثلث دارای ارزش های بصری والایی در خوشنویسی اسلامی و منطبق با اهداف و کارکرد تزئینات معماری است. بررسی روند تطور و تحول «ی» معکوس در کتیبه های ثلث نشان می دهد که این حرف از دوره ایلخانی تا اوایل عصر صفوی اغلب به صورت کوتاه و مورب نگاشته می شد اما از نیمه عصر صفوی از «ی معکوس شالی یا قطاری» برای تقسیم کرسی بالا و پائین و ایجاد توازن و تعادل حروف در کتیبه نگاری ثلث استفاده بیشتری شد. پژوهش حاضر با روش توصیفی - تحلیلی و با عطف به کار میدانی در خصوص کتیبه های ثلث انجام گرفته است. نتایج این مقاله موید آن است که تطور «ی» معکوس از نوع کوتاه به بلند (قطاری) مبتنی بر دو عامل ملاحظات خوشنویسی از منظر ترکیب و حسن همجواری و ضرورت انطباق خط ثلث با جلوه های بصری معماری اسلامی بوده است. همراه با عوامل گفته شده، از به کار گیری نوع مواد و مصالح، نحوه دورگیری، تراش و ساخت کتیبه ها از عصر ایلخانی تا دوره صفوی نیز نباید غافل ماند. مجموع این عوامل، ضمن آنکه کتیبه های ثلث را از منظر ترکیببندی و انسجام کلی حروف و کلمات تقویت می کرد، بر زیبایی و هماهنگی این نوع اجرا با ملاحظات بصری معماری نیز تاثیر بسزایی نهاد.
    کلیدواژگان: قلم ثلث، کتیبه نگاری، معماری اسلامی، ایلخانان، تیموری، صفوی
  • میترا معنوی راد *، فرشته دیانت صفحات 93-104

    در هنر زمینی عکس ها تنها شاهدان آثار بوده و به اندازه ی آن ها اهمیت می یابند. هدف از نگارش این مقاله پرداختن به نقش عکس در آثار هنرمندان هنر زمینی و اثبات اهمیت آشنایی زدایی و بیگانه سازی در ذات این شاخه ی هنری است. پرسشی که مطرح می شود این است که عکس و بیگانه سازی درهنر زمینی چه نقشی داشته اند؟ از یافته های این پژوهش می توان به مواردی چون: بزرگی آثار، میرا بودن آنها، اجرای آثار در فضای خارج از گالری ها و قرار گرفتن آن ها در محیط طبیعی اشاره کرد. همچنین نتیجه ای که از آثار مطروحه حاصل می شود: اهمیت "نقش عکس" به منظور بقای اثر و "ضرورت ساختار شکنی به منظور بیگانه سازی" با روش هایی چون شکل گیری ابهام در معنی اثر، از میان بردن عادت های دیداری، تغییر در اندازه ی آثار، اجرای اثر هنری خارج از گالری، دگرگون کردن ماده ی اثر هنری و ادغام آن در محیط، و… می باشد.
    روش تحقیق به کار گرفته شده در این مقاله: توصیفی- تحلیلی و شیوه ی گردآوری منابع مورد نظر نیز کتابخانه ای می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: عکاسی در هنر زمینی، هنر زمینی، بیگانه سازی، ساختار شکنی
  • منصور برومند، محمد ستاری* صفحات 105-116
    پیوند تنگاتنگ عکاسی و مدرنیته ی غربی امری انکار ناپذیر است. در واقع، این ابزار بیانی را یکی از حاملین اصلی فرهنگ مدرنیستی غرب می دانند. لذا، با توجه به ارتباط دو سویه ی مدرنیته ی غربی و شرقی و حضور بلافاصل عکاسی در دوران قاجار، پژوهش حاضر به بررسی نقش این ابزار در مدرنیته ی ایرانی طی دهه های چهل و پنجاه شمسی، دورانی که مدرنیزاسیون به شدت به ساختار این جامعه ی رو به توسعه تزریق می شد، خواهد پرداخت. لذا، عطف به ریشه یابی مدرنیته ی غربی در چهار تغییر مسیر تفکر غربی یا همان نیهیلیسم و همچنین ارتباط هستی شناختی دوربین عکاسی با این چهار تغییر مسیر حیاتی در سیر تفکر غربی در حکم چهار نیروی نابود کننده ی نظام های ارزشی دوران پیشامدرن، نگاهی اجمالی به نقاط تلاقی چهار اصل فوق و گفتمان غالب " بازگشت به اصل " در دوره ی مورد نظر، با توسل به ژانر عکاسی خانوادگی و عکاسی هنری و به شیوه ای استقرایی و تاریخ مدارانه، صورت خواهد گرفت. از این حیث، با توجه به نقش کم رنگ عکاسی در فرآیند مدرنیته ی ایرانی، فقدان تجربه نیهیلیسم مدرن و متعاقبا عدم حصول فرهنگ مدرنیستی در مدرنیته ی ایرانی، شاهد فقدان تجربه ی جامعه ای مدرن در ایران خواهیم بود.
    کلیدواژگان: عکاسی، مدرنیته، نیهیلیسم، طبقه، متوسط، هنرمند
  • مطهره سراج *، زهرا رهبرنیا صفحات 117-124
    نقش ‬اصلی ‬پوستر، ‬انتقال ‬پیام ‬به ‬مخاطب ‬است ‬که ‬غالبا ‬توسط ‬فضای ‬مثبت ‬انجام ‬می ‬شود؛ ‬حال ‬آنکه ‬فضای ‬منفی ‬که ‬عمدتا ‬نقش ‬پس ‬زمینه ‬در ‬پوستر ‬را ‬ایفا ‬می ‬کند ‬نیز ‬می ‬تواند ‬در ‬انتقال ‬پیام ‬به ‬مخاطب، ‬نقش ‬آفرینی ‬کند. ‬بر‭ ‬این‭ ‬اساس،‭ ‬هدف‭ ‬مقاله‭ ‬حاضر‭ ‬شناسایی روش های انتقال پیام به مخاطبان پوستر از طریق فضای منفی است‭. ‬روش ‬این ‬تحقیق ‬کاربردی، ‬توصیفی- ‬تحلیلی ‬بوده ‬و ‬اطلاعات ‬ضروری ‬آن ‬با ‬استفاده ‬از ‬منابع ‬کتابخانه ای ‬گردآوری ‬شده ‬است. نتایج ‬حاصل، ‬حاکی ‬از ‬آن ‬است ‬که ‬فضای ‬منفی ‬توانایی ‬آن ‬را ‬دارد ‬که ‬از ‬طریق "گستردگی" ‬و ‬یا "‬محدودیت" ‬آن ‬در ‬پوستر، "رنگ"، "فرم نهفته"و "‬خطای ‬بصری" ‬مفهومی‭ ‬را‭ ‬به‭ ‬مخاطب‭ ‬منتقل‭ ‬کند. بدین ‬گونه ‬توجه ‬مخاطب ‬به ‬فضای ‬منفی ‬پوستر، ‬معطوف و سبب ‬تاثیر ‬بیشتر ‬پیام ‬در ‬ذهن ‬وی ‬می ‬شود. همچنین ‬شیوه ‬ی ‬خطای ‬بصری ‬در ‬فضای ‬منفی به علت ابهامی که در پیش زمینه و پس زمینه بودن عناصر به وجود می آورد، ‬بیشترین ‬غافلگیری ‬را ‬برای ‬مخاطب ‬به ‬همراه ‬دارد. هر یک از روش های بیان شده به همراه نمونه پوسترهایی از سراسر جهان توضیح داده شده است. بنابراین روش های ذکر شده نقش موثری در انتقال پیام به مخاطب از طریق فضای منفی را دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: ?فضای ?منفی، پیام رسانی، ?پوستر، یکپارچگی، ?خطای ?بصری
  • فروغ عموییان *، فتانه محمودی صفحات 125-134
    تحقیق حاضر به طراحی محصول از دیدگاه نظریه صنعت فرهنگ به دلیل وجه اشتراکی که با فرهنگ و کالاهای مصرفی دارند، پرداخته است. هدف کلی این پژوهش بررسی چگونگی تاثیر صنعت فرهنگ بر شکل دهی تفکرات در خصوص فرهنگ جامعه بدون زیر سوال بردن نقش شرکت های فعال و نیز بررسی تاثیرات صنعت فرهنگ بر مخاطبان تلفن همراه می باشد. سوال پژوهش این است که چگونه می توان برای طراحی محصول مصادیقی از نظریه ی صنعت فرهنگ قائل شد؟ رویکرد پژوهش بر اساس اندیشه های نظریه ی مکتب فرانکفورت و انتقادات آنها از فرهنگ انبوه و عامه پسند که یکی از مهم ترین نظریه های فرهنگی در جامعه شناسی محسوب می شود، می باشد. نتیجه حاصل از پژوهش حاکی از این است که طراحی محصول در جامعه معاصر به دلیل کارکردها و تاثیرات فرهنگی مستقیم در جامعه، مصداقی از نظریه ی صنعت فرهنگ می باشد. صنعت فرهنگ با استفاده از اصول یکپارچه سازی، شاخص گذاری و تعیین محصولات از قبل برای تمامی گروه های موجود در جامعه، سبک زندگی و تفکر در مورد فرهنگ، سیاست و… را شکل می دهد و می تواند فرهنگ یک کشور را به جهان صادر کند و از فرهنگ خودی دفاع نماید. صنعت فرهنگ می تواند مصرف گرایی را در بین مخاطبان خود رواج دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: طراحی محصول، برندینگ، نظریه صنعت فرهنگ، فرانکفورت، بت وارگی کالا
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  • Mohammad Mansour Falamaki* Pages 8-18
    This is a phenomenological study in which phenomenology of time has been accomplished to achieve a theory in the field of restoration and conservation of cultural heritage. The time based on the views of thinkers is considered as the fourth dimension and the principle of the existence of objects, including the principle of the existence of cultural heritage. The main problem of research is that time as the fourth dimension in cultural heritage how can be distinguished and investigated and what is its function in restoration process. For solving this problem the phenomenological methodology is applied. Accordingly, time through event, material culture, place, human and the layers of frazzle in historical and cultural works can be appear and constitute in human consciousness. On the basis of the fundamental relationship of time with the principle of the existence of cultural heritage, it as much as possible the protection of the layers of extinction in historical works as an accumulation of the now layers have been emphasized. Measurement and study of the technology of the layers of historical works and burnout created during the transit of time on the level of historical and cultural monuments based on the principles of temporal of material and its relation to motion and change, the possibility of timeliness studies and pathological analysis in historical and cultural works has been provided. Also, studying and identifying the burnout layers in addition to evidence of time can be effective in choosing appropriate and optimal methods for conservation and restoration in order to preserve the durability of historical and cultural monuments. The phenomenology of time in the field of conservation and restoration of historical and cultural monuments, targeting human beings on its theoretical horizon, answering fundamental questions in the postmodern conservation and restoration, and beyond ordinary studies within the scope of the material analysis of monuments, provides the conservation and restoration with humanity and ultra-material analysis status. Based on the phenomenological method of time, focusing on the concept of event and material culture and their fundamental relationship with time, the preservation and restoration of historical and cultural remnants of the past is in fact the protection and maintenance of time. According to this research, the time in the four stages of the production of historical works, the time elapsed for the historical work as its life, and the time of encountering the historical monuments with consciousness of the restorer, and based on the subjective concepts of time like embodiment and material culture, the human time. Each of which, in the theory of the phenomenology of time has its own particular study position, and when the historical and cultural monuments encounter with the consciousness of the restorer, it is a methodological moment, the moment in which understanding takes place. Understanding the past in terms of the historical and cultural monuments left by it at the present time when this understanding initiates the process of conservation and restoration of these monuments in order to transfer past through the present to the future and coexisting past with the future.
    Keywords: time, phenomenology, human, material culture, restoration, conservation
  • Mohammad Habibi Savadkoohi *, Hossein Bahrainy, Iraj Etessam Pages 19-28
    In the universe inherited no transcendental meaning, and consistently exhibits the scared subjectivity existed beyond the idea of the ‘will to power’, art similar to love, is divulgence of the one that could not be revealed; a secret which consigns, even if only for a moment, earthling’s eternal anguishes to oblivion, not simplistic, but with the regeneration of reality. Controversies concerning the essence of some phenomena such as art and beauty had prevailed the field of philosophy from preceding times, but until the nineteenth century, the debate has not been so outspread. Being a considerable aspect in cultural identity, art is imperative for social life and would shadow like a safe, placid shelter the today’s alienated individuals in virtue of adjusting the perennial tension between mental creativity and visual culture. Therefore, referring its attributes to entities is of tremendous relevance. Nevertheless, it should be declared that formulating an objective definition of art based on metaphysical idealistic essentialism would not lead to any prosperous perspective. Erstwhile approaches, at least as illustrated in contemporary argumentations, encompass three distinct viewpoints including Representationalism, Expression Theory, and Formalism, along with their subsidiaries. Recent scopes of explicating the features of artworks embrace Aesthetic Theory, Neo-Wittgensteinianism, Institutional Theory, Historical Definition, and Historical Narration. Each of the stated strategies has some kind of preferences over others, but due to the inability to comprise all instances, fails to reach the desired destination. In the meantime, modern art derived from the segregation of preceding Epistemology and Aesthetics, in consideration of enunciating the perpetual sufferings intrinsically established in the existence, comprehensively exploits strange, novel models, and every time contributes to a renovated and problematic conundrum for contemplating intellectuals. Achieving the objectives of this paper, we propose some questions written in the following:- What underlying thoughts and perspectives are dominating the modernist art?
    - From which theories the postmodern architecture as a non-classic phenomenon is derived, and in practice, to what extent has it been able to enrich those ideas?
    - What are the origins of contemporary archi-sculpture, and what styles have been influenced by it?
    After the emergence of modern movements of art in the banquet of architecture, the meeting does not remain unchanged and unavoidably plenty of alterations initiate; one of which is proliferating attention to sculptural architecture. Dating back to antique eras, form, structure, and scale, as features of the outer appearance of buildings, illustrate an impressive statue as an architectural expression. By means of portraying a remarkable line of emphasis under the first stated feature, meaning the form, it would be specified that some of the tendencies in modernist art like Art Nouveau, Expressionism, Neo-Brutalism, Cubism, Futurism, and Constructivism inspire the recent archi-sculpture, which itself affects numerous postmodernist styles, such as High-Tech, Deconstructivism, Folding, Parametricism, Biomorphism, and Biodigital. The authors exert themselves untiringly to depict the association of sculpturesque manner in architecture to art movements appeared and developed after the twentieth century through a qualitative method in virtue of some techniques, including rigorous describing of case studies, and also logical reasoning.
    Keywords: Archi-Sculpture, Formalism, Modernist Art, Postmodernist Styles, Deconstructivism
  • marjan mohamdi, behzad soleimani * Pages 29-38

    Ambiguous concepts of a text or a piece of pleasant poetry create an atmosphere of a virtual world; we do not understand why we greatly enjoy reading or writing such a piece of art. You may imagine concepts make mental imagination generate objective atmospheres. In case of removing ideas and concepts of a piece of art, no doubt you may feel an entity of vanity and void. Meaning or thinking is the most fundamental part of thought; there is no thinking without concepts. The word concept is the very idea which Descartes regards it as an objective entity. The body of man is not merely a perspective center for the central perspective world. Brain is not assigned to think either because our perceptions and physical body create our being understanding directly. The above understanding is related to deeper meaning and concepts which have waned a little in the present universe. However, you may observe it in literature clearly. It is also of significance that beauty content depends upon meaning; the very meaning that is a product of concept.
    As a painter draws his home on a canvas, literature creates magnificent figures of palaces and houses in mind through words. Using figures coming from a literary text and materializing it in a piece of art may lead to become a tool manipulated by plastic arts practitioners. This kind of imagination is of mental figure of a subject materialized to present a better expression of the subject and at last achieving a better understanding by means of tools manipulated by artists; imagination may generate products such as painting, sculpture, cinema, architecture, production, etc. Indeed, pictorial expressions play similar roles in the whole arts. However, they function in a different way in view of tools and executive manners. When artists present visual expressions compared with the manner by which novelists transfer visual matters, you may learn that figures play the same roles of descriptive parts of a novel. Novels function in a way that readers come to know about figures, objects and humans. In other words, reading a novel gives a set of words generated properly. The reading task makes readers involved largely so that they may ignore the matters around. Words and figures reflect different stories in isolation. when they come together, they distinguish each other. Any piece of art, dramatized or fictional, carries an intrinsic special emotional atmosphere created through reading, surviving in mind and then changing to objectives by means of mental figures of artists. In fact, figures created in the artists mind play the role of descriptive parts of a novel, but the difference is that the tongue produces words. However, mind is a visual and pictorial fluid as figures or pictures created by an artist. the mental language changes to a living pictorial three-dimensional fluid through merging mind and material. All arts including painting, cinema and architecture are considered Particular Manners of Thinking; thoughts which are the roots of all concepts as far as Descartes is concerned.
    Keywords: Mental concepts, mind, language, mental imagery, literature, objective spaces
  • Hassan Zeinolsalehin, Hasan Bolkhari Ghehi* Pages 39-48
    Sexuality is not a natural given, rather is a socio-cultural issue and a phenomenal effect on the sex which must be studied in its historical context and in the different periods. On the other hand, the type of the attitude toward this subject has undergone the epistemic and psychological limitations in every society. In the other words, sexuality is that kind of atmosphere which surrounds bodies and minds through the field of sex and forms and constructs them. Representation of sexuality, in the photographic frames, can objectify these limitations, and this objectification can re-frame the sexuality and construct the subject. This interaction redoubles the significance of this issue. In this paper, we are facing photo as a text for studying sexuality and author is using other sources and written documents just in the photo’s attachment. Therefore, it may be questioned what was the correlation between the photographic representation of sexuality and epistemic system of Iranians in Naseri`s period; in addition, what socio- psychological norms determined the type of the attitude toward the sexuality, and consequently its representation. In other words, the aim of this study is to know through which visuality the representation of sexuality was formed and how it was limited and finally how the power relation controlled it. Visuality is parallel with discourse, not in the field of speech and writing which is discussed in the Critical Discourse Analysis, but in the field of vision and image. Therefore, we can regard Visuality as a visionary synonym for Discourse. To achieve above goals, Michel Foucault`s notions about subject and power besides Sigmund Freud`s and Jacques Lacan`s ideas concerning subject`s mind and psych can provide a suitable theoretical framework and methodology in order to find out more about this issue. What is different is the subject in this paper is not individual subject as Lacan and Freud considered but it is collective one in Iran society. In author`s opinion, different methodologies can support different points of view, and consequently, lead to different analytic results. The significance of this study is due to a research gap that there is in this field; therefore, it must be filled accordingly. Actually there is a few qualitative and critical researches in field of sexuality in history of Iranian`s photography so paying attention to it is necessitated. The results suggest that the sexuality was articulated and represented in a “Political Visuality”. However, the politics was considered in its traditional meaning. Power and sexuality, in their traditional meaning and in the traditional society, were symbolically engaged with each other and the camera was not only as a representational instrument of this engagement but also as a passage in order to fix this kind of engagement or even more important, to change it. The engagement was due to a “symbolic order”. This symbolic order was constituted in the traditional society. The power relations and the sexual order can be considered in symbolic and imaginary order of the Iranian society`s collective unconscious. Two orders which Lacan discussed psychoanalytically.
    Keywords: Photograph, Visuality, Sexuality, Politics, Representation, history
  • ELHAM taherian, Mohammad Kazem Hassanvand * Pages 49-58

    In contemporary times, due to social-cultural conditions and the idea of modernity and reflection of Western culture and art, Iranian painters refer to past painting so that revive Islamic Iranian identity and culture. Hossein Behzad is as the most significant contemporary painter of this period of time. This research which aims at study Hossein Behzad's miniature painting in contemporary times, using Gadamer's hermeneutic concepts with a descriptive-analytical approach and collecting information by using library resources, admittance is answered the question how much the painter's artwork of this era fit into Gadamer's hermeneutic theory.
    In this regard, he talks to the art of the Safavid period, and consider that the whole truth is not with him. Therefore, he enters elements of the Safavid art into his era, which entails a struggle between tradition and modernity. Since the thought of modernity and the reference to western art after the constitutional revolution in Iranian art and culture has proceeded, artists in the thought of reviving the identity of Iranian Islamic art have brought past miniature paintings, especially paintings of the Safavid and Herat schools, to revive traditional and national arts based on their contemporary art and culture, which is in accordance with Gadamer's hermeneutic theory. In other words, Hossein Behzad, according to Gadamer's modern hermeneutic theory, based on his prejudices, which is the result of the semantic horoscope of his time, talks with the art of painting in the Safavid school and with its Iranian Islamic influences. He corresponds to the semantic horoscope of his time, which has western influences, and finally creates an image that belongs to the time, culture and social conditions of his era and the formation of the style that belongs to him and his age.
    He paid attention to the anatomy and perspective and the principles of naturalism, which was immaterial in the Safavid school miniature paintings, and applied in a way that did not harm modern contemporary art and adapted to the horizon of his time. He appreciated the style of Reza Abbasi, who, to some extent, ignored the principles of Mongolian style from Iranian miniature painting and at the same time paid attention to design as an important part of painting. Meanwhile, we found the concepts of Gadamer's hermeneutic, that it can describe and expand in contemporary miniature painting, especially Behzad's artworks. The artist talks to the semantic horizons of Safavid period, and he is with the semantic horizon of our time, the age of conflict between tradition and modernity, create the artwork. The contemporary painter, referring to the past painting, especially the Safavid school, elements of Iranian art, bring that era to the pictures of his time. It is adapted and created by the semantic horizon of its age. Gadamer argues that the interpreter interferes with the prejudices that fit his own period in interpretation. As well as texture and social and cultural context are also effective in creating the work, this is important in contemporary miniature painting in the compilation between traditional and western elements.
    Keywords: Contemporary miniature Painting, Hossein Behzad, Modern Hermeneutics, Gadamer
  • Elham Etemadi * Pages 59-68

    Faculty of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Art, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran.
    Abstract
    Iconology is one of the approaches that is mainly applied for reading the content of Western visual texts. The approach has been developed with reference to European art history; therefore, has their limits in application on Persian paintings. However, by considering some caveats in selecting images, this approach can be also fruitfully applied to interpret some Persian paintings. In iconological approach, presented objects become units of meaning when they refer to a narrative or a theme or when it is possible to attribute meanings to them based on their visual appearance. In engaging content, the iconological method proposes a three-phase approach, i.e. description, recognition and interpretation: the pre-iconographical meaning is the initial descriptive perception of icons; the description is modified by the visual/literary knowledge of the beholder at the iconographical level of perception and leads to the recognition of specific persons, themes, concepts, etc.; at the iconological level, the “symbolic value” of the recognized icon in the context of production of is investigated.
    In this article, I examine “Majnun” in Illustrations of Safavid era from iconological point of view. The concentration of this paper is only on the illustrations which depicted Majnun in the desert. Since these illustrations have a narrative basis, it is a good example for the application of the Iconological method. In reading the image, I explain that the descriptive pre-iconographical interaction with the visual text leads to the perception of a young thin man, and is processed and recognized at the iconographical level. With the help of other written and visual texts, the young thin man is recognized as Majnun, the main male character of the love story of Leily and Majnun by Nezami Ganjavi (1141 to 1209), a famous Persian poet. At the iconological phase of interpretation, I use the icons and values they communicate to explore and explain the presentational regime and the social value that sustain it. I argue that presentation of Majnun without any headgear, bare-chested and in a blue knee-length trousers, which are also frequently presented in other Safavid’s illustrations of this story, are visual reflections of clothing’s social value and position during this era. The Safavid social and cultural system was strict about clothes as a signifier of social distinction and a symbol of one’s location in the social hierarchy. Since Majnun abandons his society and isolates himself, he doesn’t have any specific social status that could be reflected in his clothes. Therefore, in a context that people’s clothing was considered a serious marker of their social status, it seems reasonable that Majnun should be depicted bare-chested, without a headgear and with knee-length trousers. The blue color of his knee-length trousers is also another signifier that points to the fact that he doesn’t have any specific social status to be presented via his clothing. Therefore, as an art work do not exist in a vacuum, the cultural values of the context the illustrations are produced in, consciously or unconsciously, formed the visual characteristic of the icon under study
    Keywords: Iconology, Panofsky, Safavid Era, Majnun, Clothing
  • leila chehel amirani, jamal Arabzadeh * Pages 69-78
    Stories with global impact include mutual and global structural elements called archetypes of the hero’s journey, in which concepts such as mythical (forsaken) children are described Most of them were children of the high-rank society members or kings themselves, who have had a marvelous journey since their childhood or rather their birth, enjoying the best possible days as a kid. This happened since either their parents didn’t want them and left them alone in the hope of their death or never return, or had known them as a threat to their kingdom, family or society due to their ugliness, disabilities, female gender, or even a foretelling. However, against all the odds, they not only survived, but also, though their unsuitable growing environment, raised to be brave and fearless.
    Ferdowsi’s Shah Name is one of the most significant Iranian stories which due to involving such noble concepts like the same heroic (left-alone) kids became well-known all over the world and is referred to as a rich context in numerous occasions by various artists (including painters) having counter-interests in the area. The proof could easily be found in the Tahmasebi’s Shah Name is one of the most valuable illustrated manuscripts in Iran belonging to the early tenth century (A.H.) and categorized upon the Tabrizian Safavi school.However, whether these artworks were successful in representing this concept or not is significant for consideration. Thus, this article selects Zal as a case sample of children in Shahnameh and tries to compare the structural elements of this story according to global pattern such as Campbell’s pattern in the picture of “Conversation on Sam Nariman and birth story of Zal” from Tahmasebi’s Shahnameh using the intertextual approach.
    The reason to the selection one of the most important achievements of Joseph Campbell in the mythology (Hero’s journey) as a meter for taking measures on the present study, is not only its world-wide reputation, but also its flexibility makes the omission, repetition, and/or replacement of the events with one another very probable in accordance to the diversities in various cultures. Hence, the hero could express different behaviors regarding his/her era, society, and culture. Therefore, The Campbell’s hero has been called as hero with a thousand faces.
    Intertextuality has been chosen for its linguistical approach to texts and its study of the inter-relation of at least two texts; and we assumed a painting as an illustrated manuscript to begin with, hence, we have the verbal text of Shah Name as well as the illustrated manuscripts as a painting. According this approach, no text is independent of another and every manuscript is intertextual and has an interconnection with the preceding texts which will be resurfaced in proceeding ones. Therefore the Iranian paintings are nothing but an intertextual relation of a picture with the script. Our second assumption is the independency of paintings in Tahmasebi’s Shah Name and their undeniable relation with world of Ferdowsi’s Shah Name, cultural background of Safawi’s era, and the creativity of the painter in using symbolic items.
    Keywords: mythological children, Shahnameh Tahmasbi, Intertextuality, The Archetype of Hero, Campbell, Zal
  • shahab shahidani * Pages 79-92

    The present essay is concerned with one of the most important visual aspects of the Tholth script which is “Y-e- makus” (the reverse Y) in epigraphy which has been reflected in the Iranian architecture.
    The epigraphs have been created in correlation with the growth and variety of the style Islamic scripts and also the evolution of architecture that has given a significant visual aspect to Islamic art.
    The Tholth script which replaced the Kufic script since the Migrate sixth century in Islamic epigraphs is one of the most important of the Islamic scripts. Considering the importancee of the scrip it is sometimes called “um-al khotut” (mother of scripts) which has great visual attractions in calligraphy and architecture. Considering the survey of Iranian architecture from the Ilkhanid era until the end of the Safavid era, new experiences were being applied in the Tholth epigraphy and this created the foundation for the creativity of epigrapher
    An important part of the great works of epigraphy should be seen in light of the overlapping interactions of Calligraphers and architectures that led to the correction and evolution of scripts in Tholth epigraphy.
    One of these important creativities is the reverse Y in Tholth epigraphy. The reverse Y in Koranic scripts has been executed beautifully which has been used among side of other Islamic scripts. Calligraphers have created great kinds of the reverse Y while considering its function in architectural design and framing.
    The reverse Y in Ilkhanid Tholth epigraphs were usually scripted in short italic forms. But in later eras specially in the Teimurids they were written in straight, clear and more frequent forms. The necessity of baseline and composition in Islamic calligraphy and also its importance in Tholth epigraphs led to using the reversed Y in new and segmented lower and upper cases and also the division of letters. This feature was seen mainly in the epigraphs of Safavid era, mainly from the time of Shah Abbas the 1st. One of the features in epigraphs of the Safavid era was the using of Tholth more than other styles; thus many architectural sites had Tholth epigraphs . In Tholth epigraphs of this era the visual values of the reversed Y was more vivid. With the application of Qataari Y, Shali or Kamarbandi the context of using these styles on the Y facades of buildings became phenomenal,. Mainly Qataari Y was used on the rings of domes, entrances and Mihrabs. These styles supported the consistency of the building much more than the materials All in all the application of the reversed Y in epigraphs , to its from its primary abstraction to italicization, to its glorious era in the Safavids was in harmony with the aesthetic needs of both architects and calligraphers
    The current of the visual and aesthetics of the reverse Y in epigraphy witnessed a change from the diagonal and short Y to the reveres belt Y, which was based on observations, architectural experiences, calligraphy. A process that was of course time consuming
    Keywords: the sols script, epigraphy, Islamic architecture, Ilkhanid, Teymori, Safavid
  • Mitra Manavi rad * Pages 93-104

    Land art was formed in early seventies in the USA. Land art artists take their art works out of museums and galleries and expose them to the audience in the natural environment. Since such art works are displayed in an outer area of museum and galleries and there are formed from natural elements, they were short lived and died in nature. In this respect photos are important to keep a record of them; and thus, Photos merely witness land arts and they became important themselves too.
    Photos demonstrate the work in books and galleries and make them survive as an art work. Also photography and land art are relatively similar in art work process, art impact, the importance of audience, dealing with reality, and having conceptual significance. This writing attempts to study the role and importance of photography in the artworks of land art artist and determines the importance of the nature of this branch of art in deconstruction and de-familiarization /alienation. The question is what is photo do to de-familiarize land arts?
    Findings of this study include: art work magnitude, its mortality, and being located out of galleries and in natural environment. Photography immortalizes a mortal and transient work. And in most case the photo of the art work sells best. Today all land arts are generally known by their photos as image publishes and propagates “tracks” left by artists.
    This study will conclude from mentioned art works that: the importance of “the role of photography” to survive the artwork and “the importance of deconstruction for de-familiarization/alienation” in order to fade the similarities of art works and increase the concentration on environment and art works through methods such as ambiguity in concept of art works, eliminating visual habits, change in magnitude of art works, performing art work out of museum or galleries, evolving the material of art work and merging it in to environment, changing a work to an art work by package or displacement of place or holding it in an unfamiliar environment, more emphasis on domestic and ritual values, emphasis on natural layout, the art of cooperation and team work and etc. there are some related examples of Iranian and foreign works in the current study. Actually de-feminization/Alienation makes it complicated to understand a work of art thus subjectively makes it an obstacle, and this is achieved through the heart of concepts and accepted ideas and their illustration from a different perspective. Artistic de- familiarization/alienation forms by breaking common frames and presenting new ideas and new exhibitions. The point is that this de-familiarization is a process that forms from within, i.e. the idea, and then affects the outside, i.e. the form and appearance of an artwork. In this regard, de-familiarization works as a basic and core component and dominates all other elements. Test method applied for this study is: descriptive – analytical, and in some cases it used case study. Information also gathered from libraries.
    Keywords: photography, photography in land art, land art, de-familiarization, deconstruction
  • mansour boroumand, mohammad Sattari * Pages 105-116

    As photography was invented in the 1830s at the same time with formation of a new style of life in western countries called the modernity , the close relevance between these two is inevitable. In fact, photography as a means of expression is considered as one of the main conveyors of the western modernist culture. On the other hand, one can perceive a delicate relevance between western and eastern modernity. In fact, the formation of the latter was based upon the first. Moreover, with the increasing role of “ material “ as the essence of the universe, the new role of “ human ” as a mortal existence, and the replacement of “ Intuitionism “ with “ Rationalism “ and “ Eschatology “ with “ historiology “ a new worldview for the westerners was created and it subsequently had deep effects on the way through which eastern new societies followed them. As a result, the inherent paradoxes between the old and established tenets of eastern societies and the newly imported western beliefs caused a new discourse in the second Pahlavi regime called the “ Coming Back To Tenet “. Therefore, considering the bilateral connection between western and eastern modernity, to study the procedure of eastern modernity from the perspective of photography seems to be of paramount importance. In Iran, photography had an important effect on the “ Persian Constitutional Revolution “ and after that, during the first and second Pahlavi regimes, it was used for different purposes, specifically in the press and studios. But as one of the main pillars of each modern society is its “ middle class “, and since its formation in Iran took place in the second half of the second Pahlavi regime at the same time with the entry of photography equipment from the west to Iran, and taking into account the fact that the main producers of photos in its both key genres of the time, namely family and artistic photography were the middle class, the role of this tool in Iranian modernity in a period that modernization was injected into its society’s structure at a rapid pace should be placed under scrutiny. Therefore, according to derivation of western modernity from their four diversions of traditional thought, or what we call the nihilism, and paying attention to the five well-known properties of photography that John Szarkowski pinpointed and named as “ The thing itself “, “ details “, “ frame “, “ Time “ and “ Vantage point “ ,the ontological relevance between camera and these diversions as the four exterminator forces of pre-modern theological system is proved, and in this regard, the role of camera in Iranian modernity in the 40s and 50s have been investigated and efforts have been made to take a quick look at the intersection of the four principles mentioned above and the dominant discourse of the time, “ Coming Back To Tenet “, all with help of family and artistic photography genres.
    Keywords: photography, modernity, nihilism, middle, class, artist
  • motahare seraj *, zahra rahbarnia Pages 117-124

    Each image is composed of positive and negative spaces. Researchers generally call the hollow space of an image and the background of the image objects as negative space. In Graphical works, especially posters, the negative space is very important as it can be seen by the audience and has effected in composition and attraction of the poster.As we know, The poster's major role is transferring the messages and concepts to the audience, which is often achieved by the positive space; Whereas negative space that mainly plays its main role as the background of the posters, a space for eye and mind relaxation or an emphasize to positive space, can also in the line with the concept of the poster, transfer the message to the audiences. This will increase and extend the effect on the viewer due to the coordination of negative space with the theme of the poster. Therefore, the aim and effort of this study is the identify ways of transferring the message to the poster's audiences through this type of space. Since in poster designs, the major focus and concentrate is often to positive space and less attention is paid to negative space, it is essential to realize the potentials of this type of space and its hidden characteristics.
    In this project, nine posters from the 10th Tehran International Poster Biennial, which its negative space has more messaging power has been chosen and analyzed based on visual principles. The method applied in this research is descriptive-analytic and its essential information is collected using library resources. The results indicate that the negative space has the ability to transfer the message to the audiences through its "broadness" or "limitations" in the poster, "color" , "latent form" and"visual illusion". In the technique of utilizing "form" in negative space, which is one of the influential methods on the audiences, using the factor of "closure", causes the viewer's participation in order to receive the message. This form can also be seen as an independent form or as a part of the positive form in the negative space.Taking advantage of the mentioned methods will attract the audiences' attention to the negative space and will result in increasing the influence of the message in mind.This is because audiences have got used to receiving messages through positive space and will pass next to it easilyIn addition, using a form with the technique of visual illusion in negative space, which can be created in a poster in the way of using "one form", "repeating a form" or "several different forms", and cuases ambibiguity in foreground and background of an images, attracts attention and creates more visual shock for the audiences.Because audiences do not often expect to see a form in the background of an image and also the movement of two spaces,there attention will be attracted mare than an ordinary image. therefore this method will provide greater surprise for the audiences, incompare to other methods.
    Keywords: Negative space, messaging, Poster, Closure, Visual illusion
  • Forough Amoian *, Fattaneh Mahmoudi Pages 125-134

    The present study seeks to design a product with a culture industry theory, due to the shared commonalities with the culture and consumer goods. The overall aim of this study is to examine how the theory of culture industry influences the formation of thinking about community culture without questioning the role of active companies. It also aims to examine the impact of the culture industry on cell phone audiences. The present study aims to design a product from the perspective of the theory of culture industry, due to the shared aspects of culture and consumer goods. The overall objective of this study is to examine the effect of the culture industry on the formation of thoughts about community culture without questioning the role of active companies, and also to examine the effect of the culture industry on mobile audiences. This study attempts to examine the relationship between human and consumer goods in the mobile phone as a sample mass media product by analyzing the objectification process in contemporary society. Therefore, the question posed isto focus on assessing the thought achievements in today's industry, and studying the cultural challenges in identity formation, objectification, and consumption of products such as mobile phones. The purpose of this study is investigate the role of culture industry in designing a product. The research approach is based on the ideas of the Frankfurt School theory and their critique on mass culture and popularity, which is one of the most important cultural theories in sociology. The result of the research suggests that product design in contemporary society is an example of the culture industry theory due to the direct cultural effects and functions of the society. The culture industry, using the principles of integration, indexing and product design, already shapes the lifestyle and viewpoints about culture, politics, etc., for all groups in the society and can export the culture of a country to the world and protect the domestic culture. The culture industry can promote consumerism among its audiences. Undermining the power of decision-making and wisdom in the minds of the consumers using goods, creating a pleasurable imitation and idolatry of the goods result in an unreasonable consumption and search for the lost identity of human beings in the 21st century. Therefore, paying attention to brands in product design and manufacturing products in different areas of individuals’ lives as well as using tricks such as participating them in the process of manufacturing their own products help to manufacture the products in proportion to the consumers’ interests and needs. This product-specification for consumer groups does not really reflection the capital owners’ consideration of the interests in all classes, but it is precisely the culture industry's trick to classify the consumers so that no one would get out of the consumption cycle. Brands try to make consumers think that they have the freedom to act and be the final chooser, while this is a deception showing that the culture industry uses to prevent the mass of people from independent thinking to remain dominated.
    Keywords: Product Design, Branding, Culture Industry Theory, Frankfurt, Fetishism