فهرست مطالب

  • سال دهم شماره 4 (پیاپی 25، زمستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/12/08
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • سیده زهرا موسوی *، فاطمه فرزانه صفحات 1-14
    روح مکتب رمانتیسم با انقلاب ها و دگرگونی های اجتماعی گره خورده است. نخستین بارقه های رمانتیسم به شیوه اروپایی در ادبیات فارسی، در گیرودار انقلاب مشروطه نمایان شده و انقلاب اسلامی و همچنین دفاع مقدس، بستری مناسب برای آن فراهم کرده است. شعر رمانتیک اصول و قواعد خاصی دارد و تصویرهای شعری در این مکتب از بعد زیبایی شناختی، ساختار و ماهیت معرفتی با تصاویر کلاسیک ها متفاوت است. ویژگی بارز تصاویر رمانتیک ها سایه واری، دلالت ضمنی، تاثیر در احساس و همزادی با آن، استحاله در طبیعت، فرازمانی و فرامکانی و اندوهناکی آن است. شعر دفاع مقدس با اینکه بیشتر از جنبه محتوایی کانون توجه است، از تصاویر خلاق و نوآورانه در آن نمی توان چشم پوشید. در پژوهش حاضر که مبتنی بر مطالعه دفترهای شعری سیدحسن حسینی و گزینش شواهد شعری با مضمون دفاع مقدس است، این نمونه ها به شیوه توصیفی- تحلیلی بررسی و با ویژگی های تصویر در مکتب رمانتیسم تطبیق داده شده است. براساس نتایج به دست آمده، مهم ترین ویژگی تصاویر رمانتیک در شعر سیدحسن حسینی، تاثیر در احساس، همزادی با احساس و معنی و همچنین سایه وار بودن آن است.
    کلیدواژگان: رمانتیسم، تصویر، شعر دفاع مقدس، سیدحسن حسینی
  • محمدرضا ایروانی *، غلام علی فلاح، حبیب الله عباسی، حمید عبدالهیان صفحات 15-34
    ساختار ساختارها در دیوان ناصرخسرو بر وجه غالب «خردگرایی» استوار است و تمام مایگان ها و ساختارهای کوچک و بزرگ در اشعار ناصرخسرو حول آن سامانمند می شوند یا از طریق تقابل با یکدیگر آن را تقویت می کنند و کارکرد اثبات مدعای شاعر حول محور یقین (و نه حدس و ظن) می گردد. ساختار اندیشه ای دیوان ناصرخسرو (در ساحت سیاسی، مذهبی و…) بر مبنای تقابل و تضاد با دستگاه حاکمه خلفای عباسی و سلجوقیان بنا نهاده شده است و شاعر همیشه «خرد» را معیار قضاوت خود برای محاجه و غلبه بر مخالفان قرار می دهد و حتی اعتقادات اسماعیلی خود را با رویکردی خردگرایانه مطرح و اثبات می کند. «تمسک به دین (خاصه مذهب اسماعیلیه) حول محور خرد برای نجات از دنیا» درونمایه اصلی دیوان ناصرخسروست و خوشه های تصویری مرتبط با آن بیشتر تصاویر کانونی دیوان را تشکیل می دهد. بوطیقای هنری او بر محاکات استوار و جهان و قوانین آن در دیوان، ثابت و عقل پسند است. بسامد بسیار زیاد واژگان مرتبط با موتیف «خرد» ، ساختار نحو استدلالی، استفاده متعادل از صور خیال، وجود مناظره ها و… از مولفه های وجه غالب «خردگرایی» در ساختار ساختارهای دیوان است و سبب تفوق قطب مجازی زبان بر قطب استعاری و زبان روشن، تک معنا و صریح اشعارش شده است. نتیجه نهایی اینکه عناصر، مایگان ها و ساختارهای گوناگون دیوان ناصرخسرو تابعی است از ساختار ساختارهای عصرش. این پژوهش از نظر هدف، اکتشافی است و بر اساس آرا و رویکردهای ساختارگرایان و فرمالیست ها انجام شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: ساختار، ساختار ساختارها، وجه غالب، دیوان ناصرخسرو
  • ترلان قلی یو، یعقوب نوروزی، حجت قهرمانی * صفحات 35-42
    شمس قیس رازی با اثر گرانقدر خویش، المعجم فی معاییر اشعار العجم، از بزرگ ترین منتقدان و ادبای ایرانی بعد از حمله خانمان سوز مغول است. او در این اثر دیدگاه های انتقادی خود را در زمینه وزن، قافیه، الفاظ و واژگان در شعر و تناسب و هماهنگی ارکان شعر بیان کرده است. در این مقاله، دیدگاه های او را درباره این عناصر زیبایی شناسانه شعر، آورده و درباره اهمیت هر کدام از این عناصر از دیدگاه او در شعر بحث شده است. همچنین، آنچه او از این لحاظ درباره برخی از شاعران هم عصر خود و دیگر شاعران اظهار کرده در این مقال گنجانده شده است. شمس قیس در اثر خود تلاش کرده است تا پویندگان راه شعر و شاعری را با شیوه های صحیح کاربرد وزن و قافیه در شعر، آشنا و معیار و ملاک ثابتی برای تاثیرگذاری و زیبایی بیشتر شعر ارائه کند. این معیار و ملاک از دیدگاه او جز هماهنگی وزن با موسیقی و محتوای شعر نیست. دیدگاه او به سبب شناخت عمیقی که از علم عروض و وزن و قافیه در شعر فارسی داشته حایز اهمیت است. از همین رو، اثر او برای شناخت عروض سنتی و نقد شعر در زمره مفیدترین آثار قرار دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: شمس قیس، المعجم، وزن، قافیه، واژگان، تناسب، عروض
  • سکینه قربانی *، سید جواد مرتضایی صفحات 43-65
    سجع به عنوان یک آرایه بدیعی مبتنی بر آرایش لفظی و ظاهری، در اکثر آثار بلاغی عربی و فارسی مطرح شده است. هدف این مقاله این است که با نگاهی انتقادی و تطبیقی، تطور و تحول این صنعت را از دوران نخستین بلاغت نویسی تا روزگار معاصر نشان دهد. بدین منظور، سیر تاریخی این صنعت بر اساس زمان و زبان تالیف آثار بلاغی و بدیعی مطالعه شد. برای درک بهتر و سهولت کار، انواع و اقسام سجع و آرایه های متشکل از آن نظیر ترصیع، موازنه و تسمیط و تجزیه به صورت متفاوتی طبقه بندی و نقد و بررسی شدند. با تطبیق دیدگاه های عربی و فارسی در دوره های مختلف این نتیجه حاصل شد که در مورد اصول و روش های سجع پردازی در این دو زبان، اختلاف های اندکی وجود دارد. بلاغت نویسان فارسی در کلیت صنایع بررسی شده، از علمای بلاغی عرب متاثر گشته اند، اما گاهی نوآوری هایی جزئی در روش و قواعد صنایع ایجاد کرده اند که تکمیل کننده دیدگاه های عرب زبانان بوده است. با وجود این، نارسایی هایی در تعریف صنعت سجع و اصول و قواعد آن وجود دارد که منجر به انحرافات و خطاهایی در تعریف انواع آن در سطح کلام و در شعر شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: سجع، بلاغت عربی، بلاغت فارسی، تطور صنایع، بلاغت تطبیقی
  • یداله شکری* صفحات 67-76
    «روایت شناسی» یکی از مفاهیم مربوط به تحلیل ادبی است که ریشه در ساختارگرایی دارد. در پژوهش های روایت شناسانه خواننده با شخصیت های داستان و اندیشه های آنان همسو می شود و با قواعد مشخص به نقد این آثار می پردازد. «تودروف» در جایگاه یکی از روایت شناسان ساختارگرا، داستان را از سه منظر نمود کلامی، نحوی و معنایی مطالعه می کند. نگارنده در این پژوهش نیز قصد دارد بر اساس نظریات وی، سطح نحوی روایت را در داستان شیر و گاو کلیله و دمنه بررسی کند. بنابر نتایج این تحقیق، داستان با پی رفت ها، اپیزودها و عناصری که نمود نحوی روایت را نشان می دهد، طرح را پیش می برد. در حکایت مورد نظر، چهار پی رفت به همراه گزاره های آن، خواننده را با دنیایی از حکایات و داستان های درونه ای روبه رو می کند. آنچه موجب تفاوت این داستان با داستان های روایی دیگر می شود، نخست وجود برائت استهلال و چگونگی کاربرد آن در متون ادبی فارسی است که نویسنده آن را برای آشنایی خواننده با مضامین داستان به کار گرفته است؛ دوم داستان های درونه ای است که با آنچه در نظریه تودوروف مطرح است تفاوت دارد. نویسنده از چندین داستان درونه ای که در خود داستان های درونه ای دیگری را جای داده است استفاده کرده و قدرت خود را در داستان پردازی نشان داده است؛ او همچنین روایت داستان را به گونه ای پرداخته است که با نظریه روایت شناسی تودوروف متفاوت است.
    کلیدواژگان: ساختارگرایی، نمود نحوی، تودوروف، کلیله ودمنه، داستان درونه ای
  • سمیه الفت فصیح، علی اکبر احمدی دارانی ، تیمور مال میر صفحات 77-88
    در میان متون ادب فارسی، ده منظومه به نام های ویس و رامین، اثر فخرالدین اسعد گرگانی، خسرو و شیرین، هفت پیکر، شرف نامه و اقبال نامه نظامی گنجه ای، گل و نوروز و همای و همایون خواجوی کرمانی، جمشید و خورشید سلمان ساوجی، بهرام و گل اندام از امین الدین صافی و همای نامه وجود دارد که دارای ویژگی های نوع ادبی رمانس اند. اختلاف زمانی در روایت رمانس های منظوم و گستردگی جغرافیایی این منظومه ها، روساخت آنها را متنوع ساخته است. این تنوع و تفاوت در شیوه روایت رمانس ها، چند ساختار را در آنها ایجاد کرده است؛ اما ساختار اصلی آنها مبتنی بر آیین آشناسازی یا پاگشایی قهرمانی است؛ پاگشایی و آیین های تشرف، بر مجموعه ای از مراسم و مناسک و آموزش های شفاهی دلالت دارد که هدفشان ایجاد تغییر و تحولی بنیادین و تعیین کننده در وضعیت دینی و اجتماعی آن فردی است که مشرف یا پاگشا می شود. در این مقاله، بر اساس الگوی ساختارگرایی لوی استروس، کمینه های روایی رمانس های منظوم فارسی را استخراج و ساختار آنها را بررسی کرده ایم. یافته های این پژوهش نشان می دهد استفاده از ساختار پاگشایی در روایت رمانس های منظوم فارسی، به دلیل اهمیت ازدواج برون خانواده ای در ژرف ساخت این داستان هاست که بر پایه تقابل سفر قهرمان به سرزمین بیگانه و بازگشت او به زادگاه خویش، تقابل خواسته قهرمان و دست یابی به خواسته، تقابل نبرد قهرمان و پیروزی او و در نهایت، تقابل سرزمین پدری و سرزمین معشوق شکل گرفته است.
    کلیدواژگان: رمانس منظوم، ساختارگرایی، آیین پاگشایی، کمینه روایی، ژرف ساخت
  • بهیه احمدی بیدگلی *، محمدرضا قاری صفحات 89-104
    بحث تکرار یکی از مباحث مهم کتب بدیعی- بلاغی است که از دیرباز کانون توجه علمای بلاغت بوده است؛ ولی آنچنانکه باید و شاید ارزش موسیقایی آن را بررسی و تحلیل نکرده اند. البته بعضی از معاصران (شفیعی، شمیسا، وحیدیان، راستگو و…) در کتاب های خود در باب صنایع بدیعی، با دید ژرف نگرانه ای آن را بررسی کرده و تا جایی پیش رفته اند که کل موسیقی شعر را مرهون تکرار دانسته اند؛ از این رو، در این مقاله کوشش شده است که نه تنها ارزش موسیقایی تکرار، جایگاه زیرساختی آن در بسیاری از آرایه های لفظی موجود در کتب بدیعی نشان داده شود. آرایه هایی چون هم حروفی، هم صدایی، تصدیر، ردالصدر، سجع، جناس، مکرر، تشابه الاطراف، طرد و عکس، و قلب و… با این ساز و سامان که تکرار از کوچک ترین واحد زبان (= واج) تا بزرگترین واحد زبان (= جمله) و حتی تا واحد شعر نیمایی (= بند) مطرح است؛ تکرار واج، تکرار هجا، تکرار گروه، تکرار واژه، تکرار مصراع، تکرار بیت، تکرار بند. در این دسته بندی منطقی و منظم از آرایه های ادبی که براساس دیدگاه زبان شناسی شکل گرفته بسیاری از عیوب مطرح کتب بدیعی پیشینیان همچون نبود طبقه بندی مشخص، طرح نکردن مسائل زیباشناسانه، پیچش بیش از نیاز اصطلاحات و فروع و شاخه های آن، یادگیری مشکل و سخت آرایه های ادبی و طبقه بندی براساس حروف الفبا- که راه به جایی هم نمی برد- و… برطرف خواهد شد.
    کلیدواژگان: تکرار، موسیقی سخن، آرایه های ادبی، واحدهای زبانی، زیرساخت
  • افسانه درمیانی *، حسین آقاحسینی صفحات 105-120
    شاعران و نویسندگان برای بیان احساسات و منظور خود گاه از کلمات و اصطلاحات کهن در زبان و ادبیات فارسی بهره می برند (کهن گرایی) و گاه به نوآوری های متعدد در زمینه خلق واژه و ترکیب روی می آورند و بدین ترتیب دایره واژه های خود را وسیع تر می کنند. در میان شیوه های متنوع خلق آثار در ادبیات دفاع مقدس، خاطره نویسی یکی از مهم ترین رویکردهای روایتگری است. در این پژوهش تلاش می شود ضمن معرفی آثار خاطره نویسی از دوران دفاع مقدس، انواع نوآوری و کهن گرایی واژگانی در آنها بررسی شود. بدین منظور، سیزده اثر از روایتگران دفاع مقدس انتخاب شد. پس از بررسی زبان این آثار در سه گونه معیار، زیرمعیار و فرامعیار، انواع نوآوری و کهن گرایی واژگانی استخراج و در شش دسته مشخص شد: 1) آفرینش واژه ها و ترکیبات نو؛ 2) کاربرد واژه ها، ترکیبات، اصطلاحات بیگانه که خود شامل سه بخش می شود: الف) کاربرد واژه ها و اصطلاحات بیگانه خودکارشده در زبان؛ ب) اصطلاحات و کلمات نظامی و سیاسی؛ ج) کاربرد کلمات دشوار بیگانه؛ 3) کاربرد واژه های بومی؛ 4) کاربرد واژه ها و اصطلاحات روزمره و عامیانه؛ 5) کاربرد نام های خاص؛ 6) استفاده از واژه های کهن. بنابر یافته های این پژوهش، در این آثار کاربرد کلمات بیگانه به شکل های مختلف از همه بیشتر است؛ درمقابل، واژه های نو کمتر استفاده شده است؛ همچنین کهن گرایی یا آرکائیسم نیز در این آثار نمود اندکی دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: ادبیات دفاع مقدس، روایت گری، خاطره نویسی، نوآوری و کهن گرایی واژگانی
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  • Seyede Zahra Mousavi*, Fatemeh Farzaneh Pages 1-14

    The Romanticism is absolutely related to the social revolutions and transformations. The first sparks of Romanticism in the European way appeared in the Persian literature, during the Conditional Revolution of the Islamic Revolution, as well as the sacred defense, provided a suitable place for it. Romantic poem consists of special principles and technics. The poetic images in this school are different from the aesthetics, structure, and epistemic nature of the classics. The characteristic feature of romantic images is shading, implying, influencing and cooperating with feelings, transformation of nature, expanse and frivolity, and its sadness and grief. Sacred Defense Poetry, while more focused on the content aspect, but creative and innovative images cannot be ignored.
    The present study, based on the study of poetry books by Sayed Hossein Hosseini, is the selection of poetic evidence of the sacred defense theme, in a descriptive-analytical method of poetic images, these examples are examined and, by adapting them to the features of the image in the school of Romanticism, the most important feature of romantic images in the poetry of Sayed Hasan Hosseini is the effect on feelings, the combination of feeling and meaning, as well as the shadow of it. And since the language of the holy defense poem is explicit and implicit, implicit implications do not function in that way
    Keywords: Romanticism, Image, Sacred Defense Poetry, Sayed Hossein Hosseini
  • Mohammad Reza Iravani*, Gholamali Fallah, Habibollah Abbasi, Hamid Abdollahia Pages 15-34
    Structure of structures in Naser Khosrow poem based on rationality dominant. All large and small poem structures are systematically about structure of structures or enhance it through interaction with each other, and functioning proof of claim of the poet around the certainty instead of speculation and suspicious. Thought structure of the Naser kosrow’s poem (in politics and religious, etc.) based on contrast with Abbasid and Seljuk government. He was not only considering “wisdom” as judgment criterion to argue and dominant on oppositions, but also raising and proving his Ismaili beliefs based on rational approach. “Adherence to religion (especially Ismaili sect) revolving around individual to escape from the world” is the contents of the Naser kosrow poem and its related pictorial clusters composed of focal pictures of his poem. His artistic poetics based on imitation of the world and its rules in poem is stable and rational. Ultra- high frequency in” wisdom” meaning, balanced usage of imagery and debates are the components of the rationality dominant in structure of structures in Iran and they are causing the superiority of virtual pole to the metaphorical pole of the clear, single meaning, and explicit language of his poem. In this qualitative and part quantitative study, this study is exploratory in terms of purpose and conducted through investigating the views of structuralist and formalist approaches.
    Keywords: Structure, Structure of structures, Dominant, Naser kosrow Poem
  • Yaghub Noruzi, Tarlan Guliyeva, Hojatullah Qahremani* Pages 35-42

    Shams Qeys-i Razi is one of the greatest prosodist of Persian classic literature and his work, al-Moâjam fi Maâayir-e Ashâar al-Ajam is the most important book in the field of prosody and rhyme. In this book the writer has offered valuable and scientific views on poem aesthetic; rhyme, rhythm, lexicon and harmony between elements in Persian verse. In this work Shams Qeys as a familiar person to principles of scientific arguments in explanation of matters, has expressed his point of views. While discussing on verse, specially its external structure, the most important elements which have attracted Qeys attention and have been of his focus of attention include rhyme, rhythm in verse. In this regard Qeys can be referred as formalist criticizer; since he has more notice to external structure such as lexicon, rhyme and rhythm and even in his definition of verse, he knows it as rhythmic and rhymed words and he has not paid any attention to essence of literary work. In spite of all that, denotations which he has had to harmony, subject, content and rhyme proportion show that he has also had attention to link of form and content in verse. This feature of aesthetic in verse has been evaluated by him.
    Qeys, in his book of al-Moâjam has offered valuable views on rhyme, rhythm and harmony among verse elements. Some of his views has not missed their newness and can be criteria in influence and importance of verse. By being familiarity with prosody science and its details, regards it as needs of poetic. He regards those who with no respect to prosody sing poems as skin-deep. In his point of view, prosody science is the criteria of right and wrong, Rhythmic and inharmonic of verse.
    In the rhythms of verse, he uses expressions such as sweetness, pleasant, near to inclination and coherence and in this way shows his complete mastery of rhythms and points out that he is skillful in poetry and has absolute command to verbal, musical, aesthetical features and syntax and semantic aspects of Persian language. He has brought various reasons on heaviness of some rhythms in one hand and fluency of some others in Persian language which has been studied in this essay. He also regards that the harmony and proportion of bases and structures of verse is the cause of its more influence, and has invited poets to observe these important features. In spite of all these, he believes that each of the rhythms sweetness factors; harmony of structures and arrangement of, are not solely enough for the influence and acceptance of verse. And when they are near each other, poem will be more beautiful and more efficient. However, without existence of any of these features, poem will not obtain the beauty feature. He, in a detailed way, explains the discussion matter of “moves and statics” which is of causes of rhythm pleasure. The increase of “moves to statics” and vice versa is the cause of movement and heaviness of rhythm which Qeys has studied. It is needed to say that this feature and its effect in the attraction and pleasant of rhythm is also in the focus of attention of researchers in the field of rhyme, rhythm and prosody of Persian verse. Rhyme and its importance in verse and poem are the most important arguments in al-Moâjam.
    He cares not to mention the verse which has not rhyme. In his pint of view, rhyme should be complement of music of words, and also have a great role in meaning transfer and general meaning. The rhyme should be so judicious that no one can replace it with other word. Expressions and words and how to use them in verse and prose have not been ignored of his sharp and punctilious look of Qeys. He believes that the language of verse should not be difficult. Language which is used for expressing verse and prose should be simple and fluent. Words and expressions should be of usual which are used mostly by merit scholarship. He doesn’t allow the usage of hard and heavy Arabic and Persian words. He says that verse language should be very similar to prose. He believes in the right election of words in verse. In his point of view every word doesn’t have permission to enter the verse area. Shams Qeys knows the coordination of word and meaning “the completion of verse”. One good poem has elements such as sweet words, pleasant meaning, right rhymes, easiness and fluency all together. He isn’t ignorant of internal harmony and companionship and paradigmatic relation. In his view, neighborhood of words and its qualification to each other is observed (Qeys, 1360: 329). Meaning coherence of verse and its reasonable order are among those cases which Qeys has paid attention in his critic of verse. According to his view good writing and coordination of structures of poem and the way of good combination give the poem aesthetic feature and make its effect greater. The poet should not spoil the effect of words with disconnection of couplet meaning. The structures in verse should be harmonic in its totality to have artistic effect. All these points and views are the signs of his skillful poetry and prosody mastery of this valuable scientist. Passing of days have not thrown dust of oldness to his views and all of his views has kept their nominative and are of focus attention of researchers of rhythm, poem music and aesthetic field
    Keywords: Shams Qeys, Al-Mojam, rhythm, rhyme, words, harmony, prosody
  • Sakine Ghorbani*, Seyed Javad Mortezaei Pages 43-65

    Riming prose which is a Figure of speech based on array of words, has been discussed in most rhetorical works of Persian and Arabic. The purpose of this article
    is the evolution of this figure of speech critically and comparatively from early days of writing rhetoric books to the contemporary time. For this purpose, the historical
    development of this figure of speech has been investigated based on the time and language of writing these rhetorical works. Different definitions about this figure of
    speech are presented in these works, some of which have been translated and narrated from previous works. Altogether, equality of end and rhythm of words are
    the main criterions of riming prose but each of the authors has expressed this equality and harmony in various ways and presented different views on it.
    In this article, for better understand and ease of work, types of riming prose and related figures of speech to it have been categorized and criticized differently.
    Riming prose for observance the principles and rules of equality, and its position at the end of the dialects has been divided into parallel, symmetrical and lop- sided
    types. For this reason, we recall these types main that are located in their main place; at the end of spoken parts and phrases. Riming prose for the length of the rimed
    prose sentences and the number of these words are divided in the form of Short, medium and long. Given the main position of riming prose, if this figure of speech is
    used in most of the words of the spoken parts and sentences or in the middle terms of them, some of other forms of figures of speech are created which inlaying,
    Parallelism and Guaranteed Portmanteau are the most important ones. And if the main types of riming prose are used in the poem or more precisely, in the parts and sections of hemistiches and verses, other figures of speech are created such as tashtir, tasmit, and tajziye. Some of the types that rhetorical scholars and authors have come
    up with the following of riming prose are completely null and void, and indication of their ignorance and inattention in the historical background of riming prose. They
    have been added these types with the aim of creation and innovating without any rules and regulations. For this reason, these types have been studied below in vain
    types. After studying the evolution of the types of riming prose and all figures of speech mentioned and comparing Arabic and Iranian experts' outlooks in different periods,
    this can be concluded that there are slight differences regarding principles and  methods of using riming prose. Persian rhetoricians have been affected by Arabic
    rhetoricians for the totality of investigated figures and they have created slight innovations in methods and rules of figures of speech. However, there are
    deficiencies in defining riming prose and its principles and rules which resulted in deviations and errors in defining its types at the level of the word and in the poem
    Keywords: Riming prose, Arabic Rhetoric, Persian Rhetoric, The Evolution of Figures of speech, Comparative Rhetoric
  • Yadollah Shokri* Pages 67-76

    Extensive studies on the structure and form of literary works have expanded semantic growth methods and stories and tales. As a huge part of the world, literature have created different methods and Semantic sciences in their own structure, also in the present day critics' attention to the structure of the story, review and analyze its constituent elements has grown variety opinions in this field. Narrative Science is one of these theories that emerge with the principles and rules of the structuralism school and aligns the reader with the characters of their stories and their thoughts along with the structural elements. The narrative is a text in which the narrator expresses a tale. Therefore, each tale is a narrative itself and whatever happens to mankind and non-human beings can be analyzed from a narrative perspective. In the narrative Science, the analysis of a tale is organized and the views of the critics and theorists in this science are arranged by using the definitive principles and rules. This science like language which focuses on elements and components such as phonemes and phrases examines and analyzes the smallest elements of the tale and its design and structure.
    Todorova, in the position of one of the structuralism narrators, examines each tale from three verbal, syntacticand semantic representations. The study and analysis of narrative tales in the viewpoint of narrative theories suggest that stories and narrations are based on well-founded and systematic base of narrative structures. These structures, which represent the principles and structure of the narrative, place the story in a narrative line that aims to express the meaning and message of the tale. The study of Lion and Cow in Kalile and Demneh in terms of syntactic representation of Todorov's theory shows that narration and its principles correspond to these tales and have a regular and almost common structure. According to Todorov's theory, each tale consists of various propositions and episodes with its own characteristics which form the narrative structure of the story. By examining the Lion and Cow tale from these three perspectives, three sequences, six episode status, eight episodes of transition and more than twenty present and well-known narratives of the tale are formed.
    In addition, what happened in the study of this story was the prelude or Showing future of narration sighting at the beginning of such tales that is not part of the narrative science. This section, which is one of the features of ancient Iranian stories, reveals the theme and purpose of the narration to the reader at the beginning of the story. Since these kinds of tales are accompanied by a moral message, showing future of narration sighting is a tool for the reader to become familiar with the ethical themes and guide his line of thought throughout the story. In addition, the narrative form of the story is one of the other elements that are considered in the syntactic representation of Todorov's theory and is expressed in three types of inputting, chaining and interchanging.
    In the narrative study of Lion and Cow in Kelile and Demneh, it became clear that there are stories within this tale that are known to be internal stories and slightly different from the narrative theory of Todorov. In the narrative form of the theory of Todorov the character of the tales finds its own error and its effect by own hearing the inner story but in the Lion and Cow tale, the characters of the story discover the moral message of the inner stories by the end of the tale. On the other hand, the existence of the 2nd inner story, which is narrated for the purpose of the narrative of the inner (sub) 1st story, is another difference in this narrative of Todorov's theory about Kelile and Demneh. Therefore it is possible to examine each of the main stories and internal narratives based on the theories and the narrative views. According to what has been said the result of the study of narrative Science in the Lion and Cow tale shows that the tale goes ahead with the adventures, episodes, and elements that show the syntax of the narrative. In the above-mentioned tale, four sequences along with its propositions state the narrative of the tale in a way that confronts the reader with a world of tales and inner stories
    Keywords: Structuralism, Syntax, Todorov, Kelile, Demneh, inner story
  • Somayeh Olfat Fasih, Ali Akbar Ahmadi Darani*, Teymoor Malmir Pages 77-88

    Among the literary texts of Persian, there are ten poems called Vis and Ramin by Fakhruddin Ass'ad Gurgani; Khosrow and Shirin, Haft paykar, Sharafnameh and Eghbalnameh by Nezami Ganjavi; Gol and Nowrooz, Homay and Homayoun Khwaju Kermani; Jamshid and Khorshid by Salman Savoji; Bahram and Golandam by Amin al-Din Safi and Homayname which has features of the literary type of romance. In this paper, based on the model of Claude Lévi-Strauss structuralism, we extracted the minima of the narrative of Persian verse romances and studied their structure.
    In the narrative structure of Persian verse romances, the common minima have always been repeated. The first step for understanding deep-structure the stories is to explain the structure of their narrative. Based on the existence of dual oppositions in the structure of these romances, the main elements of the structure of stories can be extracted. These elements are Mytheme that stories structure based on them. From the stroke of the stories mentioned above, six narrative minima can be extracted: 1) The hero sees science and martial arts. 2) The hero, loves a beautiful girl. 3) The hero travels to gain the demands. 4) The hero for gaining demands, tests or quests. 5) The hero receives a reward. 6) The hero returns to his homeland. As Strauss extracted the Mythemes on a sentence scale, these elements are also in the form of a sentence, which can generally be summarized in single words; the elements of "education, love, travel, test, reward, return."
    According to the aforementioned minerals, the main structure of the Persian verse romances is based on the initiation or the achievement of the championship. Initiation and traditions of encouragement and passing on a series of ceremonies and rituals and oral education, the purpose of which is to create a fundamental and decisive transformation in the religious and social status of a person who is mysterious, overlooked or strangled. In Persian verse romances, the hero with a motive that is generally sought after by a beloved goes away from home and takes a long journey with all kinds of hardships; Tests are difficult to survive and eventually return home with victory over enemies and obtaining desires. These propositions are the structural elements that illuminate the original structure of the romances based on the pattern of pagan rituals. In this template, the hero goes away from the community, while at the same time differs from his previous state of affairs, in order to achieve perfection and change his religious and social status. The findings of this research show that the use of an initiation structure in the narration of Persian verse romances is due to the importance of extra-family marriages in deep-structure these stories.
    Keywords: Verse romances, Structuralism, Initiation, Narrative minima, Deep-structure
  • Bahiyeh Ahmadi Bidguli*, Mohammad Reza Qari Pages 89-104

    The second decade of the twentieth century is the beginning of a massive transformation in literary theory which was called later "formalism". The outstanding feature of this school was breaking with literary norms belong to the past and discover the secret of "literary" in a literary work. The aim of the founders of this school, that became well-known as the Russian formalists, was finding a scientific basis for literary criticism. The first step in this regard was taken by “Viktor Shklovsky" With the publication of "Doom words" in the 1914 (Ahmadi, 1384: 39). Formalists examined the literary works without any background, and pay attention just to the text itself in literary criticism and believe that the literary work must be viewed in terms of its literary.
    Defamiliarization is the main principle of the Russian formalism school which present to audience common things in an unfamiliar or strange way in order to enhance perception of the familiar. The first person who applied this concept comprehensively was "Shklovsky", who wrote in “art as technique”: “The purpose of art is to impart a sensation of things as they are perceived not as they are known". The technique of art is to make objects "strange or unfamiliar", to make forms difficult, to increase the difficulty and length of perception, because the process of perception in it is an aesthetic end and must be prolonged (Sojudi, 1380: 60).
    Defamiliarization is a technique to create beauty and make new relations between objects and phenomena. This technique takes place in two categories, musical and linguistic that they include all features of poetic language such as music, imagery, expressive features and languages and leads to the poetic's language become more recognition and prominence than prose (Hoseini, 1382: 79). Different species of defamiliarization such as deviation and synergy amazes the reader, and new emotions and thoughts reveal in his mind.

    Deviation

    Whenever a meaningful deviation from standard language norms and rules take place then deviation occur. Deviation process causes art ambiguity in the poetry of poets and the mind of audience in the faced with defamiliaristic try to order the elements of sentence and effort to understand the relationship between its elements and this delay/pause which happen to comprehend the poets, make reader more pleasure.

    Synergy

    Synergy unlike deviation isn't deviation of norm language, but additional language rules are applying, and thus it is naturally distinct from deviation aspect (Safavi, 1380: 50). The rule of synergies and the result of it (balance) first time were raised by Jacobson.
    A significant portion of the construction of musical poetry is based on verbal repetition and balances. These repetitions are varied and include variety of levels. Sometimes this repetition is due to homophonic phonemes in a literary work; on the other hand it is due to repetition of consonants and vowels and sometimes due to repetition of a set of nominal, adjectival and adverbial, etc. words or groups or finally the repetition of a sentence throughout a poem in the level of bits and paragraph. The great and famous poets of this technique consider induction of secondary meaning and emphasis on subject matter. To dominate the Persian language features, they try to take advantage of language resources and to obtain their own style
    Keywords: epetition, formalism, Defamiliarization, poetry musical, Deviation, Synergy
  • Afsaneh Darmiani *, Hossein Aghahosaini Pages 105-120
    Sometimes poets and writers use ancient words and phrases in Persian language and literature to express their emotions and meanings (ancientism); sometimes they use different techniques to create novel ideas on the creation of words and combinations. In other words, the authors improve their vocabulary with the use of ancient words and the creation of new words and compositions. The Holy Defense literature is the general title that covers various types of poetry, story, novel, and memory. Memoir writing is one of the most important narrative approaches in Holy Defense literature. In this research, we try to study the types of lexical innovation and ancientism in order to introduce the works of memoir writing from the Holy Defense era. For this research, thirteen works were selected from Holy Defense narrators. After examining the language of these works and extracting the types of lexical innovation and lexicalism, according to different types of language (standard language, sub-standard, and over- standard), these innovations and ancientism were divided into six categories: (1) the creation of new terms and combinations; (2) the use of words, combinations, and terms of the alien, which itself consists of three parts: a) the use of foreign self-contained words and phrases in the language; b) Military and political terms and words; c) the use of hard foreign words; 3) the use of native terms; 4) the use of everyday words and phrases; 5) The use of proper names; 6) the use of ancient words. In the result of this research it can be found that in these works the use of foreign words in different ways is the most. In contrast, the use of new words has been less widely used; also ancientism or archeanism has little effect on these works.
    Different types of language in the studied works
    In the study of the prose works of the Holy Defense memories, it can be seen that in these texts, innovation and ancientism can not be considered in terms of one type of language, because in these works, due to the writer, the audience, the text, one kind of language has not been used. For this reason, explanations are first given on the three types of standard language, sub-standard, and over- standard languages.
    The standard language is the language of the educated and the language used in scientific, cultural or political circles (Sarlly, 2008:49; Rrzai, 2004:20; Najafi, 1999: seven)
    The over-standard language is a type of language that is placed on the top of the imaginary line of standard language. In this language, instead of standard language words, words of ancient language, the innovation and revival of past words, metaphors, and special poetic words are used (ibid, 76).
    The sub-standard language is another type of language that falls under the imaginary line of standard language. Some have limited the language of the sub-standard to the folk language, and it is considered to be the language of the low society groups, marginalized, uneducated, and even antisocial groups (the same: 76 and 77). Najafi in Dictionary of folk Persian, in addition to popular language, also speaks the colloquial language as a subset of the language group and below the standard language line (Najafi, 1999: six).
    In the parts that the characters describe, the language is a sub-standard type. The following are some examples: The following examples are from the following statement: "As I gaze at the ceiling" (Bakhtiari, 2011:11); "I was thinking with myself" (ibid. , 19); "I was too tired" (ibid. 148); "The mother and father underestand why I chained myself to the lesson" (the same: 31); "But they did not care" (Rahimi, 2009:96); "Roll out over soils" (Sepehri, 1391:305); "I will shoot a tissue paper in a bucket" (Bakhtiari, 2011:16); "reticence of the director in that position puzzled him" (Abad, 1393:84).
    The narrator's language in this memoir, for simplicity, has a more sub-standard approach, but in parts, it is standardized. Here are some examples: “The more we went from Mosul, it becomes warmer and warmer.” (Abad, 1393, 485); "We were accustomed to say the necessary things slowly " (Sepehri, 2014:249); "We came by the water, and we saw the place where we should entere the water and the side of our movement" (ibid: 539); I felt my face was burning" (Zarabizadeh, 1393:33); "I was asked to write a story of Nahj al-Balagha" (Kazemi, 2010). : 71); "If you please, I will take you to my wife's family house" (Hosseini, 1392:605).
    It is worth mentioning that sometimes due to the use of metaphors or enumeration, the language is approaching the over-standard. For example, a writer may use poetry in his remarks, which in this case, the language deviates from the standard and sub-standard. Of course, the use of poetry in these kinds of languages is a kind of highlighting: "He put the peach sweater that he had made for you, on his face, and throw soil on his head and reads:They called you yousof, so gave you to wolf
    Death become your wplf, my yousof
    And he said with a groan, where is my sister? Where is my mother? " (Abad, 2014:417).
    "She had a beautiful face. He had a bloody diarrhea. He was yellow and skinny. ”
    "I'm going to die for my heart death I'm sad with sorrow for my dearest»
    This poem was about the martyr Beheshti" (Bakhtiari, 2007:332).
    "Because we wanted to go to the right path, because we loved the right and were guided by that path and by that love: "You walk in this road and do not ask anything Right will tell you, how to go”
    And this matter was tangible for us and we felt it " (Kazemi, 2010:205). Of course, this poem is from Attar, and its original principle was: "You walk on the road and dont ask anything, and the road will tell you how to go" (Attar, 1358:93).
    "This time, what a pleasant mantra, they read: Caravan passes by the purple flowersits ambassador is the young martyr… This song reminds me of the children of the revolver of Bilal" (Makhdoomi, 2008:142).
    With regard to these points and considering different types of language, it is advisable to consider the type of language in order to examine the types of lexical innovations; as, for example, the use of rhetoric in language may create the notion that, with the use of rhetorical techniques, the language goes away from the standard and approaches the over-standard language; but it should be noted that some rhetorical techniques are far from this feature; for example, the use of the irony in the sub-standard language is a natural subject, and even using a lot of irony can be a feature of this type of language; For example, the following examples can be used to say that the use of irony, not only does not close the language to the over-standard, but is based on the following characteristics of the language, but is a feature of sub-standard language: "I was up all night, waiting" (Zarabizadeh, 2011:46); "As if nothing happen" (the same as: 118); "I couldn’t calm down" (ibid, 99); "I had been tired, too long before" (The same: 94); "He will turned back with nothing" (Sepehri, 2011:22); "he died with my first bullet" (ibid, 40).
    Keywords: Holy Defense Literature, narrating, memoir writing, lexical innovation, ancientism