فهرست مطالب

جغرافیا و توسعه فضای شهری - سال پنجم شماره 1 (پیاپی 8، بهار و تابستان 1397)
  • سال پنجم شماره 1 (پیاپی 8، بهار و تابستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/05/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
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  • کرامت الله زیاری، محمد اجزاءشکوهی، امیرحسین خادمی* صفحات 1-19
    برنامه ریزی شهری بیوفیلیک که از دهه 90 میلادی به اجرا درآمد، رویکردی است که به صورت جامع برای بسیاری از آلودگی ها زیست محیطی از جمله آلودگی هوا، صوتی و بصری راه حل های عملی ارائه می نماید. منطقه 14 شهر تهران به سبب افزایش شدید جمعیت طی دهه های گذشته به عنوان یکی از آلوده ترین مناطق این شهر شناخته می شود. لذا هدف این تحقیق الگوسازی برنامه ریزی و طراحی بیوفیلیک در منطقه 14 شهر تهران به منظور پیاده سازی شاخص های قابل اجرا با توجه به شرایط اقتصادی، اجتماعی و کالبدی منطقه مورد مطالعه بوده است. از این رو در این تحقیق و در ابتدا به تعیین شاخص های شهر بیوفیلیک و رتبه بندی مناطق 22 گانه شهر تهران بر اساس شاخص های مذکور و با مدلVikor اقدام شد و سپس الگوهای مناسب این منطقه جهت بیوفیلیک سازی تعیین گردیدند. روش های مورد استفاده در این تحقیق شامل استفاده از مدل و توزیع پرسشنامه در بین کارشناسان و تصمیم گیران این منطقه به تعداد 30 نفر بوده است. تجزیه و تحلیل داده های بدست آمده از طریق نرم افزارهای مختلف از جمله SPSS انجام پذیرفت. نتایج تحقیق نشان داده است که منطقه مورد مطالعه در شهر تهران از اولویت بالایی جهت اجرایی نمودن این نوع برنامه ریزی برخوردار می باشد. در سایر نتایج و با توجه به نظر کارشناسان این تحقیق، الگوهای برنامه ریزی بیوفیلیک با قابلیت پیاده سازی در این منطقه مشخص گردید.
    کلیدواژگان: آلودگی های شهری، برنامه ریزی بیوفیلیک، تهران، منطقه14
  • مصطفی امیرفخریان *، علیرضا معینی صفحات 21-43
    امروزه مدل های خطی و غیرخطی کاربرد زیادی در مطالعات پدیده های شهری دارند و پژوهشگران به روش های گوناگون و بسته به نوع مطالعه از آن ها بهره می برند. در بین مدل های خطی، رگرسیون جغرافیایی به دلیل دخالت عامل موقعیت در تبیین پراکنش فضایی پدیده ها از جمله مدل های موثر به شمار می رود. از سوی دیگر پیچیدگی مسائل، نگرش محققان را به سمت بهره گیری از مدل های غیرخطی رهنمون ساخته است؛ شبکه عصبی از جمله روش های موثر است. این مطالعه به شکل ویژه قصد دارد با تکیه بر مدل های رگرسیون جغرافیایی و شبکه عصبی به تبیین عوامل موثر در الگوی استقرار دفاتر مسافرتی در شهر مشهد بپردازد و به این سوال پاسخ دهد که کدام یک از دو مدل نام برده قادرند تصویر بهتری از این استقرار را به نمایش بگذارند. شیوه مطالعه توصیفی- تحلیلی مبتنی بر مدل های علی است. این بررسی نتایج متفاوتی را از مدل های بالا نشان می دهد؛ به گونه ای که از نظر رگرسیون جغرافیایی، دفاتر مسافرتی عمدتا متاثر از فضاهای خاص گردشگری هستند در حالی که از نظر شبکه عصبی، متاثر از فضاهای عمومی شهر هستند. انطباق یافته های هر مدل با واقعیت، بیانگر انحراف کمتر مدل شبکه عصبی در این خصوص و کارایی آن در زمینه پراکنش پدیده های فضایی است.
    کلیدواژگان: دفاتر مسافرتی، رگرسیون جغرافیایی، شبکه عصبی، مشهد
  • فروغ خزاعی نژاد *، محمد سلیمانی مهرنجانی، احمد زنگانه صفحات 45-70
    زیست پذیری شهری طی دهه های اخیر در چارچوب گفتمان پایداری و دیدگاه بوم شناختی مورد اقبال شهرشناسان و برنامه ریزان شهری قرار گرفته است. این تحقیق با تاکید بر شهروندان ساکن در منطقه 12 شهر تهران و با هدف شناخت وضعیت زیست پذیری انجام شده است. این منطقه در سال 1394بالغ بر 244000 نفر جمعیت داشته که در 6 ناحیه و 13 محله سکونت داشته اند. از این میان تعداد 383 خانوار به تفکیک محله و با استفاده از فرمول کوکران به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند؛ آنگاه با روش خوشه ایفضایی و سپس تصادفی ساده مورد پرسشگری قرار گرفتند. الگوی حاکم بر تحقیق "توصیفی تحلیلی" است. تحقیق شش بعد اقتصاد شهری، اجتماعی، زیست محیطی، خدماتی و زیرساختی، مدیریت شهری و تاریخی را در قالب 20 شاخص و 94 گویه مورد بررسی و برای تجزیه و تحلیل یافته ها از آزمون های "T-Test"، "ANOVA"، "Tuky HSD" و برای شناخت الگوی فضایی، از نرم افزار GIS و ابزارهای جانبی آن استفاده کرده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد، بعد "خدمات و زیرساخت ها" و "اجتماعی" بالاتر از حد متوسط و چهار بعد دیگر، پایین تر از حد متوسط قرار دارند. مطالعه همچنین نشان داد که الگوی فضایی زیست پذیری منطقه دارای جهت شمالی-جنوبی است؛ بدین معنا که زیست پذیری در محله های شمالی وضعیت بهتری نسبت به محله های جنوبی دارد. در مجموع محله های منطقه 12 از نظر معیارهای زیست پذیری، سطحی پایین دارند و تنها محله سنگلج واقع در نیمه غربی در شرایط نسبتا مطلوبی قرار دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: زیست پذیری، محله، منطقه 12 شهر تهران
  • عامر نیک پور*، صدیقه لطفی، مرتضی رضازاده، فاطمه الهقلی تبار نشلی صفحات 71-92
    امروزه اهمیت و نقش انرژی در زندگی، توسعه و پیشرفت جوامع، آشکارتر از همیشه است و در عین حال منابع و انواع انرژی های مورد استفاده بشر در معرض دگرگونی های بسیار جدی است. فرم شهری از طریق تاثیر در مصرف زمین، پراکندگی محل سکونت، کیفیت محیط مسکونی، میزان مصرف انرژی و میزان سفرهای روزانه بر روی محل سکونت انسان و اکوسیستم محیط تاثیر گذار است. هدف این مطالعه تحلیل رابطه میان فرم ساختمان و شهر با مصرف انرژی است. پژوهش از لحاظ ماهیت، توصیفی_تحلیلی و بنابر هدف کاربردی است. روش گردآوری اطلاعات در این پژوهش به صورت کتابخانه ای، اسنادی و پیمایشی می باشد. جامعه آماری این پژوهش واحد های مسکونی شهر بابلسر می باشد. تعداد نمونه های مورد نظر، جهت بررسی میزان مصرف انرژی، 375 واحد مسکونی موجود در محلات مختلف شهر می باشد. برای تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات این پژوهش از نرم افزارSPSS و GIS بهره گرفته شده است. به منظور طبقه بندی فرم محلات با توجه به ابعاد شش گانه ی تراکم، اتصال، ترکیب کاربری ها، تمرکز، دسترسی به زیرساخت ها و میزان مالکیت اتومبیل، از روش مجموع ساده وزنی (SAW) استفاده شد. نتایج حاصل از بررسی رابطه بین مصرف انرژی در ساختمان ها و فرم شهری نشان داد که رابطه معناداری بین مصرف انرژی و فرم ساختمان وجود دارد و یافته ها نشان داد که اگر در فرم فشرده، بافت فرسوده غالب نباشد میزان مصرف انرژی بسیار کمتر از سایر فرم هاست.
    کلیدواژگان: بابلسر، فرم ساختمان، فرم شهر، مصرف انرژی
  • فرزانه شیخ زاده *، محمود محمدی، احمد شاهیوندی صفحات 93-111
    هدف اصلی پژوهش، برنامه ریزی راهبردی مبتنی بر مولفه های سلامت در محله ی ساربان می باشد. این پژوهش به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی صورت پذیرفته و از نوع پژوهش های کاربردی است. بدین منظور ابتدا شاخص های سنجش سلامت محله ای تدوین و سپس داده های حاصل از سنجش مولفه های سلامتی به شیوه تحلیل استراتژیک جهت فرآیند برنامه ریزی راهبردی مشخص گردید. برای ارائه راهبردها از روش سوات و برای تعیین اولویت آن ها از ماتریس کمی برنامه ریزی راهبردی(QSPM) استفاده شد. یافته ها نشان می دهد که برخورداری از سلامت عمومی، درصد پایین افسردگی، موقعیت ممتاز مکانی در شهر، قابلیت ایجاد فضاهای باز و عمومی، امکان یکپارچگی شبکه حمل ونقل همگانی، از مهم ترین نقاط قوت و فرصت، تمایل کم به استفاده از دوچرخه و حمل ونقل عمومی، درصد مشارکت پایین ساکنان، ارزش اقتصادی پایین زمین، نامطلوبیت خدمات و امکانات ساربان محله نسبت به سایر محلات بجنورد نیز از مهم ترین نقاط ضعف و تهدید محله محسوب می شوند. با توجه به نتایج حاصل از تحلیل این عوامل، برنامه ریزی راهبردی مبتنی بر سلامت در محله ساربان منوط به اتخاذ راهبردهای اقتضایی می باشد که برنامه های اجرایی مناسب آن نگاشته شد. بروز نابرابری در محلات، کیفیت هایی را از شهرهای کنونی دریغ ساخته که شهروندان و محیطی سالم در راس آن ها قرار دارد. ادامه روند موجود منجر به ازدست رفتن فرصت های شهربجنورد برای دستیابی به توسعه پایدار، پیامدهایی نظیر آلودگی، چالش های مدیریتی، افزایش هزینه های زیرساختی و اثرات منفی بر کل سیستم شهر محسوب می شود .بدین ترتیب لزوم دیدی راهبردی با رویکردی نوین چون شهر سالم را مشخص می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: برنامه ریزی راهبردی، مولفه های شهرسالم، محله ساربان، محله سالم، QSPM
  • یاسر معرب، اسماعیل صالحی *، محمد جواد امیری، بهروز نارویی صفحات 113-130
    هدف کلی از پژوهش حاضر، بدست آوردن عوامل تاثیرگذار در میزان تاب آوری اجتماعی- فرهنگی کاربری اراضی شهری و تعیین میزان اهمیت نقش هر یک از این عوامل و بررسی آن ها در منطقه ی 1شهر تهران می باشد. روش تحقیق این پژوهش توصیفی تحلیلی، و ماهیت آن کاربری است. در این پژوهش، ابتدا چارچوب نظری تحقیق از طریق جمع آوری اطلاعات از طریق مطالعات اسنادی صورت پذیرفت. در ادامه به منظور بررسی میزان تاب آوری اجتماعی- فرهنگی کاربری اراضی، براساس نظرات کارشناسان و بررسی پژوهش های قبلی، معیارهای تراکم جمعیت، سرانه مراکز ورزشی، مذهبی، آموزشی، فرهنگی، بهداشتی- درمانی، انتظامی و گردشگری تعیین گردید. سپس مقایسات زوجی شاخص ها به کمک 15 نفر از اعضای هیئت علمی و کارشناسان متخصص که در حوزه ی برنامه ریزی محیط زیست، برنامه ریزی شهری، برنامه ریزی روستایی و شهرسازی تخصص داشته اند، صورت پذیرفته است. همچنین به منظور ارزیابی و بررسی نهایی از روش FAHP، سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی(GIS) و Idrisi بهره گرفته شده است. در نهایت، ارزیابی ها و بررسی ها نشان داد که میانگین تاب آوری منطقه ی 1 شهرداری تهران معادل 69/0 است. بر این اساس پیشنهادها و راهبردهای به منظور ارتقاء میزان تاب آوری منطقه ی مورد مطالعه ارائه شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: آسیب پذیری، اجتماعی- فرهنگی، تاب آوری، کاربری اراضی شهری، منطقه یک تهران
  • سعیده مویدفر *، سمانه رفیع صفحات 131-152
    هدف این پژوهش برنامه ریزی های مناسب و آینده نگرانه جهت تبدیل بافت تاریخی میبد به یک فضای امن است تا در جهت جذب گردشگر بتواند به صورت موفق تری عمل نماید. این در حالی است که با توجه به مشکلات جوامع شهری و اهمیت بحث گردشگری، توجه به مفهوم امنیت در محیط های شهری هم برای ساکنان و هم برای گردشگران و روش های برنامه ریزی جهت ایجاد امنیت، یکی از اولویت های اساسی کارشناسان شهری است. شهر میبد به دلیل وجود آثار تاریخی و فرهنگی و قرار گرفتن در مسیر ترانزیتی، پذیرای گردشگران زیادی در بافتهای تاریخی خود است که وجود امنیت در این فضاها، به گردشگری رونق بیشتری خواهد بخشید. این پژوهش ازلحاظ هدف کاربردی و ازلحاظ روش تحقیق، توصیفی-تحلیلی می باشد که برای جمع آوری اطلاعات موردنیاز، از بررسی های اسنادی و همچنین مطالعات میدانی از قبیل پرسشنامه و مصاحبه با کارشناسان مربوطه استفاده شده است. با توجه به مدل های تحقیق شامل مدلSWOT، QSPM و مدل چشم انداز سازی اورگون، نتایج تحقیق بیانگر آن است که می توان با بهره گیری از پتانسیل های موجود شهر میبد، بافت تاریخی را به فضای امن شهری تبدیل نمود. باوجود چشم انداز (شهری تاریخی، ایمن با سکونت پایدار و قطب صنعت، گردشگری) برای شهر میبد، با ارائه راهکارهایی ازجمله حصارکشی ساختمان های مخروبه، ایجاد روشنایی در بافت و بهسازی ابنیه تاریخی در حال فرسایش جهت احداث مراکز گردشگری و... می توان باعث بالا بردن امنیت در محورهای گردشگری و رونق بیشتر این شهر و رسیدن به چشم انداز مطلوب شد.
    کلیدواژگان: بافت تاریخی، توسعه گردشگری، چشم انداز، فضای امن، میبد
  • آزاده جلالی، محمدرضا پورجعفر *، احسان رنجبر صفحات 153-171
    بسیاری از شهرهای جدید با هدف جذب سرریز جمعیتی شهرهای بزرگ مکان یابی و احداث شده اند. شهر جدید بایستی با برنامه ریزی و طراحی مناسب از تمام تسهیلات لازم برخوردار باشد. مرکز شهرهای جدید به عنوان یکی از مهم ترین عناصر هویت بخش، بستری برای فعالیت های شهری، حضور و تعاملات میان مردم است، لذا طراحی مناسب مراکز و فضاهای شهری حائز اهمیت است. بنابراین تهیه اسناد هدایت طراحی شهری برای مرکز شهر ضروری است. تهیه سند "چارچوب طراحی شهری" مرکز شهر با هدف کیفیت بخشی به مرکز و درنتیجه تمام شهر تاثیرگذار است. هدف مقاله حاضر ارائه راهبردهای اساسی در تدوین چارچوب طراحی مرکز گلبهار و اولویت بندی آن ها می باشد. راهبردهای پیشنهادی در پنج نظام استخوان بندی، دسترسی، کاربری، کالبدی و منظرشهری با استفاده از مدل سلسه مراتبی AHP با استفاده از نظر مدیران و متخصصان تاثیرگذار در گلبهار اولویت بندی شده است. نتایج حاصل نشان داد که ارتقای کیفیت های کالبدی (1418/0)، حمل و نقل عمومی کارا (1412/0) و طراحی محورهای دید و تقویت کریدورهای بصری (1216/0) از اصلی ترین اولویت ها می باشد. در انتها نیز سیاست ها و نقشه های چارچوب طراحی شهری با توجه به اهمیت راهبردها پیشنهاد شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: چارچوب طراحی شهری، شهر جدید گلبهار، فرایند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی AHP، مرکز شهر
  • علی اصغر عبدالهی*، شیما هولاکویی صفحات 173-191
    پیاده راه ها، مکان هایی برای حضور و مشارکت شهروندان در زندگی جمعی شان هستند. شهرها در گذشته از قابلیت پیاده مداری بالایی برخوردار بودند اما به دنبال انقلاب صنعتی و سلطه اتومبیل در شهرها این موضوع به فراموشی سپرده شد. از آنجا که مهمترین کارکرد پیاده راه ها تعاملات اجتماعی، توسعه پایدار شهری، ایجاد حوزه های امن با کاربری های مختلط است از این رو نیاز به برنامه ای هدفمند برای توسعه این گونه فضاها در شهرهای امروزی وجود دارد. این پژوهش از نظر هدف کاربردی و از نظر ماهیت از نوع تحقیقات قیاسی است .داده های مورد استفاده ترکیبی از داده های کمی و کیفی می باشند. به منظورجمع آوری داده ها، ابتدا به جمع آوری ادبیات علمی در خصوص ماهیت پژوهش شده و سپس نظریه ها، رویکردهای موجود و تجربیات جهانی در خصوص پیاده راه و همچنین برداشت های میدانی، طبقه بندی و مورد تحلیل قرار داده شده است و با هدف دستیابی به مناسب ترین محور جهت تبدیل شدن به پیاده راه، واقع در لوپ میدان آزادی تا بلوار فارابی شهر کرمان ، با استفاده از شاخص های امنیت، اختلاط کاربری، همجواری، دسترسی به حمل ونقل عمومی، طول و عرض خیابان با استفاده از تحلیل سلسله مراتبیAHP و سیستم GIS انجام می شود. نتایج این تحقیق نشان می دهد که از بین محورهای مورد مطالعه، حد فاصل خیابان امام جمعه تا خیابان شفای شهر کرمان خیابان پرستار و امام جمعه با ارزش وزنی بیش از 5 مستعدترین محورها جهت تبدیل شدن به پیاده راه می باشند.
    کلیدواژگان: پیاده راه، تحلیل سلسله مراتبی، سیستم GIS، مکان یابی
  • اسماعیل علی اکبری*، حسین کماسی صفحات 193-210
    رویکرد نوین استراتژی توسعه شهری، بر چهار شاخص حکم روایی خوب، رقابتی بودن، بانکی بودن و قابلیت زندگی داشتن استوار است. این مقاله می کوشد شاخص های فوق را در کلان شهر کرمانشاه ارزیابی و انطباق پذیری این شهر را با اصول اساسی CDS سنجش کند. روش مقاله توصیفی-تحلیلی است؛ داده های نظری با روش اسنادی و داده های تجربی با روش میدانی و پرسشگری از 383 نفر شهروندان با نمونه گیری کوکران تهیه شده است. در پردازش داده ها و سنجش شدت متغیر ها از نرم افزارهای LISREL8.5،SPSS20 و آزمون تی تک نمونه ای بهره گیری شده است. نتایج کلی تحقیق نشانگر وضعیت نامطلوب کلان شهر کرمانشاه در چهار شاخص استراتژی توسعه شهری است. بانکی بودن و رقابت پذیری شهر به ترتیب با میانگین های 38/2 و 12/2 در وضعیت مطلوب تر و شاخص های حکم روایی خوب شهری و قابلیت زندگی داشتن با میانگین71/1 و 72/1 در وضعیت بسیار نامطلوبی است. واضح است، در درون ساختار متمرکز نظام برنامه ریزی شهری و حاکمیت مطلق سیاست ها و تصمیم های دولت مرکزی، برنامه ریزی دموکراتیک به طور اعم و رویکرد مشارکتی از طریق CDS به طور اخص، کاری غیرممکن یا بسیار دشوار خواهد بود.
    کلیدواژگان: استراتژی توسعه شهری، کلان شهر کرمانشاه، شاخص های CDS
  • کسری آشوری، کیومرث ایراندوست*، کمال خالق پناه صفحات 211-242
    شکل گیری و گسترش فقر و نابرابری شهری معاصر درپی گسترش سازوکارهای نظام سرمایه داری جهانی و بیشتر در شکل سرمایه داری دولتی[1] در ایران، شکل گیری دوگانه ی رسمی و غیررسمی در ابعاد اقتصاد و کالبد شهرها را درپی داشته است. در تفسیر و تشریح فرآیند غیررسمی شدن به ویژه در ابعاد فضایی شهر مباحث پردامنه ای جاری است. در این نوشتار با تمرکز بر روش تحلیلی انتقادی و باتوجه به نظریه تولید فضای هانری لوفور مبتنی بر سه وجه فضایی فضا شامل بازنمایی فضا، عمل فضایی و فضای زیسته، نظام تولید و بازتولید فضا در زیست غیررسمی[2] شهری به عنوان مکمل فضای رسمی بررسی شده است. پرسش بنیادین نوشتار این است که نتیجه کوشش و منازعه بر تولید فضای غیررسمی از سه وجه فضایی بازنمایی فضا (پنداشته)، عمل فضایی (دریافته) و فضای زیسته چگونه خود را در شهر نشان داده است و چگونه درک شده است؛ در کوشش برای پاسخ به این پرسش، شهر سنندج، مرکز استان کردستان و یکی از شهرهای دارای فضای غیررسمی گسترده، مورد تجزیه وتحلیل قرارگرفته است. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش نشان می دهد که سه گروه فن سالار دولتی و علمی و مردم از شرایط زیست غیررسمی درک و برداشتی متفاوت دارند. هرگروه برپایه ی دیدگاه های خود؛ تفکرات خود را شایسته تر و ورای دیگر گروه های می دانستند و این در صورتی است که ساکنان این سکونتگاه ها خود را بهره ور از این مناطق دانسته و دیدگاه خود را برای ساماندهی مطلوب تر می دانند. تفاوت نگرش و اقدامات سه گروه فن سالاران دولتی و علمی با تجربه ی زیسته ی ساکنان نشان از شکاف عمیق میان این گروه ها و لزوم در نظر گرفتن راهکارهایی بدیل با دیدی انتقادی و یکتا از فضا نسبت به دهه های پیشین را ایجاد کرده است.
    کلیدواژگان: تولید فضا، سکونتگاه های خودانگیخته ی شهری، زیست غیررسمی، شهر سنندج
  • محمد مهدی پورسعید، محبوبه برزگرپور * صفحات 243-259
    با ایجاد برند برای یک مکان/شهر، جایگاه مکان به عنوان محلی برای اقامت، کسب و کار و یا مقصد گردشگری تقویت می شود. هدف مطالعه بررسی تاثیر همزمان برندسازی مکان بر ساکنان و گردشگران داخلی است. این پژوهش کاربردی و توصیفی- پیمایشی می باشد. جامعه آماری پژوهش حاضر، کلیه ساکنان در مناطق چهارگانه و کلیه گردشگران داخلی ورودی به شهرستان کرمان در ایام عید نوروز 1396 می باشد. حجم نمونه با توجه به روش مقایسه ای پژوهش برای جامعه نامعلوم معادل 384 به دست آمد که 500 پرسشنامه توزیع گردید و تعداد 460 پرسشنامه برگشت داده شد. پایایی پرسشنامه نیز با استفاده از آلفای کرونباخ تایید گردید، که معادل 76/0 بود. جهت تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها از نرم افزارهای 24SPSS و23 AMOS استفاده شد. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که، پیچیدگی برند مکان با واسطه رضایت فقط بر تبلیغات دهان به دهان گردشگران تاثیرگذار می باشد. علاوه براین، پیچیدگی برند مکان با واسطه هویت یابی در گردشگران بیش از ساکنان منجر به تبلیغات دهان به دهان می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: برندسازی مکان، برندسازی مقصد، پیچیدگی برند مکان، تبلیغات دهان به دهان، ساکنان و گردشگران داخلی شهرکرمان
  • مصطفی قدمی *، هادی عبدالله وند صفحات 261-280
    ساختار فضایی شهرها به شکلی عمیق با الگوی سفرهای درون شهری به منظور دسترسی به محل کار، سکونت، تفریح و امور روزمره در ارتباط است. این پیوند ناگسستنی به نوبه خود تحت تاثیر کیفیت و شیوه های مختلف سفر می تواند بر کیفیت محیطی شهرها و از آن جمله کیفیت هوا، تاثیر مستقیم برجای بگذارد. از این رو تاثیر ساختار فضایی شهر بر کیفیت هوای شهری تحت تاثیر الگوی های سفر قابل تحلیل و پیش بینی است. این تحقیقی است توصیفی-تحلیلی مبتنی بر اطلاعات ثانوبه و طی آن ابتدا ساختار فضایی شهر تهران توسط ضریب آنتروپی شانون و ضریب موران بر اساس آمار بلوک های جمعیتی و جرم فعالیت های جاذب سفر در سطح مناطق 22 گانه تهران تعیین گردید. در ادامه به بررسی وضعیت آلودگی هوای شهر در وضع موجود پرداخته شد. در مرحله بعدی با استفاده از مدل سازی سناریو، تاثیر ساختارهای فضایی مختلف شهری بر آلوگی هوای تهران مورد سنجش قرار گرفت. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که ساختار فضایی بی مرکز یا پراکنده تاثیری معنی دار بر افزایش میزان آلودگی هوای تهران دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: آلودگی هوا، تهران، ساختار فضایی شهر، سناریوسازی
  • جواد فرهادی، احمد زنگانه*، موسی کمانرودی، محمد سلیمانی مهرنجانی صفحات 281-298
    بررسی جمعیت شهر مشهد طی سال های 1365 تا 1390 نشان می دهد، این شهر طی سال های گذشته شاهد کاهش جمعیت در بخش مرکزی و افزایش آن در لبه ها بوده است. پدیده خروج جمعیت و مشاغل، با عنوان زوال شهری مشخص می شود. مسئله اصلی پژوهش حاضر این است که بر خلاف این روند کلی، محله ایثار در محدوده رو به زوال شهر، موفق به نوسازی و ارتقاء شده است. بررسی نقش نخبگان اقتصادی در این ارتقاء، موضوع اصلی این پژوهش است. این تجربه به جهت مستند سازی الگویی به نسبت وفق و وسعت بخشیدن به ادبیات احیای بافت های نابسامان شهری، توسعه بر مبنای بخش خصوصی، مشارکت خصوصی– عمومی و حکمروایی خوب شهری دارای اهمیت می باشد. این تحقیق بر حسب نوع، توصیفی- تحلیلی و از نظر روش، علی پس از وقوع می باشد که از بررسی های کتابخانه ای، اسنادی و پیمایشی در تبیین موضوع استفاده نموده است. علاوه بر داده های میدانی و سرشمارهای رسمی، در این پژوهش، 97 پرسشنامه بین مدیران فروشگاه های راسته بازار ایثار توزیع گردید که به 53 درصد از آنها پاسخ داده شد. همچنین روابط فضایی و غیر فضایی به وسیله رگرسیون عمومی و فضایی آزمون گردید. بررسی ها نشان می دهد، ائتلاف نخبگان تجاری – تولیدی محله ایثار(ماشین رشد)، با سرمایه گذاری اولیه و توسعه کسب و کار، موجب افزایش ارزش املاک، جذب و نگاه داشت جمعیت، همچنین ارتقاء کالبدی، اقتصادی، اجتماعی و افزایش سرانه کاربری های خدماتی محله شده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: ارتقاء محله، زوال شهری، ماشین رشد شهری، محله ایثار مشهد، نخبگان
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  • Keramatollah Ziari, Mohammad Ajza Shokouhi, Amir Hossein Khademi * Pages 1-19
    Introduction
    Urban populations throughout the world have grown following the industrial revolution. Population growth alongside the intensive development of cities during the past few decades have resulted in numerous issues such as dissociation between the city and nature, air and noise pollution, and traffic. Today, it is expressed that one of the necessities for compact cities is to bring nature in urban areas so as to reduce mental pressures as well as pollutions, which is called biophilic urban planning (Ziari , Zargham Fard, & Khademi, 2016). As an important principle for the design and planning of constructions, biophilic urban planning includes a set of natural design features, which are able to respond to various urban problems such as climate change, population growth, restricted resources, and humans’ inherent need to communicate with nature (Newman, Hargrous, & Desha, 2012).
    As the capital of Iran and the largest city of the country, Tehran suffers from different types of pollution. It is predicted that biophilic planning could mitigate a part of the city’s environmental problems. Consequently, given the absence of recognition and planning for such a scheme in Iran, the general purpose of this study is to draw a biophilic planning and design pattern for implementation in cities, especially the dense and compact cities in this country. Among the 22 districts of Tehran, district 14 is known as one of the densest regions with high levels of pollution and degradation, suffering from a myriad of environmental problems; subsequently, this district was selected as the region to examine in the present study.
    Methodology
    In terms of data collection, the present inquiry is a descriptive-analytical study. Given the use of questionnaires, it is also considered as a survey study. The tool used for data collection in the study is researcher-made questionnaires. To this end, after conducting theoretical studies and editing the literature and background of the study, a questionnaire with Likert scale questions was designed. The specified indices and patterns were given to 10 urban planning experts,10 urban environment critics of universities across Tehran, municipalities of district14 in Tehran, and 10 urban designers. The data collected in this study were then analyzed using software including SPSS, GIS, Expert Choice, and Excel.
    Results
    In this study, first it was attempted to rank the 22 districts of Tehran in terms of biophilic planning priorities using VIKOR multiple criteria decision-making method.
    In order to indicate the decision-making indices, the features of pioneering cities in the world in this area as well as the research conducted at the worldwide level including the works of Beatley (1995-2013) and Beatley, Newman & Boyer(2009), sophisticated global planners in this field, were studied; ultimately, 7 main indices were obtained. The results showed that districts 11, 12, and 14 of this city involve the highest priorities and districts 2, 21, 5, 1 and 19 involve the lowest priorities for biophilic planning among the 22 districts of Tehran.
    The purpose in the next section of the study was to indicate implementable patterns in this district; to this end, first, it was attempted to determine patterns and 40 executive strategies of this type of planning in various sources including the works of Beatley (1995-2013) and Beatley, Newman & Boyer (2009). Then, the items were given to the experts of the study who are familiar with Tehran and the intended district in the form of questionnaires. Next, the proper patterns for biophilic planning in this district were identified. The results of this section led to the recognition of implementable indices in district 14, given the region’s economic, social, cultural, and environmental conditions.
    Conclusion
    In this study, it was attempted to draw a set of patterns for biophilic planning in Tehran and district 14 of this city, which is one of the dense and compact cities of Iran. Furthermore, it was attempted to present a set of practical strategies for implementing such type of planning in this district with respect to its economic, sociocultural, and physical conditions. According to the findings of the study, it can be concluded that this district in Tehran entails a proper capability and potential for biophilic planning due to its distressed texture. Many of the biophilic planning patterns could be predicted and implemented during the stages of resuscitation and revitalization of these textures.
    Another conclusion that could be drawn from this study is that in order to implement biophilic planning in this district (as well as the entire city of Tehran), it is required to conduct studies and draw projects and proper plans so as to transfer and enhance the techniques and technologies of the biophilic industry (such as green walls and ceilings) from pioneering cities in this area at a global level to this district along with their adaptation to geographical, climate, and cultural contexts of this district. In this study, it was shown that taking into account the rights of owners as well as offering encouragements when exploiting their rights is a necessity for implementing biophilic planning in this district. Surveys conducted in the area of biophilic urban planning in the district demonstrated that economic discussions are not solely sufficient for such plans while social and spatial backgrounds, innovations and global experiences in this area are also required. These experiences emphasize the significance of beautification and increasing the livability of cities as well as reducing immeasurable urban challenges.
    On the other hand, by comparing the results of this study with similar, valid research at the global level, it can be asserted that many of the better aspects of biophilic planning could not be implemented in many cities of the country as result of weaknesses in theoretic, scientific, and technologic dimensions as well as insufficient infrastructures and financial resources allocated to environmental problems throughout Iranian cities. This is particularly apparent when compared to pioneering cities in the world, which have only begun stepping into this path; a path that requires neglecting the routines in Iranian cities and paying attention to superior aspects of the citizens’ lives.
    Keywords: Urban pollutions, Biophilic planning, District 14, Tehran
  • Mostafa Amirfakhriyan *, Alireza Moeini Pages 21-43
    Introduction
    Travel agencies are an indispensable part of the tourism industry and act as the distribution canal of this industry. These offices (travel agencies) are, in fact, a medium through which consumers and producers are connected and they are considered as one of five major sections of tourism, as well as influential elements in the evolution of this industry. The activities of travel agencies regarding destinations, attractions, transportation, residency, and recreation could affect the extent of tourists’ satisfaction toward travel and the level of demand. In truth, travel agencies play the role of retailers within the industry of tourism. In this regard, they are considered as the final linking point throughout the process of consuming the industry’s products, receiving several services. Effective factors in the success and functionality of these agencies include their location pattern and spatial distribution throughout the geographical area of various cities and regions. It seems that travel agencies, as a facilitating factor for traveling, should have an appropriate distribution pattern across a city. As a result of this even distribution, all residents would have access to travel facilities and services. However, in reality, many factors have negatively influenced such equal distribution, and different patterns of spatial distribution and dispersion can be observed. The current study focuses on Mashhad, in which travel agencies are often seen only in certain parts of the city. This study aims to find the factors, which have led to such unbalanced establishment. Also, in addressing this question, the study would aim to see which explanation method presents more realistic results in this matter. More specifically, the current study would focus on two well-known effective models, namely geographical regression as a linear model, and neural network as a non-linear model.
    Methodology
    Due to the nature of the research question, this study is based on descriptive-analytical methods. Hence, in addition to referring to the existing documents and resources, initial information was obtained from various sources. Then, by referring to the website of the Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization of Iran, the latest statistics regarding travel agencies in Mashhad were collected and registered at the geographical information database. Also, some data regarding the variables of the study were gathered from this database (21 variables). Subsequently, using several models, the dispersion pattern of travel agencies in Mashhad was described.
    Results
    In geographical regression, variables such as distance to the holy shrine, movie theaters, shopping malls, parks, religious and academic centers, and literacy level were considered as effectless variables. However, these variables were effective from the viewpoint of the neural network model. In fact, some of these variables have an important role in explaining the scope of influence of travel agencies. Instances include distance from centers of higher education and the holy shrine of Imam Reza.
    As for the neural network model, the most effective factor was the distance from main squares and intersections, while spatial regression selected ‘distance from hotels’ as the main effective factor. A look at the nature of these urban spaces shows that squares and intersections are public spaces, while hotels specifically belong to tourists. Therefore, based on the outlook provided by the neural network model, travel agencies tend to get established at public urban spaces. On the contrary, according to the spatial regression model, such a tendency is based on variables related to pilgrims and tourists.
    Conclusion
    As compared to the geographical regression model, the estimations of the neural network model provide more reasonable explanations regarding the establishment of travel agencies. White-colored areas are more widely and steadily observed in this model.
    Also, uniform cluster estimations have better distribution in the neural network model. On the other hand, the deviation of estimated values for the scope of influence of travel agencies show more variety in the geographical regression model.
    Due to the linear nature of the spatial regression model, some variables, which seem to have a role in the dispersion and scope of influence of travel agencies have been eliminated. However, no variables have been excluded from the neural network model. This may be one of the reasons for the high flexibility of the neural network model in adapting with different variables of the study. On the other hand, it has to be kept in mind that some variables have a qualitative nature and they may not be expressed quantitatively. Such variables are practically excluded from geographical regression. They are, however, easily used in the neural network model. Based on the findings of this study, it seems necessary and inevitable to smoothly pass on from linear towards non-linear patterns for studying geographical phenomena and their dispersion in urban spaces.
    Keywords: Travel agencies, Geographical regression, Neural network, Mashhad
  • Foroogh Khazaee Nezhad *, Mohammad Soleimani Mehrenjani, Ahmad Zanganeh Pages 45-70
    Introduction
    A city is a dynamic, alive and vibrant entity, rooted in history and nature. The starting point of every city, is the central and historical core, in which the body of the city gradually develops. However, since the beginning of the 20th century, in many cities of the world, the rapid growth of urban constituents in new regions and suburbs has been at the cost of the downfall and decline of their central part. This situation in the central part of the cities has caused physical burnout, decline and then the deterioration of the structure of the neighborhood structure, the migration of the indigenous and original population. This has consequently resulted in the drop of the central urban segment, the drop of environmental quality, inefficiency of urban infrastructures and degradation of social life that has led to the spread of urban instability in the central parts of the cities. All these conditions have caused urban livability as a subset of sustainability which directly affects the physical, socioeconomic and psychological aspects of people's lives and includes a collection of environmental acquisition features making it a desirable and attractive place to live, work and visit for everyone to attract the attention of the urbanists and urban planners within the discourse of sustainability and ecological outlook during the last decades.
    Methodology
    The present paper has been done with the aim of identifying the status of the livability of the neighborhoods of district 12 Tehran with emphasis on the residents in District 12 and involves the primary and historical cores and old textures of Tehran. This region had a population more than 244000 people in 2015 living in 6 regions and 13 neighborhoods. A number of 383 households were selected as sample dividing by the neighborhood using Cochran formula. They were then questioned by Spatial Cluster method and simple random method in the next stage. The pattern governing the study is “ Evaluating-comparative.” The present study covers six aspects of the urban economy, social, environmental, servicing and infrastructural, urban management and historical within 20 parameters and 94 items. T-Test, ANOVA, TUKEY HSD tests have been used to analyze the findings, and GIS software and its lateral accessories have been used to recognize the spatial pattern of distribution of the dimensions under discussion throughout the district and neighborhoods. The reason for using the interpolation method in the present research is that a total of 383 questionnaires were distributed in the area among the resident citizens. Therefore, as all residential units and citizens had not been questioned, an interpolation method was used, which means determining the value of unknown points by the known points.
    Results
    In the first step of studying livability, based on the six aspects, T-test single sample was used. Comparing the averages observed in in the aspects with expected averages, showed a significant negative difference in economic, urban management, environment and historical aspects. ANOVA Test and the findings of Post-Hoc ANOVA Test (Tukey HSD) proved that not only there is a significant difference between the status of livability in different neighborhoods of district 12 Tehran, but also this difference between different neighborhoods is to the degree that they can be classified as the worst to the best and neighborhoods with a similar condition can be placed in one category. Based on the findings of this test, Pamenar, Shahid Harandi, Baharestan, Ferdowsi, bazar and Imamzadeh Yahya were placed in one category with undesired condition and |Darvazeh Shemiran, Kosar and Takhti were placed in a homogenous rather desirable condition category and the neighborhoods Iran, Abshar, Sanglaj, and Ghiam were placed in a favored category as compared with standard 282 for livability. Studies in terms of space and preparing the plans resulted by interpolating the points being studied in the region also conform the findings of the tests.
    Conclusion
    The findings showed that in terms of the six aspects of urban livability, only the aspect of “services and infrastructures” and the “Social” aspect are higher than average and the other four aspects are lower than the average. This study also showed that the spatial pattern of the distribution of livability aspects of district 12 is in Northern- Southern direction. This means that the aspects of livability in the Northern neighborhoods have a better condition as compared to the southern neighborhoods and the neighborhoods with lower livability have been distributed in the southern parts. Furthermore, in the composition and conclusion of the set of aspects studied, the neighborhoods of the region have different situations and conditions. As Sanglaj neighborhood and parts of Pamenar neighborhood (which are located in the east of the region and beyond the power and dominance of the Bazar Bozorg Tehran and government organizations and institutions), in the best situation have the widest possible favorable conditions for livability and the districts Kosar and Shahid Harandi has the most consistent and significant density of undesirable conditions. Generally, based on the parameters of livability considered in this paper, the district 12 and its neighborhoods have a low level and only Sanglaj neighborhood located in the western half of the district is in a rather desirable condition. Therefore, we can say that this district in the central region of Tehran has lost lots of its capacities and capabilities through its historical transformations. Hence, continuing the urban life and livability as the center of this metropolitan requires plans with livability approach adapting with modern urban functions in the scale of Tehran metropolitan.
    Keywords: Livability, Neighborhood, District 12 of Tehran
  • Amer Nikpour *, Sedigheh Lotfi, Morteza Reza Zadeh, Fatemeh Allahgholitabar Nesheli Pages 71-92
    Introduction
    Nowadays, the importance and role of energy in the life and development of communities are more evident than ever and at the same time, sources and types of energy used by humans exposed to serious changes. Energy problem in our country is not worthy of attention and the government explicit and implicit subsidies always has unaware us of the real value of energy in its various form. However, the growth rate of domestic consumption of energy is to some extent that the present petroleum resources development process, perhaps over the last few years and the other half are not able to export oil. However, more than a third of country energy consumption is also dedicated to the construction sector and heating and cooling systems, are the largest consumers of energy in buildings. Potential relationships between household energy consumption and its impact on urban form, in terms of residential density pattern, urban elements locating, other cases are seen. Density linked to type and pattern of housing. The point is that if we all live in apartments and row houses with high density, what will be its impact on energy consumption and in fact, what kind of link will be exist between energy consumption pattern and size of the house? Urban form affects the household's lifestyle (for example forced to work at home because of the long distance urban commuting). This potentially can affect energy consumption patterns (Non-city daily traffic). Generally, it can be acknowledged, related studies to examine the relationship between urban form and energy consumption patterns, at the level of what can be called the local aspects affecting the pattern urban form, are still in the early stages.
    Methodology
    This study is applied and in the formulation of this research, descriptive-analytical and documentation-survey methodology has been used. Data related to energy consumption and building quality were collected through questionnaires. Sampling method in this study is a multi-stage cluster, in this way, the questionnaires were randomly distributed among the citizens of the neighborhood based on the number of houses per neighborhood. To determine the sample size due to the limited statistical population, Cochran formula is used and 375 sample is obtained. For this study, data analysis software (SPSS) and (GIS) is used. In order to classify neighborhoods form, the method of simple additive weighting (SAW) was used. Also, to analyze the relationship between form and energy, Pearson correlation test, Two-sample t-test and ANOVA test was used.
    Results
    3.1. Determine Babolsar city neighborhoods form
    In order to assess and determine the form of Babolsar city neighborhoods, Six main indexes of the form including: mixed-use, density, connection, focus, access to infrastructure and car ownership is used.
    3.2. Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) Method to Classify City Form
    This model is one of the easiest ways to multiple attribute decision making. At first, the rating is calculated for each neighborhood. Whatever the rating increase, the neighborhood is more compact and on the contrary, whatever the rating is lower our neighborhood is more spread. Hemmat Abad neighborhood with a score of 0/551 have the maximum amount. Also Ali Abadmir neighborhood has the lowest amount among 22 neighborhoods of Babolsar.
    3.3. Building Form and Energy Consumption
    The results show that there is a positive and meaningful correlation at 0/001 significant level between total household members (independent variable) and the dependent variable energy consumption (0/234), power consumption (0/234), gas consumption (0/339), water consumption (0/488), the cost of fixed phone (0/218) and the cost of households mobile phone (0/262). Namely by increasing the number of family members, energy consumption in various sectors increases. Also, check the relationship between variables indicates that the number of floors (-0/107) and the number of residential units (-0/127) has a significant and negative correlation with energy consumption (the dependent variable). That is mean, there is an inverse relationship between the number of floors and the number of residential units with energy consumption. As shown in the tables, study shows that there is a positive and meaningful correlation between the number of rooms of housing units (0/153) and energy consumption, and the number of windows (0/139) and energy consumption. Namely by increasing the number of rooms and windows in residential units, power consumption also increases.
    3.4. Compare Energy Consumption in Various Forms of Babolsar City Neighborhoods
    Comparing energy consumption in various forms of Babolsar city neighborhoods shows that in compact form, the energy consumption is at its highest level. That is, the energy consumption in parking, Sharak Saheli, and Hemat Abd neighborhoods is at their highest level. However, the reality is something else. If we put aside Hemmat Abad neighborhood that has the highest energy consumption among the 22 urban neighborhoods and is one of the oldest neighborhoods in the city of Babolsar and has much old fabric, energy consumption average has the lowest amount in compact form among different forms. So we can conclude, the energy consumption in compact form has the lowest amount among different forms. After compact form, there is an intermediate form and then dispersed form that has the largest share of the city's neighborhoods energy consumption.
    Conclusion
    Checking the relationship between energy consumption and residential buildings form and quality in the city of Babolsar show units that have more rooms and windows, have more energy consumption too, Of course, these two variables can also be attributed to the residential floor area. Residential units with an area of less have less energy consumption compared with the residential units with more area. Checking the relationship between energy consumption in buildings and urban form has shown that the main relationship is likely to belong to building form. Finally, it should be acknowledged homes with high efficiency in energy consumption, provide a better environment for life and lead to reduce the destructive effects on the natural environment.
    Keywords: Urban form, Building form, Energy consumption, Babolsar
  • Farzaneh Sheikhzadeh *, Mahmoud Mohammadi, Ahmad Shahivandi Pages 93-111
    Introduction
    Nowadays, cities across the world are witnessing the global phenomenon of urbanization. According to estimations, 60% of people in the world will be living in cities by 2045 (World Bank, 2018). As a consequence, cities are faced with numerous challenges such as increasing immigration to cities, exhaustion of urban infrastructure, and environmental problems such as pollutions, influencing the health of both cities and their citizens. Subsequently, urban spaces have been filled with traffic, tension and stress, putting the lives of citizens at risk to the extent to which the medical field can no longer guarantee the health of citizens. Therefore, healthy cities are required so as to restore the citizens’ health. Urban planning can play a role in designing and implementing consistent actions in line with sustainability, while simultaneously contributing to the reduction of diseases, overcoming biological inequalities, and preventing the aggravation of such problems (Whittingham, 2013). Here, the significance of urban planners as well as decision-making and planning for various policies such as land use, congestion, green space per capita, housing, and other things. are highlighted. Given such extensively, it is necessary to employ a holistic, strategic view through a novel approach such as the healthy city. Attention to health and providing proper structures and processes to achieve such an end should be considered a necessity (Corburn, 2009). Not only the idea of a healthy city is not merely an idealistic, fictional one, but it is also a practical and implementable notion with relatively realistic dimensions (Papoli Yazdi, & Rajabi Sanajerdi, 2011). According the latest report published by the World Health Organization’s commission on social factors for health in 2008, healthy societies were defined as districts which are of social solidarity and designed in a way as to guarantee the mental and physical health of their citizens while advocating natural environment protection so that justice in health is served. In these societies, governments can employ social health factors at local levels (Frisch, 2015).
    Methodology
    The present inquiry is an applied study conducted through the descriptive-analytical approach. The factors explaining health in districts were identified through studying the literature on the healthy city approach and its indices. The evaluation of obtained components on health in Sareban district was conducted according to the following model, in the form of questionnaires filled by people and authorities. The population of the study included the residents of Sareban district, Bojnourd, out of which 368 individuals were selected according to Cochran’s formula. Strength and weaknesses, as well as opportunities and threats, were identified by analyzing the responses to questionnaires. Subsequently, the comments of 10 experts and 10 urban authorities were taken into account. The SWOT analysis method and QSPM matrix were used to identify strategic problems and compiles strategies.
    Results
    The characteristics of Sareban district in Bojnourd city includes an unhealthy urban texture such as the reduction of residential values, decline of environmental qualitative values, lack of public green and open spaces, restricted access to proper services, presence of social issues within the texture, and ultimately, the alienation of district residents compared to adjacent districts. The present study seeks to mitigate the issues existing in Sareban district using the health approach which is more comprehensive compared to other new approaches. Employing the indices of a healthy city, particularly across districts, along with strategic planning in this scale is possible in short-time, which is the major advantage of this study.
    To meet the purposes of the study, a separate questionnaire was designed to evaluate the indices of the district’s health. Initially, a matrix of internal and external factors was drawn through analyzing the responses and identifying the weak and strong points as well as opportunities and threats.
    According to the final score obtained from the assessment matrix of internal (IFE=3.06) and external factors (EFE=2.45), the strategic position of Sareban district falls within the contingency strategies (competitive) quarter inside SWOT (IE) quarterly analysis chart. The extent of the attractiveness of strategies were indicated using the QSPM matrix. The results of assessing the strategies show that “the enhancement of environmental qualities with focus on the area of health and sanitation” is the most important diversity strategy (ST) on laying out strategic planning for Sareban district. The second, most important contingency strategy is “improving the awareness of citizens on subjects such as health, sanitation, healthy city/district and sustainable development”. The third strategy is “the development of green spaces, parks and children’s playground” which is rational, given the status quo and threats ahead. Finally, a set of plans were drawn to implement the recommended strategies.
    Conclusion
    The present study was conducted with the purpose of compiling a strategic planning pattern according to the components of a healthy city. The study was carried out so as to evaluate the extent of health in districts as well as planning for healthy districts. Given the findings, the following recommendations are presented to improve the health-related conditions of Sareban district, Bojnourd:Increasing the functional role of public platforms in Sareban district
    Enhancing the physical-visual qualities of public platforms in Sareban district
    Achieving the highest indices of mental and physical health
    Achieving local, sustainable development
    Developing green spaces, parks and children’s playground
    Conserving the topography of Northern Sareban district
    Renovating ruined, worn-out buildings of Sareban district
    Improving the quality of houses in Sareban district
    Keywords: Strategic planning, Components of healthy city, Healthy district, Sareban district
  • Yasser Moarrab, Esmaeil Salehi *, Mohammad Javad Amiri, Behruz Narouee Pages 113-130
    Introduction
    The word vulnerability conveys different meanings and interpretations for different people and has been used in various areas by various groups such as researchers of accidents, the society of global environmental change researchers and also research groups in the field of food security, development, and poverty (Birkmann & Wisner, 2006). Even in the area of scientific literature related to disaster risk, the vulnerability has different connotations depending on the researcher's orientation and perspective. According to Birkmann (2006), in the current literature on vulnerability, there are two different methods to systematize the concept of vulnerability. Here some definitions are presented. (Cutter, 1996):Vulnerability means a threat to which people are exposed (Cutter, 1996).
    Vulnerability means the number of damages to an element or a collection of certain elements exposed to risk, resulting from the occurrence of a natural phenomenon with certain intensity and magnitude (Cutter, 1996).
    Generally, vulnerability is a concept derived from the social sciences and was a response to the perception only based on the risk that existed toward risk of accidents in the 1970s. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the dominance of technical intervention-based risk-oriented strategies in the field of disasters was challenged by the paradigm of using vulnerability as the starting point of risk reduction. The approach combines the amount of sensitivity of the people and communities exposed to risk with their cultural, economic and social capabilities to deal with injuries that may occur (Birkmann, 2006).
    There are complex systems of services in cities which have tight relationships with each other, while each one facing numerous natural and man-made threats and any disruption in each of the systems causes troubles for other systems. Thus, cities should be made in such a way that they can resist the threats or in other words, be resilient (Tompkins & Hurlston, 2012).
    Investigation of urban resilience is one of the vital issues for preparedness of a city against natural and man-made disasters. As the degree of resilience of cities increases, damages resulting from the hazards can be minimized (McEntire, Fuller & Weber, 2002). Also, recognition of resilience can help with the determination of the characteristics and features that increase the capacity of communities to deal with disasters and propose tools to help the process of vulnerability reduction.
    Methodology
    At the first step of this research, the theoretical framework was determined by collecting data from library and electronic resources and related articles. Then the important criteria and sub-criteria for assessing the urban land use Socio-cultural resilience were determined by incorporating the expert opinions and reviewing the previous research. Then the FAHP method, which incorporated the opinions of 15 experts and faculty members in the field of environmental planning, urban planning, rural planning and urban development, was used to make pairwise comparison between important dimensions and criteria. At this stage, all valuations were based on experiences and studies of those experts. After making pairwise comparisons, the maps of district resilience factors were standardized in Idrisi environment , and then the weight of each resilience factor was applied to the layers in the GIS environment. The maps were then merged to determine the resilience of the district.
    Results
    The following steps were taken to assess and determine the urban land use Socio-cultural resilience in Tehran’s district 1:Step 1: Analysis of the role and determination of socio-cultural land use criteria for investigating resilience
    Step 2: Obtaining weight of socio-cultural land use criteria
    Step 3: Development of the fuzzy maps with respect to land use resilience criteria The map-related to each criterion was standardized in IDRISI environment.
    Step 4: Development of resilience map of socio-cultural land use criteria Step 5: Development of a map of the socio-cultural resilience of land use After applying the weights of criteria on their layers and merging them in GIS environment, Tehran’s district 1 urban land use resiliency map was developed
    Step 6: Determination of socio-cultural resilience of land use
    Six levels of resilience were defined to classify the district 1 urban land use resiliency; these levels included: fully resilient, resilient, moderately resilient (moderately vulnerable), vulnerable, and fully vulnerable.
    Conclusion
    The socio-cultural dimension plays an important role in enhancing the urban resilience. This dimension consisted of 8 criteria including population density, and land uses related to healthcare, education, culture, tourism, sports, law enforcement, and religion. After overlaying all layers corresponding to criteria, district 1 gained an average resiliency score of 0.69, which indicate the resilience of this district with respect to this dimension.
    Given the findings of the study, the following suggestions are recommended:Creating tourism camps and improving the facilities and services in areas hosting tourist attractions;
    Facilitating and encouraging the private sector to invest in the district’s tourism business;
    Preventing new construction on undeveloped lands and saving these lands for crisis management applications by converting them to open spaces such as sports grounds, garden and temporary bazaars;
    Using cultural centers to raise the citizens’ awareness and enhance their mental readiness to deal with disasters;
    Using the advertisement potential of cultural centers and tourist attractions to inform people about the resiliency of their living environment to motivate them to reconstruct and reinforce these environments;
    Reorganization and relocation of military bases in the region out of the urban territory;
    Considering the low level of sports space per capita and the inadequate distribution of these spaces, and given the availability of undeveloped land throughout the district, the development of new multifunction sports spaces with adequate distribution and with proper attention to their crisis management functions is recommended.
    Keywords: Resilience_Socio -cultural_Urban Land use_vulnerable_Tehran’s district 1
  • Saeedeh Moayedfar *, Samane Rafie Pages 131-152
    Introduction
    City dwelling has caused a lot of social, financial, and other sorts of problems for developing countries recently. Therefore, paying attention to the concept of citizens’ safety and planning approaches in order to provide the mentioned safety has turned out to be one of the major priorities of city authorities. As urban spaces have the most communication with people and their living areas, they can play a significant role in citizens’ identification and calmness. So that it is necessary to predict solutions in the planning of urban spaces which provide the safety of citizens in urban districts. The purpose of this study is to design suitable and future-oriented programs for the transformation of the historical fabric into a secure space in order to be more successful in attracting tourists. However, due to the problems of urban communities and the importance of tourism, the attention to the concept of security in urban environments is a priority for both urban residents and tourists as well as planning methods for security purposes. Therefore, we can say that the garden-city of Meybod is one of the richest cities in the country considering archaism. The city of Meybod, thanks to its historical and cultural works and even immigration from other parts of the country plays a significant role in tourism and from the viewpoint of having historical monuments, and tourist attractions are of great importance, too. Restoration and alteration of these monuments during the last years, life and existence and even the extent of this texture have turned it out to one of the unique historical sites not only in Iran but also in whole the world. This texture has been frazzled lately due to the existence of most historical monuments and tourist attractions in this texture of the city and thanks to its cultural and tourism potentials and unfortunately because of the lack of facilities and equipment, inappropriate access and the lack of safety feeling. Therefore the related organizations have been obliged to restore and ameliorate the texture which can cause the return of life to this texture.
    Methodology
    This study has an applied goal, and from the viewpoint of research, approaches are descriptive and analytic. It must be said that the collecting data method for this study is of documentaries scrutinizing, field studying and interviewing with related experts. The statically society of this study contains 50 experts related to this are whose ideas have been used to provide the SWOT matrix, SWOT analytic matrix and QSPM are used to analyze the data and express useful solutions. In order to achieve the effective indexes in the research, by reviewing and summarizing the research background, the indexes presented in the articles, as well as the CPTED approaches and the Rapaport approach, the objective and subjective attributes are considered, and those that are more closely related to the circumstances of the case study has been considered, or in other words, the localization of the indicators has been done with the opinion of the experts. So by using the Oregon Model and also authorities and people ideas and upper hand plans, some landscapes are formed for the area. Moreover, finally, proper solutions in the applicable planning process method are expressed by regulating external and internal strategic factors which are the fundamentals of codifying solutions.
    Results
    Overall, the results of this study show that paying attention to the social remarks and consideration of safety in the historical texture of Meybod is of great importance. Paying attention to elements such as beauty, attraction, lack of nervousness, variety, safety and liveliness which are public and cognitive components and without considering social remarks and safety feeling in urban districts, they are useless and are realized just from the viewpoint of space and skeletal. SO, it is essential to define their roles to provide safety feeling in urban districts by predicting solutions in planning. Tourism itself is one of the elements which can play a significant role in historical textures of Meybod, as there is great potential inside these textures which by emphasizing on tourism, can be used. The main purpose of this study is to find proper and future-proof planning to change the historical texture of Meybod to a safe place to attract tourists more successfully.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study show that by using the present potentials of Meybod, the historical texture can be turned out to be a safe urban space. By regarding the city landscapes (a historical city, a safe city with sustainable citizenship, industry and tourism pole) and by offering solutions such as walling destroyed buildings, lightening the historical texture, restoring old historical monuments in order to change them to tourist attractions, etc. we can increase safety in historical texture and even develop civic conditions in the city to reach the desirable landscapes.
    Keywords: Historical, Tourism, Developing, Safe space, landscape, Meybod
  • Azadeh Jalali, Mohammad Reza Pourjafar *, Ehsan Ranjbar Pages 153-171
    Introduction
    Many new Towns are located and designed to attract the overflow crowd of larger cities. The new town must include all the necessary facilities with proper planning and design. Known as one of the most important elements of identity, city center is an area for urban activities, presence, and interactions among people, and thus the appropriate design of city centers and urban spaces is an important issue. In this realm, providing urban design guidance documents for city centers becomes essential. Preparation of "city center urban design framework" document aims at providing high-quality city centers and thus can affect the whole city. The Iranian new town of Golbahar is located in Khorasan Razavi province, 35 km northwest of Mashhad. The main goal of the creation of Golbahar new town was to create a central place to attract Mashhad’s population overflow. Due to its potentials, the new town of Golbahar is able to play a special role in the periphery of Mashhad. There are a number of development plans for the new town of Golbahar, including comprehensive plan (1993), detailed plan (1997) and reviewing comprehensive plan (2010). In the comprehensive plan of the Golbahar new town (1993), four development stages were anticipated. Each development phase has considered a town center with related services. So far, the town center has been developed in the first stage, but the center of the second phase of the town has not been completed yet. The detailed plan of the new town center of Golbahar (first phase of development) was redesigned with an urban design approach in 2007. In order not to repeat the unfavorable experience of the first phase, for example, neglecting urban design qualities, emphasizing on physical dimensions without considering the formation of urban spaces, etc., highlighting issues above in the town center of the second stage of development is crucial. This article aimss to present basic strategies for designing Golbahar’s center design framework and their prioritization.
    Methodology
    In this paper, the literature review about new town centers, design principles of central urban spaces, guidance documents, and urban design frameworks are expressed using the descriptive-analytical method. Summarizing the design principles of urban centers derived from the literature review, documents and interviews with experts, strategies for the preparation of the "Urban Design Framework" document in the center of Golbahar in five urban form layers (structure, accessibility, land use, physical form, and urban landscape) are suggested. The design strategies are evaluated using AHP models. The statistical population consists of 20 urban planners and experts in the Municipality and New Town Development Company of Golbahar, emphasizing on the fields of urbanism, architecture, civil engineering, and related fields in order to have a more favorable impact on the Urban Design Framework document. The priorities are determined by applying the averages of responses in Expert Choice.
    Result
    Combined weight according to the main goals including "Creating a legible center with integrated space organization", "Providing quality of movement and accessibility", "Providing urban and tourism services", "Designing a physical form with identity" and "Designing a high-quality urban landscape" and related strategies calculated and Consistency Ratio came out less than 0.1 (CR=0.03). The results represent that improving physical qualities (0.1418) and efficient public transport (0.1412) are the main priorities. The design of the prospects and enhancements of visual corridors with the weight of 0.1216 was considered as the third strategy. The design of pedestrian and bicycle paths with security (0.0923) and the proper distribution of diverse land use in the town center (0.0873) have been the fourth and fifth strategies approved by experts and authorities.
    Conclusion
    Approximately 13.5 percent of the anticipated facilities in the new center of Golbahar have been implemented in the second phase of development. Considering the importance of the town center and urban spaces as the main elements of shaping the new town, "Urban Design Framework" document for Golbahar new town center is suggested. This is not only in accordance with the proposal of the detailed plan, but also it provides the basis for the realization of the future projects. Policies related to the prioritized strategies and design framework plans are suggested. Moreover, urban design framework’s layouts are proposed considering following principles: designing main central square, the creation of organizational and legible structure by the creation of edges, spaces and symbols, creating open spaces and places for public activities and social interactions, considering different functions of the town center, namely commercial, religious, communication and transportation, as well as organizing corridors to landscape. Finally, it is suggested that priorities considered in this paper could be a helpful source when defining future projects in Golbahar new town center.
    Keywords: Urban design framework, City center, Golbahar new town, AHP
  • Ali Asghar Abdollahi *, Shima Holakouei Pages 173-191
    Introduction
    One of the impacts of modernism during the past few decades was the development of wider streets and the dominance of vehicles. This has caused streets to lose their function as an environment where social interactions occur. Lack of pedestrian-oriented open spaces as well as the low quality of such places in cities have decreased social interactions. Footpaths are for the presence of citizens and their participation in social life. Cities are the environments to which people are mostly linked. Aesthetics and symmetry are regarded as important criteria of a healthy and comforting city. In this regard, the role of footpaths are very influential, since these routes are considered as one of the major criteria for development and competition among cities Regarding tourist attraction and economic prosperity; thus, greater attention should be paid to the creation and development of this part of urban spaces This urban space due to four outstanding features of interest in planning issues that include: the presence of leisure space, Time to use space, economic matters, and activities. Footpaths refer to urban spaces where, due to their certain capacities, are fully or partially closed to any vehicles during the day and are solely used for pedestrian movement. Not only are footpaths regarded as one of the most important urban, public spaces, but they are also essentially vital to the stability of urban life as memorable and meaningful elements. In the past, cities were significantly pedestrian-oriented; yet following the industrial revolution and the dominance of motor vehicles in cities, the pedestrian issue was forgotten. Consequently, as the most important functions of footpaths include social interactions, sustainable urban development, and provision of safe areas with multiple functions, there is a need for a purposeful program in line with the development of such spaces in modern cities.
    Methodology
    After identifying the criteria and sub-criteria with respect to the purpose of the study, a set of informational layers and a database were created using the Arc GIS software followed by creating new layers through the raster structure. Then, given the type of data at each layer, the raster layers were reclassified based on defined values. Next, the hierarchy analysis of indices were specified based on a paired comparison of the information and values related to each information layer in contrast with other layers, in terms of the extent of priority, with numbers including 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 and the intervals of 4, 2, 6, and 8, using the Expert Choice software. The weight of each index in the related layer was included using the Raster Calculator tool. Ultimately, the final plot was obtained by integrating fuzzy overlay layers.
    Results
    Taking into account the studies conducted with the purpose of identifying the features of footpaths, we obtained and used a set of effective criteria and standards related to each criterion as basic informational layers. Footpaths in this study were located according to 8 criteria including safety, multiple functionality, adjacency, passage length, passage width, access to public transport, natural and artificial views and sights, and daily activity hours. The safety criterion includes sub-criteria such as the number of pedestrians, lighting, and human scale, while the multiple functionality criterion involves sub-criteria of residential and commercial use density and absence of disturbing application, all of which are linked to the features of the region.
    Conclusion
    To indicate an efficient location for footpaths objectively through information modeling and creating information layers in the form of raster plans using the GIS software, and to implement the standards in this study, it was attempted to prioritize the indices and criteria and their impacts on the plot of each criterion. After applying the obtained weights using the fuzzy overlay tool with sum algorithm within the GIS software, the final results were created as classification maps. The findings of the present study demonstrate that more precise results could be obtained with respect to the status quo by using the AHP technique and the GIS software for finding a location for footpaths which could also be used in future studies. The most important results of the study show that among the routes investigated, Imam Juma’a St. and Parastar Blvd. with scores of over 5 are the best options according to the defined weighted value. The second priority belongs to Hezar-o-Yek Shab and Valfajr St., followed by Shafa St. as the third and Zohreh Kermani and Namdar Mohammadi St. as the fourth priority. Villa, Meysam, and Hamzah St. were the last priorities, according to the defined weighted values.
    Keywords: Location, Hierarchy Analysis, Footpaths, GIS System
  • Esmaeil Aliakbari *, Hossein Komasi Pages 193-210
    Introduction
    Given the sectional and focused approach (top down) of the Iranian planning system and the absolute domination of the central government’s policies, city development strategies have attracted the attention of scientific communities as a participatory approach. First presented by the city coalition organization in 1999, the new approach of city development strategy is based on four indices including good governance, competitiveness, livability, and being based on banks. In the area of urban policies, the planning system for Kermanshah metropolitan area still entails conventional thoughts based on comprehensive plans at local levels as well as the Islamic Republic of Iran’s 2025 vision, national documents for the development of Kermanshah province, the basic theory for the development of Kermanshah province, and five-year development plans as upper schemes at local and national levels, all of which have a main feature, that is, being centralized. Consequently, it is essential more than ever to change conventional urban approaches and employ newer, more efficient methods such as city development strategies (CDS), so as to alter the current process of development in Kermanshah city. To this end, the present study seeks to provide answers to this question: What is the status of Kermanshah metropolitan area in terms of CDS indices?
    Methodology
    In terms of purpose and method, the present inquiry is an applied, descriptive-analytical study. The total population of the study includes the citizens of Kermanshah city, out of which, 383 citizens were selected as the sample population according to Cochran’s sampling method. In order to collect the required data and information, document-library examinations, as well as field studies, were employed. Ultimately, the LISREL and SPSS20 software along with one-sample t-test were used to analyze the findings. In this study, four indices of city development strategy (CDS) were examined in Kermanshah metropolitan area, which included good urban governance with 7 indicators, being based on banks with 7 indicators, livability with 7 indicators, and competitiveness with 6 indicators.
    Results
    Given an average of 1.71 in total in the index of good urban governance, Kermanshah metropolitan area is not at a desirable state, though such undesirability is not the same among governance variables. In this index, variables including law abidance, effectiveness, and efficiency with averages of 2.22 and 2.19 involved the highest extent of desirability; however, variables such as responsiveness (1.26), participation (1.45), transparency (1.48), accountability (1.60), and justice (1.77) were the least desirable, respectively. With an average of 2.38, the index of being based on banks involves a relatively more favorable state. Nonetheless, the extent of the citizens’ satisfaction toward the variables of this index is lower than average as well. In this regard, the highest extent of desirability belongs to the citizens’ satisfaction of being informed about banking facilities with an average of 3.38; following this variable, others include a sufficient number of ATMs (2.89), satisfaction toward banking services (2.32), and being informed of electronic banking (2.27), showing relative satisfaction. The highest extents of undesirability belong to the variables such as trusting banks (1.89), sufficiency in the number of branches (1.98) and the expertise of banks’ staff (1.99). Similar to good urban governance, the index of livability with an average of 1.72 does not involve a favorable state. In this index, only the single variable of job availability is at a better state with an average of 2.43. This is followed by other variables including proper physique and furnishing of the city (1.52), educational and recreational facilities (1.53), satisfaction toward the public transport system (1.54), city’s security (1.63), health facilities (1.68) and sufficient income (1.73), which are all at a highly unfavorable state. With an average of 2.12, the index of competitiveness is also undesirable in Kermanshah city, while it is relatively more favorable compared to the indices of good urban governance and livability. In this index, two variables including the natural features and position of Kermanshah metropolitan area (3.83) and the availability of urban development contexts (3.19) involve a relatively more favorable state in terms of the citizens’ satisfaction. Nevertheless, other variables including sociocultural potentials (1.25), public and private investments (1.40), the expertise of urban managers (1.43), and the presence of expert human resources (1.65) are at an undesirable state.
    Conclusion
    The structure of Iranian planning system in the processes of provision, editing, implementation, and monitoring does not involve the necessary efficiency, which has resulted in a number of major issues, such as regional and urban imbalances, marginalization challenges, traffic, and environmental problems. To this end, plans such as city development strategies (CDS) are put forth with the purpose of enhancing the status of the citizens’ participation along with urban development; the implementation of such plans in the Iranian urbanism system relies on numerous factors that require further research. However, the findings of the present study demonstrate the fact that even though the Iranian planning system is moving towards employing novel approaches for urban development, a centralized planning system and lack of the citizens’ participation in these plans still persist. The indices of city development strategy of Kermanshah (good governance, competitiveness, being base on banks, and livability) are interdependent, which means that the provision of banking infrastructure would improve the competitive position of the cities, and increase the livability of Kermanshah city. Ultimately, their results will be demonstrated in a good urban governance and maximum participation of the citizens in urban plans and projects.
    Keywords: Urban development strategy, Kermanshah metropolitan, CDS index
  • Kasra Ashouri, Kayoumars Irandoost *, Kamal Khaleghpanah Pages 211-242
    Introduction
    The expansion of poverty caused by the global capitalist mechanism, which in Iran has majorly appeared in the form of governmental capitalism, has led to the formation of an official/unofficial duality across various economic dimensions as well as urban areas. Physical representations of urban poverty under different terms such as marginalization, slum dwelling, unofficial residency, and spontaneous settlement have always been compiled through the outlook of planning and analysis management, according to the interpretation of various plans to confront this issue; nevertheless, the dimensions of the problem have been expanded, partly due to the inefficiency of the discourse used by groups that are involved in organizing this phenomenon.
    Methodology
    In this paper, the production system and reproduction of space as a supplement to official spaces were examined with a focus on critical analysis as well as Henry Lefebvre’s (1973) production of space theory, which involves three spatial dimensions including perceived space, conceived space, and lived space. To this end, first, the problem of unofficial urban living was examined within the framework of Lefebvre’s(1973) production of space theory as well as the three spatial dimension as a unique view of spaces. By using such an outlook, it is likely to gain access to the underlying layers of reality which may occur through a type of possible contemplation that does not exclusively remain bound by phenomena and manifestations of the problem, yet it could break through underside layers of phenomena by reflection and could identify, explain and, conceptualize the mechanisms, forces and, structural orientations behind the problem. A real conceptualization cannot only remain limited to results, consequences, manifestations, and minor issues but more importantly, it should be able to explain the link between such minor issues with more general ones, portraying the interactions among them. Consequently, first, the theoretical foundations of the study were investigated through this outlook, within the framework of Lefebvre’s (1973) intellectual instrument. Following the investigation of the study’s theoretical foundations, the status of unofficial production of space in Sanandaj city was assessed by extracting a way to assess three dimensions of unofficial production of space and observing the three international, national, and local levels; the conceived space was examined first. Primarily, the plans and programs of Sanandaj city and the province affecting the spatial structure and policy-making of the city were examined. Next, the views of technocrat groups were analyzed using documents and interviews conducted with the groups and published in newspapers. To analyze the conceived space involving the present space and actions taken in these settlements, the executive actions in urban spontaneous settlements by government agencies and NGOs were investigated. Ultimately, the lived space was analyzed and assessed as the most important type of space in urban spontaneous settlements through conducting interviews with the residents of the three spatial layers of Sanandaj city along with observing and comparing the other two spaces with the livelihood of these settlements’ inhabitants. The statistics on three spatial layers were obtained from population and housing census.
    Result
    Today, more than 50% of Sanandaj city population live in urban spontaneous settlements. Despite the numerous plans and programs offered for the city in different periods, they have failed to effectively contribute to the status of the poor. Moreover, some of these plans had brought about considerably incorrect ideas for the city as they were compiled as a completely abstract, upper, top-down plan for the city and rural areas around it. In fact, the plans and programs’ structures, as well as the bureaucratic structure of offices, led to more low-income groups to become marginalized. The status quo observed today are the problematic dimensions of these plans. In addition to the plans, the residents were accused of being “the marginalized” through some of the views put forth by scientific, technocratic groups along with influencing the government’s conditions. As representations existing for spaces, all of these factors had led to the growth and spatial reproduction of spontaneous settlements in Sanandaj city; in this regard, not only it has not contributed to the first established layer of the city, but it has also helped with its reproduction in the second layer, naturally followed by the reproduction of the third layer over time. Similar to projects by the World Bank and various organizations such as the civil and urban development company along with actions taken by the municipality and urban management, spatial practices within the spontaneous settlements of Sanandaj city have had no impact on preventing the rise of this process; the residents themselves have often forced the urban management to adhere to their requests by producing their intended spaces, given the conditions imposed on them. As a form of representation space, residents have resisted against the focus of the urban management on the exchange value in cities by prioritizing the value, producing space in their own unofficial framework. As a matter of fact, imposing spatial practices and space representation on the lived space of the residents followed by the expansion of the city within the second and third spatial layers confirms this very subject. The separation between the components of the triad involving theory, action, and people’s demands was correctly confirmed through interviews conducted across the three spatial layers of Sanandaj city
    Conclusion
    By paying attention to Lefebvre’s opinions and how planning should be self-criticizing to the extent that it is free of any ideologies, the necessity of catering for demands and self-organization of daily life by the low-income strata is made clear more than ever so as to gradually resolve the official/unofficial duality. Furthermore, the intensifying process of inequality and the class gap could be slowed down and ultimately mitigated by forming a critical discourse which would not be attainable except through the public demand as well as deciphering the spaces and focusing on the application value rather than exchange value along with the lived experience of residents. The results obtained in the study denote a distinguished perception of unofficial living conditions by the three groups including the government, technocrats, and people. Differences between the views and actions of governmental and scientific technocrats and the lived experience of residents demonstrate a deep gap between these groups and show the necessity to consider alternative solutions through a critical outlook that is independent of space compared to previous decades.
    Keywords: Unofficial living, Urban spontaneous settlements, Production of space, Sanandaj city
  • Mohammad Mehdi Poursaeed, Mahboubeh Barzgarpour * Pages 243-259
    Introduction
    Essentially, when destination/place marketers employ a similar, yet simple strategy, they may underestimate the issues related to the establishment and formation of place branding; meanwhile, places and locations are faced with a broad range of target groups whose understanding of the place are completely different, mostly shaped by stereotypical imaginations and clichés. Nevertheless, residents are of a deeper awareness on the place, which is contrary to the simple messages, they use to introduce the place. Simplified messages lead to weaker identification and improper behavior (negative word-of-mouth advertising) of residents against tourists. The present study seeks to identify the positive results of place identification and how this very concept along with word-of-mouth advertising could be improved through brand complexity.
    Methodology
    In terms of purpose, the present inquiry is an applied study; and since it is attempted to describe the status of the society through field survey, it is descriptive-survey research. As for data collection and evaluation of various aspects of the model, the questionnaire instrument was used. The population of the study includes the entire residents of Kerman city in all four districts as well as the entire domestic tourists entering the city for a 1-month period since 21/3/2017 until 20/4/2017 (Nowruz celebration). Given the purpose of the study, which involves a comparative approach, the sample population in both groups should be considered as equal. Subsequently, the sample population was calculated as 384 people using Cochran’s formula, and the number of data analyzed was 460. Since a standardized questionnaire by Zenker, Braun & Petersen (2017) was used, there is no need to confirm its content validity. The outlook and behavior of residents and domestic tourists are examined in the following with a focus on these hypotheses:The complexity of place branding influences word-of-mouth advertising through place satisfaction and the moderating role of residents.
    The complexity of place branding influences word-of-mouth advertising through place satisfaction and the moderating role of domestic tourists.
    The complexity of place branding influences word-of-mouth advertising through place identification and the moderating role of residents.
    Overall, the present study seeks to achieve the following purposes The impact of place branding on word-of-mouth advertisement with respect to the moderating roles of residents and domestic tourists
    Results
    In the first stage, the relation between the complexity of the city brand through satisfaction and identification were confirmed and its impact through commitment is rejected using the multiple mediator model. Consequently, the fourth and fifth hypotheses are rejected at the initial stage. In the next step, given the standardized regression coefficients of residents and domestic tourists as 0.170 and 0.380, respectively, it can be stated that the complexity of place branding through the satisfaction of word-of-mouth advertising mostly has a positive impact on domestic tourists with no significant effect on residents. Furthermore, considering the standardized regression coefficients of residents and domestic tourists as 0.352 and 0.490, respectively, it can be stated that the complexity of place branding through identification on word-of-mouth advertising is of positive impact on both the residents and domestic tourists.
    Conclusion
    The main purpose of the study was to examine the impact of place branding complexity on identification and recommending the location to others through a comparative outlook of residents and domestic tourists of Kerman city. The results obtained from the hypotheses of the study showed that the complexity of place branding influences the identification by residents and domestic tourists. Place brand complexity through satisfaction on word-of-mouth advertising mostly impacts domestic tourists in a positive manner with no significant effect on residents. As a result, it is recommended that the motives, expectations, and requirements of the present and potential (tourists) residents of the city are taken into account. To this end, meeting their needs such as a proper quality and price of living expenses, regional security, economic diversity, quality of life, parks, green spaces, and other factors should be ensured. Place branding complexity through identification on word-of-mouth advertising involves a positive impact on both the residents and domestic tourists. Nevertheless, in order to increase the identification by residents and domestic tourists, correct and comprehensive information on the identity of locations should necessarily be provided, particularly in places, which are of historical values. Place branding complexity through commitment on word-of-mouth advertising has no positive impact on both the residents and domestic tourists. Subsequently, in order to raise commitment, involvement in other urban projects through shareholding is recommended.
    Keywords: Place branding, Destination branding, Brand complexity, Word of mouth advertising, Domestic tourists, Kerman city
  • Mostafa Ghadami *, Hadi Abdollahvand Pages 261-280
    Introduction
    The specialization of occupations, diversity in land use, alteration of land application patterns, and spatial dispersion of activities as well as the increase in the number of daily trips have affected the range of trips or various applications’ sphere of influence; in such a situation, individuals need to travel long distances, particularly via personal automobiles (Ghadami, 2012). Studies by urban planners in this regard show the impact of urban development structure and pattern on exacerbating dependency on vehicles such as automobiles. In other words, any spatial shape or structure could support different transportation pattern in cities.
    Either directly through fossil fuel consumption or indirectly through the production of other types of energies, the transportation sector produces various greenhouse gases; subsequently, transportation is considered as one of the main causes of air pollution. Therefore, the identification and design of a spatial structure with the capability of adapting to the present and future conditions while remaining sustainable is, today, one of the vital necessities in the area of urban planning (Bertaud, 2002).
    Meanwhile, despite the escalation of numerous issues caused by the expansion of urbanization, the evolution of urban spatial structure is mainly overlooked (Bertaud, 2002). As a result, significant shortcomings due to weak spatial structures are mostly neglected, to the extent to which the time for any sort of action is lost (Bertaud, 2003). Considering the relation between these two important components, in other words, the spatial structure and air pollution, the major purpose of the present study is to examine the impact of spatial structure on the extent of air pollution.
    Methodology
    The present descriptive, analytical study seeks to provide answers to this question: Do different scenarios of urban spatial structures have different impacts on the extent of the emission of pollutants? Secondary and official information published by the Iranian statistics institution and organizations related to Tehran municipality and the environment protection agency are used in this research.
    Network Analysis in ArcGIS software was used to calculate the distances and a possible model for limited attractions and the pollution indices of vehicles in Iran were the main tools and models used in this study.
    The three scenarios in the study include 30% of changes in the city’s spatial structure within frameworks including the continuation of the current urban spatial structure pattern, scattered urban growth, and centralization of spatial structure.
    Results
    The results of Shannon’s entropy model demonstrate an outward, random and decentralized growth of Tehran. Given the results of Gi (getis-ord) statistics and hot-spot clustering in 1996, the city of Tehran involved 2 concentrated areas in 4 regions including regions 14-18 with a population of 6493700, 450160, 264300, and 298600 people, respectively. In 2006 however, the concentrated clusters of Tehran grew to 4 areas in 8 regions including regions 4, 7, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, and 18 with populations of 813238, 305240, 315173, 275241, 475520, 64329, 255864, and 249786 people, respectively.
    To estimate the extent of air pollution in this study, first, the number of trips taken between regions were approximated. According to the information by the comprehensive traffic plan of Tehran, the most used means of transportation are cars. In the next step, various factors of pollutant emission for different vehicles were employed.
    In “Scenario A,” air pollution was investigated considering a 30% increase in population and attractive applications across 22 regions of Tehran in compliance with the current pattern. In this study, the concentrations of pollutants separated by vehicles along with the extent of pollutants separated by their types and the entire pollutants in scenarios were calculated. According to the results, in the situation of 30% increase in the current spatial structure pattern, the highest and lowest shares in air pollution are caused by carbon dioxide and lead, respectively.
    In the next scenario with a 30% increase in the number of attractive applications and population in outside regions of Tehran including regions 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 21, and 22, the sum of all pollutants in this scenario is 5565 tons, which compared to the similar scenario (30% of the status quo), an increased extent of pollutants is implied.
    In the centralization scenario (C) the 30% spatial structure is added to the extent of attractive applications and population across the central regions of Tehran, namely, ,regions 2, 6, 7, 10, 11, and 12.
    A comparative examination among scenarios A, B, and C of the spatial structure in relation to air pollution separated by pollutants (tons) shows that the highest potential for air pollution among scenarios is the first one (Scenario A) with more than 5738 tons. Moreover, the lowest potential for air pollution is related to the centralization of spatial structure scenarios with 5192 tons.
    Conclusion
    Given what was expressed, it can be concluded that the two scenarios involving the continuation of the status quo and scattered growth (through population growth and activities in outer regions of Tehran) both involve the highest potentials for increasing pollution. These scenarios are of a stronger relationship with the current pattern of Tehran’s spatial structure. This shows that the subject of balancing Tehran’s pollution would remain, regardless of the spatial structure of the city; in case substantial changes in the current structure are overlooked, a more severe increase in Tehran’s pollution is expected.
    Keywords: Spatial structure, Air pollution, Scenarios, Tehran
  • Javad Farhadi, Ahmad Zanganeh *, Moosa Kamanroodi, Mohammad Soleimani Mehranjani Pages 281-298
    Introduction
    An examination of the population of Mashhad city during the years 1986-2011 shows a population decline in the central region and population growth in the margins. The case of existing population and occupations can be explained by the concept of urban decay. The main problem investigated in the present study is that, contrary to this general process, Isar district has been successfully renovated and developed in a region, which faces urban decay. Subsequently, the main subject of the study is to examine the role of economic elites in such a development. It is an important experience due to relatively successful pattern documentation and expansion of the literature on the revival of unorganized urban textures, development based on the private sector, public-private cooperation, and good urban governance.
    Methodology
    The present inquiry is a descriptive-analytical study conducted using the causal, post-event method. The subject was explained through library studies, documents, and surveys. In addition to field data and official census, 97 questionnaires were distributed among store managers across Isar Bazar, 53% of which were completed. Moreover, the spatial and non-spatial relations were tested using general and spatial regression.
    Instruments used for statistical processing and map cartography included SPSS, Excel, SAGA, and ArcGIS software. Since the concept of growth machine as an independent variable is abstract as well as the fact that decisions made by urban elites occur through real estate investments and population attraction. Some explaining indices were examined as mediator variables; finally, the independent variables were examined in two groups including variables related to investment (5 variables) and variables related to population attraction (12) in Isar district.
    Results
    Testing the hypotheses of the study shows that the coalition between production and commercial elite of Isar district (growth machine) along with the initial investments and business development have resulted in a rise in real estate value, population attraction, and retention along with physical, economic, and social development and an increase of services per capita. In this regard, the population and family growth of the district during the years 2011-16 have reached 1.1% and 2.6%, respectively. Regression between the explaining variables and population growth shows that the variable of commercial use area in 2015 is of the highest extent of explanation with a determination coefficient of 54%, compared to other variables. The spatial determination coefficient obtained for four explaining variables account for 64-66% of the spatial characteristic relative to the changes in population. An investigation of land use across the district demonstrates that during the years 2001-04, a number of functions were added to the district including 20 for education, 11 for religion, and 6 for healthcare.
    Conclusion
    In confirming the first hypothesis, field investigations showed that a small group of entrepreneurs who are residents of the district were the pioneers of entering Isar Bazar; their investments resulted in a rise in population growth rate and subsequent investments. Regression between the explaining variables and population growth shows that the variable of commercial use area in 2015 is of the highest extent of explanation with a determination coefficient of 54%, compared to other variables; consequently, the second hypothesis is also confirmed.
    The third hypothesis is also confirmed through examining the district’s population, as the variable has been witnessing a rising trend during the years 2011-16, ultimately reaching 1.1%. These numerical changes have been accompanied by qualitative changes in the district. Furthermore, given the number of added service functions, the hypothesis stating the increase in service and welfare functions required by the residents as one of the uses of growth machine and a cause of population growth in the district, is confirmed. Other findings of the study are presented in the following:Given a context of competition based on the free market, the growth machine could lead to economic growth and it could benefit low-income groups in the district’s society.
    According to field observations, the elites’ strategy for action through the exploitation of a more efficient mixture of production factors, in other words, creativity and entrepreneurship, is the reason for their success.
    The local community of Isar district has been improved which was not through forced migration of disadvantaged groups (the authenticity phenomenon) and replacing them with middle and upper-class groups.
    As the growth machine’s fulcrum, entrepreneurs have had the highest share in developments taken place in Isar district, while others have been less influential. Their absence or lack of influence would weaken the district.
    Since the members of the growth machine adjust their behavior according to the market system (maximum profit), private functions and services have the lowest chance to be actualized.
    Factors such as overcrowded business spaces, fixed and variable population density of the district, noise pollutions, automobiles exhaustion, and increased crime rate are caused by the unlimited development of the district occurring outside its capacities.
    As both the development and decline of Isar district is intertwined with the market development at Isar Bazar, the following actions are recommended in order to introduce competitiveness in Isar market:Provision of the required urban infrastructure
    Improving the environment and perspective quality
    Preventing the formation of exclusivity in ownership, business, and obstruction in market development
    Paying attention to the locality and endogenous aspects of district development
    Paying attention to enhancing the district’s security
    Keywords: Urban decay, Urban growth machine, Elites, Isar district of Mashhad, Improvement of districts