فهرست مطالب

نشاء علم - سال هشتم شماره 2 (خرداد 1397)
  • سال هشتم شماره 2 (خرداد 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/03/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Ali A. Moosavi, Movahedi Page 73

    The science and knowledge are like water and it needs the right. If we ignore the nature, our lives will dry up. If we do not respect to the right of science and knowledge, we will be poor and the security and power of the country will be declined. Knowledge is not visual and it’s invisibly does role of the great and solve the complicated problems of the country. Science and knowledge have many children, one of which is the suitable technology that can be eye-catch. Harmful technologies are not sourced by interdisciplinary science. Undoubtedly, a healthy technology passes through an interdisciplinary science cycle. The genesis of knowledge is shaped in the presence of a wise man and their technical, social and economic achievements are desirable. If we want to have healthy and advanced technology, we must invest in science, knowledge although we do not imagine directly, but we have to believe it, if we invest in science and knowledge properly, it is the achievement of the country's progress and getting out of the crisis. Of course, it is worth emphasizing that the purpose of science is the cultivation of knowledgeable, transcendent, and moral persons. One of the major pillars of state and nationwide investment is the support of schools, universities, science centers, advanced laboratories for very accurate measurements, supercomputers with broadband Internet bandwidth for high-speed, and the ultimate goal is to provide a decent living for schoolchild pupils, teachers, students, experts and academic members. I hope this editorial affects the hearts of the relevant authorities and the benefactors of science and their open hands to lead the science and knowledge which are the leader of all good.

  • Mansour Khalili Araghi *, Sajjad Barkhordari Page 74

    The suitable economic status is a main factor to develop science, technology and innovation. The developing science, technology and innovation are not expected without suitable formal and informal institutions. The improving conditions are necessary to access development of science, technology and innovation in Iran. In this paper, we describe the effects of institutional factors on developing science, technology and innovation, theoretically and empirically. The results indicate that Iran’s institutional status in political environment, law and regulation environment, and business environment are not suitable. Therefore, it is need to execute polices to improve institutional environment for the development of science, technology and innovation.

    Keywords: Political Environment, Law, Regulation Environment, Business Environment, ImprovingScience, Technology, Innovation
  • Toktam Zohoorian Abootorabi, Ali Akbar Saboury * Page 82

    Mindfulness for the publication of the article, it has led researchers to bring their name to articles that have not played a significant role. Certainly, the most authoritative criteria about the writing of articles is the Vancouver Statement, which was established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Accordingly, other types of authorship such as honorary, guest, gift, and ghost authorships, are not acceptable and ethical. As a result, corresponding author should pay enough attention to the clarification of authors and non-authors contributions based on Vancouver criteria and affirm that all listed authors deserved authorship. In addition, to avoid any ambiguity and conflict, it is even better to make an agreement about the order of authors prior to conducting the tests. In summary, this article wants to inform the scientific societies about crucial criteria for authorship and ask them to put their efforts to enrich and flourish the ethical authorship policies among researchers.

    Keywords: The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), Vancouver Criteria, Inappropriate Types of Authorship, The Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE), Order of ListingAuthors, Prolific Researchers
  • Mohammad Yazdi * Page 89

    The main purpose of the paper is to provide information on possible impacts of climate change not only in the world but also in Iran, consistent with current scenario and climate models. Climate model show that the main environmental impacts in global scale is increasing of annual temperature because of concentrations and emissions of greenhouse gases. Precipitation patterns, frequency and intensity, glacier volume, snow cover are changing and generally are decreasing. Iran is under intensive climate change impacts such as other countries in the World. Increasing of annual temperature and decreasing of water resources is the main environmental challenges in the Iran. Increasing of annual temperature, decreasing of rain fall, rapid urbanization and increasing of water consumption are increasing rate of the environmental impacts in Iran relative to other parts of the world. This climate changes results water scarcity, crop revenue, and more desertification and dust pollution. This would be impacts not only on ecosystems, environment, life conditions, and water scarcity but also in the food security of the peoples.

    Keywords: Impacts, Climate change, Global warming, World, Iran
  • Ahmad Shaabani * Page 98

    Climate change caused by greenhouse gases by producing more than 80 percent of the global energy from fossil fuels, which is associated with a large amount of greenhouse gases, regulations and limitations on nonrenewable fossil fuels consumptions, and exponential increase in energy demand are the major challenges for today’s industrial communities. The consumption rate of nitrogenous nutrients is higher than the population growth. Moreover, one to two percent of the energy consumption and three to five percent of the natural gas production in the world are allocated to the Haber-Bosch process to produce ammonia being the only nitrogenous nutrient source in agriculture. Furthermore, limitations and decreases in sweet water resources along with the increases in population and global warming are serious concerns and challenges. The source of all these challenges lie in the molecules found in nature that make up the important processes of the lifecycle and of photosynthesis, such as water, methane, carbon dioxide, ammonia, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen. In this work, research and technology-based approaches and strategies have been presented to overcome these challenges in the future by introducing the standing and role of each of these seven crucial molecules that affect the above challenges.

    Keywords: Water, Methane, Carbon Dioxide, Ammonia, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Haber-BoschProcess, Energy, Fossil Fuels, Greenhouse Gases, Photosynthesis, Photothermal
  • Haniye Takbirgou, Maryam Salami * Page 111

    Due to the high rates of cancer in modern societies, discovery of new medicines and methods for treatment of cancer is of great importance. However, the use of chemical drugs and usual methods in cancer treatment such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery have always been restricted due to the side-effects and imposing excessive expenses on patients. Moreover, it has been proven that various types of cancers can be prevented by using the right nutrition, environmental factors and lifestyle which have a significant role in the occurrence of illness. In this regard, researchers try to find the natural components, while having beneficial effects with anti-cancer properties, which can prohibit cancer with preventing inflammation, immune system inhibition and angiogenesis of cancer cells. In this article, a mini review has been presented on the factors affecting cancer and prevention of cancer with the aim of new methods mainly related to the consumption of natural poly-phenolic components and foods with low glycemic index, not using of oil and inflammatory compounds and having regular physical activity.

    Keywords: Cancer, Inflammation, Healthy Diet, Polyphenol, Physical Activity
  • Ahmadreza Lagzian * Page 120

    Since the biotechnology as a science came to our world induced many changes. A new route has been created and this new field open the new way to us. The biotechnology helped us to design new things like new drugs and many other useful things which one of them was genetically modified foods (GMO) Since this product has made, may cause some problems for animals and human. In this review try to clear up how GMO may cause the problems for us. The results show the GMO foods induced unfavorable effect on animals but for human should wait until a few decades and new generation for any commenting.

    Keywords: Biotechnology, GMO (Genetically Modified Foods), Allergy, GMO Foods Labeling
  • Ali Ghorbani, Arian Zamani Dehkordi, Yahya Sefidbakht * Page 128

    Pollution is one of the biggest problems that environment faces and with the growth of the global population, the amount of toxic compounds entering the ecosystem also increases. Environmental pollutants are derived from several sources, and the recognition of the sources of these pollutants and their toxic effects is a way to prevent damages that threaten the health of humans and other living organisms. More than 13 million deaths are reported annually because of environmental pollutants, and about 24% of the diseases are due to exposure to these pollutants. The genotoxicity that arises from pollutants causes mutation in somatic and sex cells and has destructive effects on the epigenetic patterns. In this article, it has been tried to investigate the destructive effects of some of the most important environmental pollutants that humans deal every day which can cause problems in epigenetic regulation and some diseases such as pulmonary diseases, hormonal disorders, cancers and etc. At the end of article, the bioremediation of these pollutants is discussed that may help the environment and consequently human health.

    Keywords: Environmental Pollutants, Biological Consequences, Epigenetic, DNA Methylation, Bioremediation
  • Mahdi Zarabi *, Zahra Khamseh, Bahareh Karimi Douna, Seyed Ahmad Firoozabadi Page 135

    Today, the accumulation and disposal of household waste in urban and rural areas of the country is a major contributing factor to pollution of water, soil and air, and the food chain, as well as the occurrence of various diseases. However, using bio-processing methods, it can be converted into valuable biomaterials that, while protecting environmental resources, generate revenue. The present paper addresses various aspects of contamination caused by the accumulation and unprocessed disposal of urban and rural waste in Iran, and attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of converting household waste to bio organic fertilizers by these methods. The basis is the rural women's education in vermitechnology. This affordable and very low-cost way of eliminating, reduce the crisis in rural areas. In fact, this process is use of the amazing features of earthworms and coexistence microbes, which along that, degradable waste decomposes and forms a variety of the best bioorganic fertilizers. The use of these fertilizers, in addition to solving problems such as the poor organic matter of soil and pollution of soil and water resources to the remains of the chemical fertilizers, increases the efficiency of irrigation, and also because of their replacement with chemical fertilizers, has increased the capacity to produce organic and healthy products, which will increase farmers' incomes and reduce the cost of disease in the country.

    Keywords: Household Waste, Environmental Pollution, Food Chain Pollution, Bio Organic Fertilizers, Organic Crops
  • Shohreh Ariaeenejad *, Kaveh Kavousi, Leila Fotuhi, Ali A. Moosavi, Movahedi Page 143

    Today, mixing in meat products, especially processed products, is considered as one of the most important problems of some production units in the food industry. It is very important to determine the test for determining the meat type due to the confidence of consumers and also the factories that use animal protein sources in their products. In recent decades, new biotechnology methods have allowed for health control and prevention of fraud by food producers, and in some cases it encourages quality control and consumer health. Among the new biological methods used to identify the type of meat used, the genetic methods are highly accurate as well as to being quick, it allows the content of processed meats such as hamburgers, sausages, salami, kebab, and so on. One of the proposed methods in this project is to determine the type of meat using the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene using the PCR method. In this method, after extraction of DNA from the broiler tissue studied, using the primers designed for cytochrome b gene, the PCR reaction is performed to amplify the desired gene, this way it is possible to understand the content of mixed meat. Due to the speed, simplicity, sensitivity and specificity of this method, it has a high potential for detecting meat.

    Keywords: Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Cytochrome B, Mitochondrion Sequences, Detection ofMixed Meat, DNA, Fraud Detection