فهرست مطالب

Archives of Medical Laboratory Sciences - Volume:3 Issue:4, 2017
  • Volume:3 Issue:4, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/08/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
|
  • Seyedesomaye Jasemi, Hossein Ali Rahdar, Morteza Karami, Zarandi, Saeedeh Mahfouzi, Alireza Abdollahi, Mohammad Mehdi Feizabadi * Pages 1-5
    Introduction

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common type of bacterial infectious diseases which occurs in all age groups. The aim of this study was to determine anti-microbial resistance pattern of bacterial pathogens causing UTIs in hospitalized patients at the Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran.

    Methods

    Urine samples were collected from 11157 hospitalized patients at different wards of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, between January 2015 and December 2015.The cultured plates were assessed for significant bacterial growth. Anti-microbial susceptibility test was performed using standard disk diffusion method.

    Results

    Out of the 11157 collected urine samples, significant bacterial growth of 25.38% was observed. The most common cause of UTI was gram-negative bacteria (82.2%). More than 50% of the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Enterococcus spp. (10.1%) was found as the third causative agent of UTIs and the most common gram-positive bacteria.

    Conclusion

    we conclude that the examination of the most common etiological agent of UTIs and their antimicrobial resistance patterns is advantageous and necessary in order to design a guideline for empirical therapy.

    Keywords: Urine Tract Infection (UTIs), Antibiotic resistance, Uropathogens
  • Hadis Musavi, Hajar Shokri, Afra, hemen moradi, sardareh * Pages 6-11
    Introduction

    Methamphetamine is a highly addictive psychoactive substance which threatens the health of individuals and society. Crystal methamphetamine is an industrial synthetic illegal substance which is made from many chemical reagents. The aim of this study was to analyze methamphetamine samples qualitatively in order to determine the components of this substance.

    Methods

    In this study 112 samples of crystalline methamphetamine were analyzed that obtained from Legal Medicine Organization of Iran during the year 2016. In order to determine the chemical characteristics of in samples, Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) were carried out on the samples.

    Results

    The results demonstrated that all samples contained methamphetamine. The most frequently occurring synthesis active ingredients, by-products and adulterants were acetic acid, amphetamine and dimethyl amphetamine. Other ingredients were N-formyl amphetamine, N-formyl methamphetamine, N-acetyl methamphetamine, N-acetyl amphetamine, benzyl amphetamine, 2-6-dimethyl-3,5-diphenyl pyridine, N-ethyl methamphetamine, ketamine, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. About 70% of samples contained phenmetrazine.

    Conclusion

    The chemical composition of crystal varies not only with methamphetamine content, but also in the adulterants. Illicit manufacture of methamphetamine results in the formation of some synthesis by-products. Identifying the composition of illicit amphetamines based on the presence or absence of other pharmaceuticals and by-products is presented in this study. All samples were methamphetamine. The fact that N-Benzyl 2-methylaziridine was the most frequently found impurity in the analyzed samples, indicates that most of the methamphetamine samples seized in Iran have been synthesized from ephedrine and pseudoephedrine as starting material.

    Keywords: Methamphetamine, Gas chromatography-mass Spectrometry, Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, Nagai
  • Saeed Pourhassan, Nastaran Maghbouli * Pages 12-17
    Aims

    Accurate measurement of clinical laboratory parameters plays an essential role in the correct interpretation of clinical biochemistry abnormalities. The purpose of this study was evaluation the time and temperature effect on HDLᵼ-C, HDL₂-C and HDL₃-C stability during storage.

    Methods

    50 adult healthy subjects were participated. For the isolation of HDLᵼ-C, we used precipitation method and HDLᵼ-C data was analyzed by the Abell-Kendal cholesterol reference method. The remaining serum were dispensed into 12 sample tubes and divided into two groups. One of each group was stored upright at room temperature (approximately 25 ºC) while another at 4 ºC and the half of each group tubes were received p-chloro-mercuriphenylsulfonic acid (PCMPS). The stored serum aliquots from all temperature and time points were analyzed on 1, 2, 3 days post collection.

    Results

    HDLᵼ-C concentration at the temperature of room in 24 hours is not changed significantly but over the time decreased (7.2% in 3 days). In addition of PCMPS inhibitor, the concentration is increased by 17.3% in 3 days. But in 4ºC, with or without PCMPS, there is no a significant change in the HDLᵼ-C concentration. HDL₃-C was found to be the most stable lipoprotein studied because of non-significant effect of storage time and temperature on it.

    Conclusion

    The results suggest 4ºC as the ideal storage condition for the preservation of human serum samples for HDLᵼ-C assay. Also it is suggested that HDL concentration estimation should be performed in the first 24 hours of samples collection. PCMPS addition didn’t affect HDL subtypes concentration in 4ºC.

    Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, HDL, Storage Time, Storage Temperature, LCAT enzyme
  • Mohsen Abdoli, Ehsan Aryan, Hamed Gouklani, Aida Gholoobi, Sajad Naseri, Kiana ketabi, Zahra Meshkat * Pages 18-23
    Background

    Autophagy is a physiologic process in which double membrane vesicles engulf damaged proteins and organelles for delivering them to lysosomein order to degrade and recycle them via lysosomal digestion. Beclin1 is one of the basic proteins involved in the initial step of autophagosome formation. In the current study, the effect of exogenous Beclin1 to induce autophagy and the effect of 3MA to inhibit of autophagy was assessed in Huh7.5 cells as an in vitro models of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Material and methods

    The Recombinant pcDNA-Beclin1was transfected into Huh7.5 cells. Also, the cell treated with 3MA. Next, the autophagy induction and inhibition was conducted via LC3 staining as a main autophagy marker using flow cytometry.

    Results

    The result of this study suggest that the over expression of exogenous Beclin1 in Huh7.5 cells elevated the autophagosome formation as shown by intracellular autophagosomal marker LC3-II staining for about 32.32 % and 3MA decreased it up to2% in compared with control cells in which the stained LC3-II was12.08.

    Conclusion

    Recombinant beclin1 may be used as a potential autophagy inducer agent and 3-methyl-Adenin inhibits autophagy formation in Huh7.5 cell. The staining autophagy formation marker LC3-II with specific antibody is a reliable method to measure autophagy activation via flow cytometry.

    Keywords: Autophagy, Flow cytometry, LC3-II
  • hadis musavi *, Mojtaba Abbasi Pages 24-28
    Background

    Hypothyroidism is a thyroid gland-related disorder which causes lipid metabolism disturbance. Subclinical Hypothyroidism (SCH) is a compensatory stage in the course of this disease, in which TSH production increases while the levels of thyroid hormones are in normal or low-normal range. There are no studies about the lipid profile abnormalities in SCH. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the lipid profile in SCH patients and compare it with normal individuals.

    Methods

    In this case-control study, subjects were randomly chosen among 800 individuals referred to Neka city hospital in Mazandaran province, Iran in order to routine biochemical and thyroid hormone checkup. Participants were divided into two groups ; cases (n=400) and controls (n=400). Thyroid hormones were measured by ELISA, and lipid profile parameters were evaluated colorimetrically by AutoAnalyzer.

    Results

    There were no significant differences in age and sex distribution between the two groups. Among the measured thyroid hormones, TSH was significantly different between the two groups (p≤ 0.05). In case of lipid profile, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly different between the two groups (p≤ 0.05). However, no significant differences were observed in the amount of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (p>0.05).

    Conclusion

    SCH patients, showed a decrease in HDL-C. It can be concluded that subclinical hypothyroidism similar to hypothyroidism can cause lipid metabolism disturbance.

    Keywords: hypothyroidism, thyroid hormones, lipid profile, thyroid
  • Hesam Nasirpour *, Yashar Azari Key, Nasrin Kazemipur, Behrouz Shadman, Saba Hajazimian, alireza isazadeh, Sina Taefehshokr Pages 29-33
    Background

    Familial high blood cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) is a common disease that involves many complications for patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cholesterol-lowering drugs (Gemfibrozil and Atorvastatin) on the level of serum Vitamin D.

    Materials and methods

    In this study, the 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were evaluated in 65 women between 30-55 years of age. After receiving drug information of patients, cholesterol-lowering medication; Gemfibrozil and Atorvastatin were prescribed by a specialist, then vitamin D and cholesterol levels were measured following 9 month treatment. Also 30 patients consumed vitamin D supplements plus medicine regularly.

    Results

    In the first stage, vitamin D levels in subjects are quite normal but their cholesterol levels were higher than normal. In the second stage, vitamin D levels were measured after 9 months use of Gemfibrozil and Atorvastatin. Accordingly, cholesterol levels decreased significantly due to the use of blood cholesterol-lowering drugs (p=0.021). Also, in this stage the level of vitamin D showed a severe and significant reduction (p=0.041). However, there were no significant reductions in vitamin D in 30 women who consumed vitamin D supplements plus medicine (p=0.073).

    Conclusion

    It seems that taking cholesterol-lowering medicines have reduced the amount of vitamin D. With long-term use of medications, bone diseases such as osteoporosis can be predicted in these individuals. Therefore, taking supplements and food rich in vitamin D during the use of these drugs is recommended.

    Keywords: Hypercholesterolemia, Vitamin D, ELISA
  • Mahshid Akhavanrahnama, Masoud Soleimani *, mina soufi, Nahid Moradi Pages 34-42

    Natural killer (NK) cells were originally described in terms of their function. NK cells are of lymphoid origin and are found in the peripheral blood, spleen, and bone marrow, as well as other tissues. These cells are large, radio-resistant and granular lymphocytes that represent an important arm of innate immunity and are thought to play a critical role in the immune surveillance against tumors and virally infected cells. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has proven to be an effective treatment for hematologic malignancies and some solid tumors. One of the major challenges of allo-stem cell transplantation (SCT) is to reduce the incidence and severity of GVHD while boosting the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. In the setting of allo-SCT, the reconstitution of NK cells is of notable interest due to their known capability to induce GVL without GVHD. Clinical applications of NK cells have been inspired by recognition of their potent anticancer activity. These studies discussed a solid basis for development of future NK cell trials for cancer therapy by minimizing risks and toxicities.

    Keywords: Natural killer cell, bone marrow transplantation, graft versus host disease, graft versus leukemia