فهرست مطالب

Rangeland Science - Volume:9 Issue:1, 2019
  • Volume:9 Issue:1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/12/26
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Ali Akbar Jafarzadeh, Ali Mahdavi *, Rashid FallahShamsi, Rasoul Yousefpour Pages 1-12

    Fresh water supply and its security encounter a high level of fluctuating variability under global climate changes. To address these concerns in catchment water management, a good understanding of land use/cover impacts on the hydrological cycle affecting water supply is crucial. The objective of this study is to define a model to investigate the impact of existing land use/cover on water yielding in Mish-khas catchment of Zagros region, Ilam province, Iran. In this research, a water yield model of Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) was employed to estimate annual water yield in the catchments as a basic foundation for policy and decision making. The input data set included land use/cover layers of the region produced in 2016, average annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration from 1986-2016, soil depth, plant available water content and land use/cover bio-physical database. Based on the results, total annual water yield was estimated 30.2 million m3 for the whole Mish-khas catchment. The annual water yield percent for rangeland, forest, farmland and orchards land uses was 57%, 31%, 8.6% and 3.4% of the total water yield of the catchment, respectively. In addition, the results showed that the farmland had the highest water yield (2449 m3/ha) followed by forests (2269 m3/ha), orchards (2254 m3/ha) and rangeland (2196 m3/ha) land uses. In terms of water distribution, the northern regions with a volume of 2315 m3/ha had higher water yield than the southern regions (2210 m3/ha). The results also indicate that a GIS-based InVEST model is a useful instrument to identify more suitable areas for water-table recharge.

    Keywords: Evapotranspiration, Soil Depth, Plant Available Water Content, Bio-physical Database
  • Oluwatosin Bode Omotoso *, Fajemisin Adebowale Noah, Alokan Julius Adebayo Pages 13-23

    The effect of inclusion level on nutrient intake, digestibility, nitrogen metabolism and haematological parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) goat fed Cajanus cajan as supplement to cassava peels was investigated in a completely randomized design experiment using twenty-four WAD goats with average initial weight of 10.75±0.85kg (March-September, 2016). There were four treatments as: A=100% Cassava peels (control); B=75% Cassava+25% C. cajan; C=50% Cassava+50% C cajan; D=25% Cassava+75% C. cajan hay. Result showed that C. cajan had better nutrient values with 15.53% Crud Protein (CP) and 30.55% Crude Finer (CF) contents than cassava peels with 4.70 % CP and 13.35 % CF. Inclusion of C. cajan as supplement to cassava peels in the diets of WAD goat significantly lowered (p<0.05) DM intake. CP intake increased with increased hay supplementation. CP, CF, NDF, ADF and ADL intakes were highest in goats fed diet D. Nutrient digestibility and N retained were best under treatment D-75% C. cajan inclusion. Consequently, the highest weight gain (16.98 g/day) was recorded for goats fed diet D. The higher values of 27.33% Packed cell volume (PCV), 9.12 g/dl Haemoglobin (Hb), 12.07 x106 ml Red blood cell (RBC) and 4.91 x103 ml White blood cell (WBC) counts for animals were obtained using treatment D that they were within the normal physiological range for healthy goat.

    Keywords: Digestibility, Haematological profile, WAD goat, Cajanus cajan
  • Amirhossein kavianpoor *, Hossein Barani, Adel Sepehry, Abdolreza Bahremand, Hamidreza Moradi Pages 24-39

    Climate changes pose great threats to the main services of ecosystems such as food security, water security and health. This research was carried out in Haraz river basin rangelands, Mazandaran province in the north of Iran in 2015-2017 to analyze the perspectives of Haraz river basin (HRB) pastoralists about climate change. From 5236 local pastoralists, the sample size was consisted of 350 ones based on Cochran formula. This study was conducted in 130 custom units (Samane Orfi) in HRB. At first, a questionnaire with 13 main criteria and 31 indicators related to quality of life was prepared and filled by local pastoralists. Cronbach's alpha was varied from 0.72 to 0.88. Independent indicators were compared via Mann-Whitney U test using SPSS 16. Rangelands of HRB were divided into two parts due to having a wide variety of environmental factors and management. Most of pastoralists believed that climate changes occurred in HRB and also, there was a strong convergence between the perspectives of two pastoral groups (pastoralists of Baladeh and Larijan) with long-term trends in all weather stations about changes in climate characteristics. The results of Mann-Whitney U test showed that pastoralists perceptions of climate change impact on quality of life indicators differ significantly in terms of increased migration, anger, frustration, conflicts between the pastoralists, decreasing sympathy, reduced sense of responsibility between pastoralists, reduced pastoralists' participation in the range management actions, reduced effective participation in the improvement measures, increased distance between livestock pen and water resources (p<0.01) and reduced food intake regardless of health and management of livestock diseases and loss of social cohesion (p<0.05). It means that two groups believed that these indicators have been affected by climate changes with different weights. But no significant differences were observed for other indicators. The most important impact of climate changes from the perspectives of Baladeh pastoralists was on water quantity, migration, job insecurity, future expectancy and social conflicts with coefficient of variations of 0.207, 0.22, 0.297, 0.299 and 0.30, respectively with negative impacts. Larijan pastoralists believed that climate changes had the most important impact on migration, water quantity, future expectancy, social conflicts and job insecurity with coefficient of variation involving 0.26, 0.263, 0.277, 0.29 and 0.323, respectively with negative impacts. Although proper interpretation of regional climate change pattern is provided by pastoralists, extension services and increasing social awareness associated with global warming and climate changes should be prepared to cope with potential future threats of climate changes.

    Keywords: Climate Changes, Socio-economic Impact, Water Scarcity, Quality of Life Indicators
  • Mohammad Kia Kianian *, Hamid Reza Asgari, Farzaneh Bahadori Pages 40-51

    Improving water use efficiency and soil properties are two major factors for sustainable development in desert areas. Therefore, this research aims to study the effectiveness of a biological hydrogel, plant vegetation layer, sand and barley straw with rain harvesting techniques through micro-catchment operation on some soil properties including pH, Nitrogen, Electrical conductivity, Sodium Absorption Ratio, Phosphorous, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Organic Matter and Soil moisture under cultivation of Nitraria schoberi. using a split plot design with micro-catchment at two levels as main factor and mulch treatment in five levels as sub factor using a completely randomized block in three replications for 2 years (2015 to 2016) in Natural Resources Research Station, Semnan, Iran. Data analysis was carried out using software SAS 9.1. The results of the analysis of variance showed that main effect of Micro-catchment was significant only for organic matter (P<0.01). The main effect of mulch treatments was significant for all of traits (P<0.01) except soil Ca and OM. Also, all four mulch treatments held significantly more moisture as compared to the control. The mulch by environment interaction effect was significant for EC, N, and Mg2+ (P<0.05) and Na+ and Ca2+ (P<0.01). Thus, considering the effects of present mulch on soil factors types and soil moisture, and considering the price, availability and conditions of the area, they can be used to restore these areas biologically. Considering the abundance of sand mineral matters and straw in the country and cost of each material, the use of sand and straw in comparison with the Plantbac and bio-hydrogel will be more economical. If the purpose is to produce herbal essences or certain enzymes from the plant due to high value of sales of these materials, Plantbac and bio-hydrogel may be applied as an amendment.

    Keywords: Amendments, Soil properties, Nitraria schoberi, Semnan
  • Otgontuya oogii Lkhagvajav *, Lkhagvajav Namdag, Munkhbat Chimed Pages 52-61

    The rangeland in the Khangai mountain region in Mongolia has degraded for the last decades mainly because of overgrazing and climate change. Livestock production is important part of the economy and is based on natural rangeland. In this research we seek to elucidate the influence of five years (2004-2009) of protection from grazing on vegetation cover of different degradation levels of Fescue-forbs rangelands in Khangai mountain region of Mongolia. In the beginning of the study grasses dominated within the slightly degraded site, especially Agropyron cristatum and Koeleria macrantha. Forbs dominated within the moderately degraded site, mainly Artemisia frigida and A. commutata and within the heavily degraded site sedge species dominated, mainly Carex duriuscula. The climate was fluctuated during the study period that affected the plant growth and vegetation cover. When looked at variation of total vegetation cover among years within un-grazed and grazed sites there had been fluctuation among years. The total vegetation cover was significantly different (P<0.001) among years at all degradation levels. The total vegetation cover was 18-22% higher in un-grazed site of slightly degraded site, 8-10% in un-grazed site of moderately degraded, 39-58% in un-grazed site of heavily degraded site in 2005 to 2006. The total vegetation cover was higher (P<0.05) at un-grazed sites than grazed fir many years. The vegetation cover was lower at all sites in 2007 through 2009. It was depending on drought and accumulation of litter cover. Grasses and forbs had improved in un-grazed site of slightly and heavily degraded sites.

    Keywords: Rangeland, Resting impact, Vegetation cover, Grazing, Un-grazed area
  • Elahe Zafarian, Ataollah Ebrahimi *, Ali Abbasi, Esmaeel Asadi Pages 62-73

    Studying plant phenology is very important to regulate the rangeland utilization. Plant phenology can be determined by Growing Degree Days (GDDs). Since temperature varies yearly, the phenological stages may consequently differ yearly. Determining the base temperature is one of the key steps in the calculation of GDDs. The aim of this study was to calculate the required GDDs for each phenological stage to predict phenological stage of Fritillaria imperialis based on GDDs in the consequent years. To do so, Fritillaria bulbs were placed at constant temperatures of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4°C. The length of sprouts as a growth index was measured as a function of temperature. Plant chronology was recorded in three day intervals from March 1st, 2016 in the field and the date of each phenological stage was recorded in the form of an index developed by combining Fick and Haun indices. Then, 20 plant individuals were selected in Dasht-e-Laleh of Kouhrang County, Iran and their growth stages were recorded. Meanwhile, the required amount of accumulated GDDs (AGDDs) to reach each phenological stage was also calculated. Results showed that Fritillaria imperialis began the sprouting (phase E) after receiving 130.75 GDDs on March 23rd, 2016. The emergence of leaves began on 27th March with 166.30 GDDs and finished on 9th April. Finally, this plant on 9th May received 560 AGDDs and went to senescence. Based on the phenological data, when the plant received 240 AGDDs, flowering stage started. The most appropriate time for tourist entrance is in the R2 stage (flower opening) when the plant receives 298.8 AGDDs and the best exit time is when the plant receives 359.2 AGDDs. So, the relationship between phenological stages of the plant and GDDs will be useful in visiting the site in terms of ecotourism and determining proper visit times.

    Keywords: Phenological Stages, GDD, Crown imperial (Fritillaria imperialis), Ecotourism
  • Saeideh Karimi *, Hassan Pourbabaei, Yahya Khodakarami Pages 74-86

    Zagros forests are one of the important natural ecosystems in Iran with high plant diversity and variety of plant communities. In recent decades, fire events have frequently occurred in some of these ecosystems. The purpose of this research is to investigate the composition and diversity of herbaceous species after nine years of fire occurrence in the forests of Zagros in western Iran. For this purpose in 2015, an area of 40 ha that had burned in 2006 was selected and compared with the unburned area (control area). In both areas, 80 plots were selected. The optimal size of plots was determined based on Whittaker's nested plot sampling and minimal area method. Then, vegetation cover percent of each herbaceous species was estimated according to Van der Marel criterion in each plot. The results showed that the fire reduced the diversity, evenness and richness indices, but this decrease was not significant between Shannon-Wiener (P= 0.57) and species density index (P= 0.06). Species Avena fatua with 21.51 and 18.56% had the highest coverage in the burned and control areas, respectively. In addition, the average of herbaceous percent cover was significantly higher in the burned area (P<0.05). Also, Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Poaceae families were the most important families in both areas. The overall results of this study revealed that many species are able to restore their primary conditions over time.

    Keywords: Disturbance, Diversity, fire, Persian oak, Plant species composition
  • Mohammad Reza Najibzadeh *, Mina Bayat, Saeedeh Nateghi, Mohammad Hasan Pezeshki Pages 87-96

    Due to the decreasing trend of rangelands, many native species are vulnerable and even at risk of extinction. Therefore, seed preservation and propagation of native species of rangelands and recognition of the characteristics of grazing, drought tolerance and their production potential are very beneficial. In this study, the five species of Festuca ovina, Festuca rubra, Bromus tomentellus, Alopecurus textilis and Thymus kotschyanus, which are the key species of Sahand Rangelands in Eastern Azerbaijan province, were studied. Treatments in each block included four grazing intensities, namely 25%, 50%, 75% and the control (no harvesting). The harvest was performed during the growing season and at the beginning of the grazing season for four years (2007-2010). Results of statistical analysis showed that the effect of harvesting intensity, year and intensity by year interaction were significant for forage production of F. rubra, B. tomentellus and A. textilis (p<0.01). However, the effect of year and intensity for T.kotschyanus and the effect of year for F. ovina were not significant. Results showed that forage production of species was different in years. Higher forage production in 75% harvest intensity was obtained in B. tomentellus, F. rubra and A. textilis with average values of 15.8, 18.1 and 16.7 g/p, respectively. In latter species, forage production was much affected by climate changes rather than the harvest intensity. The highest forage production of F. ovina was obtained in light harvest. Increasing the harvest intensity may decline plant vitality. It was recommended that allowable grazing intensity of Sahand rangeland might be 25% up to 50% harvesting intensity for preserving these species.

    Keywords: Allowable use, Key species, Sahand Rangelands, Climate
  • Maryam Gholami *, Mostafa Saeedfar Pages 97-103

    In the rangelands of Iran, the lack of appropriate grazing management is one of the major problems ultimately leading to untimely and excessive grazing intensity of forage. Accordingly, most of the rangelands show a retrogression trend and poor conditions. In forage species, phenological stage is one of the most important criteria for range management. Bromus tomentellus species is an important range species for forage production controlling soil erosion. In order todetermine the timely entry and exit of livestock in rangelands based on phenological stages of B. tomentellus, this study was conducted in Goorab rangeland, Fereydoun Shahr, Iran during four years (2007-2010). In this research, ten plant bases of B. tomentellus were selected and their phonological stages were recorded in a 7-day interval period. At the same time, meteorological data were collected from meteorological station adjacent to the study site. According to the occurrence of biological phenomena in the different years of study (wet conditions in 2007, severe droughts in 2008 and normal years in 2009 and 2010) and also based on plant growth stage in the 4 year study, it was concluded that 30th April and 31th May were suggested as the best time for livestock to enter and exit from the rangeland, respectively.

    Keywords: Semi-steppe rangelands, environmental factors, Grazing management, Fereydoun Shahr