فهرست مطالب

  • سال یازدهم شماره 21 (بهار و تابستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/02/02
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • مقاله پژوهشی
  • غلام علی حاتم، امیر مازیار، ازاده لطیف کار* صفحات 5-23
    بر سرلوحه ی دست نویس مونس الاحرار فی دقایق الاشعار (741 هجری) جلوس زوجی سلطنتی بازنمایی شده که پژوهشگران آن را به پیروی از تفسیر معمول از مجالس مصور در افتتاحیه ی نسخ به عنوان بازنمایی حامی ناشناس این نسخه تفسیر کرده اند. در این مقاله با روش شمایل نگاشتی و با تمرکز بر مجاورت این مجلس با بزم شکار به واکاوی محتو ای سرلوحه ی مونس الاحرار در بستر تاریخی خلق آن و چرایی ظهور آن به عنوان مجلس سرلوحه در ابتدای این نسخه پرداخته ایم. داده های به دست آمده از متون تاریخی و ادبی و بررسی محتوای بصری آثار برجای مانده تا سده ی هشتم هجری، سرلوحه ی مونس الاحرار را به گستره ای از مفاهیم و مضامین متداول در فرهنگ درباری و ادبیات فارسی پیوند می دهد که نمود آن در هنر های تصویری «زنجیره ی شاهانه» نامیده شده است و به نمایش شاه و اعمال شاهانه ی وی تحت عنوان کلی بزم و رزم اختصاص دارد. بدین ترتیب مشاهده می شود که سرلوحه های مصور بیان بصری سنت مدح و ثنای شاهان در ابتدای کتب به شمار می روند و در سرلوحه ی مونس الاحرار این کارکرد با جزئیات شمایل نگاشتی متداول در تبریز عهد ایلخانی، ترکیب بندی های مجالس بر تخت نشستن در دوره ی سلجوقی و سنت ایرانی بازنمایی زنجیره های شاهانه به عنوان جان مایه ی هنر درباری درهم آمیخته است.
    کلیدواژگان: مونس الاحرار فی دقایق الاشعار، سرلوحه ی مصور، بزم و رزم، ایلخانان، آل اینجو
  • محمود محمدیان *، بهنام کامرانی، حامد دهقانان، یاسمن گیاهی صفحات 25-50
    فهم اینکه بازارهای هنر چگونه پدید می آیند، برای محققان بازاریابی یک چالش اساسی باقی مانده است. بازار هنر، از یک سو به ارتقا و شناخت هرچه بیشتر آثار هنری و هنرمندان کمترشناخته شده منجر می شود و از سوی دیگر، تجارت را در فرهنگ و هنر ترغیب می کند. سوال اینجاست که چه کسانی، طی چه فرایندی بازار هنرهای تجسمی و تجارت آثار را هدایت می کنند و چه نقش هایی برعهده دارند. این مقاله به مکانیسم ورود افراد به جامعه هنری و مشروعیت یافتن آنها به عنوان هنرمند در طول فرایند تایید می پردازد. به این منظور، از متدولوژی کیفی فراترکیب استفاده شده است. نتایج نشان می دهد که بازار هنر متشکل از اعضای شبکه نهادی کسب و کار شامل چهارده عضو یا نهاد هنر است که هنر را تعریف کرده و با برعهده گرفتن نقش های مختلف در دو سطح بازار اولیه و ثانویه و طی چهار مرحله ایجاد، معرفی، رشد و بلوغ، دوره عمر هنری یک هنرمند را تا زمان تثبیت او در بازار هنر، هدایت می کنند. درنهایت چارچوبی به عنوان شبکه کنش های متقابل دنیای هنر ارائه شد که این سه بعد در کنار هم نشان داده است و در آن، حضور شبکه ای از متخصصان تعیین می کند چه کسی در دنیای هنر ماندگار شود.
    کلیدواژگان: شبکه کسب و کار نهادی هنر، بازار هنر، مراحل رشد هنرمند، اعضای نهادی، نقش های اعضای بازار هنر
  • معصومه گودرزی *، محمد هادیان پور صفحات 51-68
    بحث درباره ی زیبایی در هنرهای تجسمی و نیز معماری، همواره از دغدغه های هنرمندان، معماران و حتی فلاسفه بوده است، و نظرات متفاوتی نیز در این زمینه وجود دارد. در اوایل قرن بیستم و در پی جنبش های هنری پیش آمده در جهان، هنرمندان زیادی برای تعریف اصول زیبایی در هنرهای تجسمی تلاش کردند که ما امروزه این دانش را با نام مبانی هنرهای تجسمی می شناسیم. این پژوهش با انتخاب خانه ی بروجردی ها که در سال 2015 توسط گردشگران، به عنوان نمونه ی برتر یونسکو معرفی شده است و تحلیل بصری آن بر اساس اصول نه گانه ی چارلز جنسن برای بالندگی بصری که عبارتند از: 1- تناسب، 2- تباین (کنتراست)، 3- تعادل، 4- هماهنگی (کمپوزیسیون)، 5- تنوع، 6- ریتم، 7- تنوع در ریتم، 8- حرکت و 9- غالب بودن نقطه ی تمرکز، سعی دارد به صورت تصویری رعایت این اصول را در بنای مورد نظر اثبات نماید تا به دلیل انتخاب آن برسد. به این منظور تصاویر بر اساس اصول گفته شده و به روش توصیفی تحلیلی آنالیز شده اند و برای اثبات اصل تناسب نیز از نرم افزار ریاضی PhiMatrix که یابنده ی نسبت زرین می باشد؛ استفاده شده است. بر مبنای تحلیل های به دست آمده، اصول مورد نظر به شکل نیرومندی در طراحی بنا رعایت شده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: خانه ی بروجردی ها، اصول هنر تجسمی، زیبایی در معماری، خانه ی سنتی، معماری ایرانی
  • روح الله اسحاق زاده، حمید صادقیان *، الهام روحانی اصفهانی صفحات 69-83
    نگارش خط نستعلیق به لحاظ ارتباط تنگاتنگ با ادبیات و همچنین نمود جلوه های بصری ویژه، قرن ها استمرار پیدا کرده است. این خط می تواند به عناصر اولیه تجزیه شود که اولین و مه مترین عنصر آن «نقطه » است. نقطه علاوه بر نیاز کلمه در خواندن، نقش مهمی در هماهنگی و تقابل بین انرژی های تصویری در کلمه و سطر دارد؛ لذا اهمیت نقش بصری نقطه بسیار مشهود است. هدف اصلی این مقاله عبارت است از بررسی نقش نقطه از منظر اصول و مبانی هنرهای تجسمی در مقایسه ی آثار خط میرعمادالحسنی (هنرمند دوره صفوی) و غلامحسین امیرخانی (شیوه غالب معاصر)، با توجه به مولفه هایی از قبیل( محور نقطه 2( شیب نقطه )در دونقطه و س هنقطه( 3( وزن بصری نقطه. در این راستا به سوالاتی نظیر: چگونگی توجه بیشتر در نحوه نقطه گذاری با توجه به اصول و مبانی بصری در هریک از شیوه های مذکور، محور نقطه و همچنین چگونگی رعایت شیب نقطه و وزن بصری نقطه و تفاوت های آن در دو شیو هی میرعمادالحسنی و غلامحسین امیرخانی پاسخ داده شده است. روش به کار گرفته شده در این مقاله توصیفی- تحلیلی، از نوع مقایسه ای و از نظر هدف کاربردی است. گردآوری داده ها به صورت کتابخانه ای و تحلیل نگارندگان با مقایسه تصویری آثار دو هنرمند نامبرده صورت پذیرفته است. نتایج بررسی های پژوهش حاضر نشان می دهد که نحوه قرار گرفتن محور نقطه ها، میزان شیب دونقطه و سه نقطه و همچنین وزن تصویری آن ها در شیوه میرعماد کاملا منطبق بر اصول و مبانی زیباشناسی بصری است که همین امر باعث افزایش حضور و تاثیر نقطه ها بین کلمات و حروف نسبت به شیو ه امیرخانی می گردد؛ به بیان دیگر نقطه ها در خطوط میرعماد از شان و منزلتی هم تراز با حروف و کلمات برخوردارند.
    کلیدواژگان: خط نستعلیق، نقطه، میرعمادالحسنی، غلامحسین امیرخانی
  • یوسف منصورزاده * صفحات 85-100
    این مقاله به بررسی چگونگی شکل گیری مفرغ های لرستان و تاثیر گیلگمش، اسطوره بین النهرینی برآنها می پردازد. بررسیها از این آثار نشان می دهد که این قوم در این حرفه بسیار ماهر بوده و توانسته است با تاثیرپذیری از هنر هسایگانش، با هنرمندی و ظرافتی خاص در کار خود آنها را عرضه کنند. این پژوهش به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی با رویکرد تاریخ هنری ، و به شیوه گردآوری کتابخانه ای و میدانی به ارتباط مفرغ های لرستان با فرهنگ و اسطوره های بین النهرین پرداخته و دوران شکوفایی هنر لرستان را مورد بررسی قرار می دهد. هدف از این پژوهش جست و جوی نقش گیلگمش و میزان تاثیر آن بر مفرغ های لرستان است . یافته ها حاکی از این است که اجداد قوم لر یعنی کاسی ها، با توجه به ویژگی های نژادیشان و مدت زمانی که بر بخشهایی از سرزمین های بین النهرین حکومت کرده اند، این هنر را به اوج زیبایی خود رسانده اند. نتایج این تحقیق ارتباط دیرینه کاسی ها با بابلی ها، سومریان و آشوریان را نشان می دهد . و آثار به دست آمده بیانگر آن است که نقش گیلگمش از ارکان اصلی هنر مفرغ کاری لرستان محسوب می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: مفرغ های لرستان، کاسی ها، گیل گمش، بین النهرین
  • سیدسعید حسینی *، محمدرضا مریدی صفحات 101-120

    سیاست نوسازی و غربی سازی که توسط رضاشاه و آتاتورک در دهه های 1920 و 1930 میلادی اجرا شد، تاثیرات عمیقی در ایران و ترکیه داشت. در پژوهش حاضر به مطالعه تطبیقی تحولات فرهنگی و هنری ایران و ترکیه در بستر رشد و توسعه مدرنیزاسیون خواهیم پرداخت. درنیزاسیون در قالب جریانی فراگیر، به تجربه های مشترکی در هنرآفرینی کشورهای پیرامونی منجر شده است. بر این مبنا، در مقاله حاضر این پرسش دنبال خواهد شد که: چگونه جریان های مشترکی در نقاشی ایران و ترکیه در مقطع زمانی مورد اشاره پدید آمد؟ چگونه هنرمندان دو کشور در مقاطع زمانی تقریبا مقارن، گرایش های هنری مشابهی داشته اند؟ یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد که در دوران توسعه مدرنیزاسیون، سه گرایش عمده در هنر نقاشی ایران و ترکیه به وجود آمده است: گرایش اول، طبیعت گرایی به شیوه آکادمیک اروپایی در قالب نقاشی چهره، منظره و طبیعت بی جان؛ گرایش دوم، نوگرایی با تاثیر از جریان هنر مدرن اروپا در قالب سبک هایی همچون اکسپرسیونیسم و کوبیسم؛ و گرایش سوم، بازگشت به هویت تاریخی و رجوع به عناصر فرمی هنرهای سنتی با بیانی مدرن در قالب انتزاعی. در نتیجه می توان گفت همان گونه که مدرنیزاسیون شک لگیری ساختاری مشترک را در عرصه سیاسی دو کشور در پی داشته، در عرصه جریان های هنری نیز تحول مشترکی را پدیدار کرده است
    کلیدواژگان: هنر ایران، هنر ترکیه، نقاشی نوگرا، مدرنیزاسیون
  • خشایار حجتی امامی، نازنین بزرگی زاده *، سمیرا حسینی صفحات 121-137
    مقاله پیش رو در صدد است با ارائه مفاهیم زیباییشناسی در ساختار کفش پاشنهبلند و بررسی جایگاه هر کدام از عناصر فرم، رنگ و مواد در ایجاد و انتقال احساسی که در روند طراحی، هدف طراح محسوب میگردد، نسبت به مقوله طراحی کفش از دیدگاه احساسگرایی به شناخت وسیعتری دست یابد. پس از انجام مطالعات اولیه، از دو گروه سی نفره مشتریان، دانشجویان و استادان زن رشته طراحی صنعتی، در ارتباط با پنج محصول از برند »چارلز اند کیت« با روش پرسشنامه افتراق معنایی کانسی، نظرسنجی گردید. دلیل گزینش این مخاطبان، پیشفرض نگارندگان مبنی بر دقت و حساسیت آنها نسبت به این محصوالت بوده است. بر اساس نتایج پرسشنامهها در نرم افزار اس پی اس اس، احساسات مشترک با بیشترین مقدار کمی بهدستآمده در نمودار ETA قرار گرفت و نقش عناصر فرم، رنگ و مواد به تفکیک بررسی شد و با امتیازدهی آنها، میزان تاثیرگذاری هر یک از عوامل مزبور در انتقال احساس در طراحی هر محصول مشخص گردید. نتایج حاصله، تاکیدی بر تاثیر قابل توجه عنصر فرم نسبت به عناصر رنگ و مواد در خلق احساسی است که کاربر با مشاهده محصول دریافت میکند.
    کلیدواژگان: طراحی احساسگرا، کفش پاشنه بلند، عناصر زیبایی شناختی، مهندسی کانسی، نمودار، ETA
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  • Gholam ali Hatam, Amir Mazyar, Azade Latif kar** Pages 5-23

    Mu'nis al-ahrar fi daqa'iq al-ash'ar (1341 AD.) is an anthology of Persian poetry which is also famous for its illustrated double frontispiece which contains an unusual scene. A royal enthroned couple with their attendants is depicted on the left side of this frontispiece. The scene, at first glance, may not be seemed too unusual as the representations of Mongol rulers and their consorts were prevalent in the Ilkhanid book of official history; the Compendium of Chronicles (Jāmi’ al-tawārīkh) in 14th century AD. Nevertheless, the fact that the royal couple were depicted as a scene on a manuscript frontispiece which is accompanied by with an impertinent hunt scene on the opposite page reveals the key differentiation between the royal scene in the frontispiece and the Ilkhanid official Iconography. The Iconographic method was used in this research to explore the content of the above-mentioned frontispiece in its historical context. This context consists of literary and historical texts with various implication to court culture in 14th century. Moreover, visual materials gathered from illustrated manuscripts, metalwork and glazed pottery under the subject matter of court life were used to investigate the content of Mu'nis al-ahrar frontispieces in relation to the contemporary frontispieces which were produced in Tabriz and Shiraz. This results in the fact that the themes represented as the double scene in frontispiece of Mu'nis al-ahrar, should be categorized under the so called “princely cycle”. The princely cycle is a series of themes and subjects assigned to representing court life and princely activities which were supposed as the ideal king characteristic according to Persian historical text and literature.
    Princely activities such as feast, hunt and fight were repeatedly depicted in the Persian panegyric poetry. The same happened in medieval Islamic metalwork the form of repetition of visual motifs of a feasting royal figure, hunters and animals and musicians. Consequently the feast and hunt scenes in the 14th century frontispieces whether representing a real king or nobleman are visual praise of ideal king and his ideal characteristics and activities in the same way as they appear in the panegyric poems which appear in the books’ front matters. In the double frontispiece of Mu'nis al-ahrar fi daqa'iq al-ash'ar the hunt scene is accompanied by a variation of feast scene, a private moment of courtly life. In addition to the Ilkhanid official Iconography this private scene could also be traced in the Seljuk minaie pottery in late 12th century. The private scene of Mu'nis al-ahrar frontispiece shows a hybridity in content and composition. In this frontispiece a royal hunt scene traced back to Sasanian royal Art on the right and a Persian private scene with a royal couple on the left, which is partly depicted in iconographic details of Ilkhanid Tabriz form a panegyric image.
    Keywords: Mu'nis al-ahrar fi daqa'iq al-ash'ar, Frontispiece, Feast, Hunt, Ilkhanate, Injuids
  • Mahmoud Mohammadian *, Behnam Kamrani, Hamed Dehghanan, Yasaman Giahi Pages 25-50

    Understanding how art markets emerge remains a major challenge, for marketing researchers. Art market plays a dual role; on the one hand leads to promote further understanding of artworks by young artists and on the other hand, encourages trade in art and culture. States take into account various dimensions of art and culture in developing their cultural development prospects since they are in nature constitute part of the development of the country. Therefore, the current paper aims to answer the question: “Who and which process conduct visual arts market and business and with what roles?” The current paper describes the mechanism of entry into the artistic community and being recognized as artists during the approval process, by which the artist finds legitimacy. Thus, we have qualitatively investigated literature on art market and marketing since 1970-2016 using Meta-Synthesis Research method. Having completed two screening stages, 17 papers and a thesis were selected as the main sources for detailed studies to response the posed question. The results show that the art market composed of members of the business entity, including fourteen member or institution define art based on the institutional framework of art world and conduct artistic life of an artist until they established in the art market taking on different roles in both primary and secondary market in four stages of creation, introduction, growth, and maturity. Finally, a framework was presented as art world interactions network explaining in detail the three aspects and accordingly, the presence of a network of specialists who can determine who in the world of art is timeless artist, and relying on an institutional definition of art as the art world inspired it and taking advantage of the power derived from the nature of institutions and their role in the approval process as the art market players to determine the structure of the market. It was named Visual Arts Institutional Business Network.
    The results are based on researches have been done out of Iran. So, it explains what is happening in countries which are majors in this business. There is not any exact information if Iran is pacing the same way. Therefore, another research should be done for such a conclusion about Iran. Optimistically, the events of the last decade like Visual Arts Auction of Tehran and the achievements of Iranian artists in International auctions promises that the art society of Iran is joining the art world movements.
    The audience of the research are students of Arts disciplines and artists who aspire to be an international branded artist. Reading the paper, they comprehend what steps they may take in the art world, what to expect from the members of the art network and what duties to accept mutually. The other audiences are the experts and students of Marketing discipline who learn about art market especially, the distribution system of artworks, the process in which an artist becomes branded and also the activities and events which are used in promoting both of them
  • Masume Gudarzi *, Mohammad Hadian pur Pages 51-68
    The discussion of architectural beauty has always been a concern of artists, architects and even philosophers, so there are different views on this subject, which sometimes do not have much in common with each other. In the early 20th century, in order to overcome these disputes, many artists tried to find principles for beauty in the visual arts such as painting, sculpture, architecture and other visual arts that were sometimes newly created. The culmination of the study of professional visual communication in the first half of 20th century was by artists such as Vasili Kandinsky, Paul Kelly, Mowholney, George Caps, Joseph Albers and their followers. Some of them were Bauhaus artists and theorists. By studying the characteristics of the visual elements, these people categorized and analyzed this aspect of visual arts. Almost simultaneously with the studies on the basics of visual art, some European psychologists found a way to discover the visual perceptions of mankind called Gestalt. The goal of all these efforts was to define a benchmark for recognizing the beauty that was needed due to the creation of new artistic disciplines, some of which were baseless and absent from beauty. Today we know result of these efforts, as the basics of visual arts. In this article we have considered Charles Johnson's nine principles for visual beauty, which include: 1- the fit, 2- the contrast, 3- the balance, 4- the harmony (composition),5- the variety, 6- the rhythm, 7- the variation in rhythm, 8- the movement and 9- the dominance of the focus point. From the view point of aesthetically, for the vast majority of people, the traditional architecture is in a position of superiority to the modern examples. This research by analysing the Boroujerdi house (which presented by UNESCO as a superior example) based on principles of knowledge of the basics of visual arts, tries to address the reasons for the visual superiority of traditional Iranian architecture. We work in descriptive-analytic method and used mathematical software PhiMatrix, for detect golden ratio in facades. The general process of work is that after proving the possibility of analyzing two dimensional images instead of three dimensional spaces and presenting the principles of visual enhancement. A number of images related to the main views have been analyzed to prove these principles. Based on analyzes obtained from the case study, these nine principles are extremely well observed in this house. It seems that the full observance of these visual rules, which all human beings unconsciously recognize, are the criterion of aesthetic perception; is the reason for choosing this home by tourists as a superior example. We see that such interdisciplinary research in the future could lead to a proper definition of beauty in architecture.
    Keywords: Basics of Visual Art, Beauty in Architecture, Traditional House, Iranian Architectur
  • Roohollah Eshagh zade, Hamid Sadeghian *, Elham Rohani esfahani Pages 69-83
    Nastaʿlīq (also anglicized as Nastaleeq) script has had continuity for centuries for its close relations with literature and showing the special visual effects. This type of script can be broken up into primary elements, the first and most important of which is the element of “point”. In addition to requiring them in reading, points have important roles in coordination and contrasts between visual energies in a word and in a line. Thus, the importance of the visual role of “points” is quite apparent. The considered aim in this article is analyzing the role of “points” from the viewpoints of visual principles and basis. It is also to compare the works done by Mir Emad Al-Hassani (Safavid era artist) and Gholam Hossein Amirkhani (contemporary dominant style), with regards to the components such as 1) the axis of the point, 2)the point slope (in two or three points), 3) the visual weight of the point. It is tried herewith to answer the following questions: - In which of the mentioned styles has placement of points been considered more, in accordance with the visual principles and basis? - What differences have the point axis, the point slope and the visual weight of the point in the styles used by Mir Emad Al-Hassani and Gholam Hossein Amirkhani? - To what extent is the basis and principle knowledge of visual arts important in placement of “points” in a calligraphy? The applied technique in this article is descriptive/analytical, and it is an applied study for its aim. Collection of the data is done by library method, and the author’s analysis is done by comparison of the works by the above-mentioned artists. The results of the present studies show that the allocations of points’ axes, the points’ slopes in two or three point basis, and their visual weight of the points in Mir Emad’s style are exactly in conformity with the visual aesthetics principles. This causes the increasing presence and effects of points in the letters and the words, as compared to Amirkhani’s style. In other words, “points” in MirEmad’s scripts have equivalent importance and status with letters and words.
    Keywords: Nasta?l?q script, point, Mir Emad Al-Hasani, Gholam Hossein Amirkhani
  • Yousef Mansourzadeh * Pages 85-100
    Abstract: This paper examines the formation of Lorestan bronzes and the effect of Gilgamesh the Mesopotamian myth on the Lorestan art. Surveying of the outstanding examples of many bronzes from the BC centuries in Lorestan shows that these people have been highly skilled in this profession and have been able to present their neighbors' culture with a particular artistic and elegant work. This research uses a descriptive-analytical method with an art history approach to link the Lorestan bronzes with Mesopotamian culture and myths and examines the flourishing period of Lorestan art. The purpose of this research is to investigate the role of Gilgamesh and its impact on Lorestan bronzes. The findings indicate that the ancestors of the Lor people, namely, the Caicos, have brought this art to their peak, given their racial characteristics and the time they ruled parts of the Mesopotamian lands. The results of this research show the long-standing relationship between the Caice and the Babylonians, the Sumerians, and the Assyrians. Gilgamesh, who is no longer an alien myth, but is associated with this people and plays an important role in the household instruments and instruments of donation and is considered as the main pillar of the art of Lorestan's bronze work. The work of Lorestan is the result of simple works that represent several centuries of the material revolution of the farmer and warrior. This art peaked in the fourth millennium BC. The significance of Lorestan's bronze work of art, the transfer of arts and ancestral traditions, the transfer of concepts and common religious issues, and the expression of the laws that have been admirable, heartbroken, admirable and admirable for all the tribes of the horseback rider, warrior and farmer of the old world. The Casits, creaters of these bronze works, in many of their beliefs, were influenced by the Mesopotamian culture and imitated them. And since most of these works have been obtained from cemeteries, it has been argued that Lorestan's bronzes has religious and mythic aspects. For this reason, Gilgamesh has embraced the Mesopotamian hero as a worshiping element. Gilgamesh , who is is a conqueror of giants and supporter of humans and animals, is the symbol of Mesopotamian epic and Mesopotamian hero , they considered him as a semi God in Sumer, Babylonia and Assyria, and is considered to be one of the gods in Lorestan, and most of all worshiped. With regard to historical, artistic and archaeological evidence, it can be concluded that the prevalence of Gilgamesh's role on the Lorestan bronze objects shows the influence of Mesopotamian civilization. And the role of the Gilgamesh in Lorestan has been a symbol of power, courage and humanity and a symbol of respect for animals and salvation of the earthly and the heavenly times.
    Keywords: Lorestan bronzes, Kassites, Gilgamesh, Mesopotamia
  • seyed saeed hosseyni *, Mohammad Reza Moridi Pages 101-120
    Iran and Turkey involved in profound transformations in every aspect of social life according to the modernization and westernization programs enforced by Reza Shah and Ataturk in the 1920s and 1930s. The modern states superseded former Ottoman and Qajar reigns which previously had influenced by the wave of modernization and thus the condition of development of modernization which disposed in the 19th century, heightened in the 20th. The Study of artistic changes under the influence of modernization seems to be necessary, as the impact of the process analyzed in various social and political aspects. The establishment of new western-style cultural institutions such as academies and museums profoundly affected the artistic transformation in these countries. In 1882 Osman Hamdi founded the Academy of Fine Arts and in 1911 Kamal al-Mulk relatively established early western-style art school in Iran. These changes had brought massive transformations in art of Iran and Turkey and then artists become enthusiast of western-style of arts and tried to imitate the modern art. This paper focused primarily on the art of painting in these countries between the beginnings of 20th century to 1960s. The objective of the research is to compare transformation of painting in the mentioned cutting edge in Iran and Turkey. So, for the sake of outlining the common tendencies in the modern painting, the comparative form was applied to study the changes in the art of painting in the context of modernization process of the countries. The approach relies on the modernization as mainstream which could have been lead in common experience in other fields like art of painting. The Peripheral-central situation is one of the key concepts in this theoretical approach. According to the concept, European developed countries have regarded as the central countries and the others, such as colonized and third world countries have regarded as the peripheral. The only way to development for peripheral countries, in this ideology, was becoming westernized. This peripheral situation specifies common condition of the countries in the beginning decades of the twentieth century, and formation of modern states of Ataturk and Reza Shah is outcome of this process. Is, According to the main question of the research, there any common process in the painting of Iran and Turkey at the mentioned period? If so, why the artists of the two countries experienced similar tendencies in their painting artworks? The method which used for this article is descriptive-analytic and its data collection have been done by library researches and processed by qualitative method. The analysis of research data reveals three major tendencies in Iranian and Turkish modern painting. The first, naturalism in academic style, on the genres of portraiture, landscape and still life; the second, modern painting under the influence of the European modern art's circles and the movements such as expressionism and cubism with the folklore accent; and the third, return to historical identity by restoration of formal elements of traditional arts in abstract forms and in modern expression. Accordingly, the modernization brought a common artistic process in the painting of Iran and Turkey, as like as the common structure in the politics.
    Keywords: modern painting, Iran, Turkey, modernization
  • khashayar Hojati Emami, Nazanin Bozorgi Zadeh*, Samira Hoseini Pages 121-137
    Nowadays, it is possible to assist designer and manufacturer in achieving success and ultimately their superiority compared to their competitors during design process and sales activities subject to the acquisition of required awareness and information on the degree of emotional influence of the products to be made. In shoe industry and in design and producing the high-heeled shoes, paying attention to creating desired emotion and customer’s attention in buying this type of shoes and the success in conveying this to customers, compared to its performance, has significant importance. This article attempts to have a broader understanding in shoe design from the perspective of emotion by providing aesthetic concepts in the structure of high-heeled shoes and to study the position of each of the elements of form, color and materials in creating and conveying emotion, which is the goal of a designer in design. After thorough literature review and pilot studies, two groups were selected each containing 30 samples from the store customers, female students and female professors of industrial design to be surveyed with regards to five products of “Charles and Keith” brand. This decision was based on collection and thorough assessment on 400 high-heeled shoes of the company and the given attention on design styles of shoes and their aesthetic factors using the method of Kansei engineering semantic differential as well as written and internet-based questionnaires containing seven-degree structure for 22 pairs of Kansei words. It is noteworthy to mention that the design style of top covering surface of shoe in selected products is based on internationally introduced styles for this type of shoes including Peep Toe, Plat Form, Pump, Sling Back, and Sandal. The reason for selecting questionnaire’s sampled respondents was the authors’ belief of the respondents’ interest, care and sensitivity to these products. According to the results of analysis on completed questionnaires using SPSS and the illustrated tables and diagrams, common or shared emotion from viewpoint of both groups of respondents were identified and the highest value in the rank was illustrated in the in event tree analysis (ETA) and the effects of form, color and materials were examined separately. Thereafter, using this methodology (i.e., ETA) by allocating scores to these factors, the contributing effects of each one of the factors in creating and conveying emotions, in the design process of a product were obtained. In this group of products, the results of research stressed on the significant impact of the form compared to the other factors of color and materials in creating an emotion received by the user at her first sight. It is expected that with utilization of findings of this research, the experts in this domain can have a novel approach and thinking in design process of shoes and to better solve such problems as lack of interest in buying the existing shoe products and consequently the reduction in sales volume in order to assist producers in protecting their capital as well as advancement in process of design and making the successful shoe products.