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علوم باغبانی - سال سی و دوم شماره 4 (زمستان 1397)
  • سال سی و دوم شماره 4 (زمستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/12/27
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
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  • داود اکبری نودهی *، محمد زنگویی، فضل شیردل شهمیری صفحات 495-506
    کم کردن تلفات آب و دفعات آبیاری یکی از راه کارهای اساسی در توسعه کشاورزی و به حداقل رساندن تنش های وارده به گیاهان محسوب می گردد، در این راستا یکی از این روش ها استفاده از سوپر جاذب است. به منظور ارزیابی سطوح مختلف سوپرجاذب بر رشد و نمو گیاه توت فرنگی در شرایط تنش خشکی، پژوهشی در سال 1389 در استان مازندران در خاکی با بافت لومی انجام شد. آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا گردید. تیمارهای تنش خشکی شامل 30، 50 و 70 درصد تخلیه رطوبت در دسترس خاک و پنج سطح سوپرجاذب، صفر، 25/0، 5/0، 75/0 و یک درصد وزنی و در شرایط گلدانی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که استفاده از سوپرجاذب بر تمام شاخص های رشدی شامل روندک، برگ، ریشه و بوته و شاخص های زایشی در شرایط تنش خشکی معنی دار بود. در تمام شاخص های رویشی به جز طول ریشه و طول روندک و تمام شاخص های زایشی بیشترین میانگین ها مربوط به تیمار یک درصد سوپرجاذب با 30 درصد تخلیه رطوبت بود، که به عنوان بهترین تیمار آزمایشی انتخاب می گردد. افزایش میزان مصرف سوپرجاذب باعث افزایش معنی دار وزن میوه ها گردید به طوری که با مصرف 25/0 درصد وزنی سوپر جاذب عملکرد نسبت به تیمار شاهد (صفر درصد وزنی) تا چهار برابر افزایش داشته است.
    کلیدواژگان: بیشینه تخلیه رطوبت، رشد رویشی و زایشی، عملکرد
  • مریم حقیقی *، بهاره نقوی صفحات 507-518
    برای بررسی اثر کلسیم و نانوکلسیم در گیاه گوجه‏فرنگی، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با چهار تکرار و تیمارهای کلرید سدیم با غلظت 0، 25 و 50 میلی‏مولار و کلسیم و نانوکلسیم با غلظت صفر، 150 و 200 میلی‏گرم در لیتر در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان انجام شد. نتایج آزمایش حاضر نشان داد که وزن تر ریشه با افزایش تنش شوری به طور معنی داری نسبت به شاهد کاهش یافت و کاربرد 150 میلی گرم در لیتر کلسیم باعث جبران کاهش تنش شوری در تیمار 50 میلی مولار شد. همچنین کاربرد 200 میلی گرم در لیتر کلسیم باعث افزایش چشمگیر حجم ریشه در شرایط تنش شوری شدید نسبت به تیمار شاهد شد. کاربرد 200 میلی گرم در لیتر کلسیم و 150 میلی گرم در لیتر نانوکلسیم باعث بهبود معنی دار محتوای کلروفیل در تیمار 50 میلی مولار کلرید سدیم شد. در شرایط شوری شدید (50 میلی‏مولار کلرید سدیم) اعمال 150 میلی‏گرم در لیتر کلسیم به ترتیب باعث افزایش 60، 63، 50 و 70 درصدی وزن تر و خشک ریشه، وزن تر شاخساره و حجم ریشه نسبت به تیمار بدون کلسیم شد. در تیمار 50 میلی مولار کلرید سدیم، کاربرد 150 میلی گرم در لیتر نانو کلسیم باعث جبران محتوای نسبی آب بافت (58/5 درصد) در شرایط تنش شد. کلسیم باعث کاهش اثرات تنش شوری شد اما مقایسه اثرکلسیم و نانوکلسیم نشان داد نانوکلسیم باعث ایجاد تغییرات معنی داری نسبت به کلسیم بر تعدیل تنش شوری در صفات رویشی نداشت.
    کلیدواژگان: حجم ریشه، شاخص پایداری غشاء سلولی، کلروفیل، مقدار نسبی آب بافت
  • مریم کمالی، محمود شور *، سید حسین نعمتی، امیر لکزیان، حمید رضا خزاعی صفحات 519-529
    کمبود آب از تنش های مهم غیرزیستی است که رشد گیاه را به شدت تحت تاثیر قرار می دهد. به منظور بررسی اثر تنش آبی بر سه رقم گل اطلسی پرکاربرد در فضای سبز شهر مشهد آزمایشی گلدانی به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملا تصادفی در چهار تکرار طراحی و اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل 4 سطح آبیاری (100 درصد (شاهد))، 80، 60 و 40 درصد ظرفیت زراعی) و 3 رقم اطلسی (Supercascade، Tango blue و Tango white) بود. نتایج نشان داد برهمکنش اثر رقم و سطوح آبیاری بر وزن خشک، سطح برگ، تعدادگل، قطر گل، طول جام گل، کلروفیل کل، نشت الکترولیت، محتوای رطوبت نسبی و میزان پرولین معنی دار بود. بیشترین وزن خشک ساقه (76/1گرم) در شاهد تنش (100 درصد ظرفیت زراعی) و در رقم Tango White بود. ضمن اینکه بیشترین وزن خشک برگ (07/2 گرم) و وزن خشک ریشه (43/0 گرم) در رقم Tango Blue مشاهده شد. با افزایش تنش از 100 درصد به 40 درصد ظرفیت زراعی، سطح برگ در رقم Supercascade از 314 به 49، در رقم Tango Blue از 405 به 44 و در رقم Tango White از 459 به 69 سانتی متر مربع رسید. بعد از اعمال تنش 80 درصد در رقم Supercascade2 درصد، در رقم Tango Blue10 درصد و در رقم Tango White 3 درصد و بعد از اعمال تنش 40 درصد در رقم Supercascade17 درصد، در رقم Tango Blue9 درصد و در رقم Tango White10 درصد نشت الکترولیت نسبت به شاهد افزایش یافت. مقایسه میانگین اثرات متقابل تنش خشکی و رقم بر مقدار پرولین نیز نشان داد بیشترین مقدار پرولین در رقم Tango White و در تنش خشکی 40 درصد ظرفیت زراعی و پس از آن در رقم Tango Blue و در تنش 40 درصد تجمع یافته است. به طور کلی دو رقم Tango Blue و Tango White هم در شرایط شاهد آبیاری رشد بهتری داشتند و هم در شرایط کم آبیاری مقاوم تر بودند.
    کلیدواژگان: پرولین، تعداد گل، سطح ویژه برگ، کلروفیل کل، نشت الکترولیت
  • الله کرم رستمی، مجید راحمی *، محمود ایزدی صفحات 531-541
    میوه خرما باارزش غذایی بسیار بالا در سبد غذایی مردم جایگاه ویژه ایی دارد. رقم کبکاب، خرمای غالب استان بوشهر بوده و دارای طعم و مزه بسیار خوبی هست. این پژوهش در دو سال متوالی در ایستگاه تحقیقات خرما و میوه های گرمسیری استان بوشهر باهدف تسریع رسیدن میوه و بهبود کیفیت آن با ایجاد یک میکرو کلیما در اطراف خوشه، بدون استفاده از مواد شیمیایی انجام شد. آزمایش در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با تیمارهای شامل پوشش های کنفی مشبک در شش رنگ سبز، سفید، زرد، آبی، طوسی و شاهد با چهار تکرار بر روی خوشه های جنوب و شمال درخت اعمال شد. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد پوشش ها اثر معنی داری روی فاکتورهای ظاهری و شیمیایی ندارند. ولی تیمارها به طور معنی داری سرعت رسیدن میوه را افزایش دادند و بیش ترین سرعت رسیدن میوه مربوط به رنگ طوسی که سبب شد میوه هفت روز زودتر برداشت شود.
    کلیدواژگان: پوشش رنگی، خرما، سرعت رسیدن میوه و کیفیت
  • زهرا کریمیان *، علی تهرانی فر، محمد بنایان، مجید عزیزی، فاطمه کاظمی صفحات 543-553
    با توجه به افزایش جمعیت و توسعه روزافزون شهرها تامین شرایط زیستی مطلوب برای شهروندان یکی از نیازهای اساسی جامعه شهری می باشد. به این منظور آزمایشاتی در فضای سبز دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد اجرا و داده های اقلیمی در زیر دو گونه درختی اقاقیا، کاج و فضای باز و همچنین طی یک دوره 19 ساله از ایستگاه هواشناسی مشهد دریافت، ثبت و آنالیز شدند. داده های گروه اول با داده های ایستگاه هواشناسی به منظور بررسی مشابهت اثر سایه حاصل از درختان و پوشش ابر بر تغییرات خرداقلیمی از نظر آماری مقایسه شدند. نتایج نشان داد بین دمای ثبت شده در زیر تاج درخت اقاقیا با کاج و بین رطوبت ثبت شده در این دو گونه درختی با فضای باز معادل، اختلاف معنی دار وجود داشت. همچنین، بین دمای ثبت شده در گروه آسمان کاملا صاف و آسمان نسبتا ابری با آسمان با پوشش ابر زیاد تفاوت معنی دار مشاهده شد. نتایج همچنین نشان دادند دما و رطوبت نسبی حاصل از سایه دو گونه درختی با آسمان نسبتا ابری و آسمان با پوشش ابر زیاد از نظر آماری قابل مقایسه نیستند. این یافته ها نشان می دهد که فضای سبز و سبز سازی محیط در مناطقی که اغلب در طول سال آسمان ابری دارند نیز نبایستی نادیده گرفته شود.
    کلیدواژگان: پوشش ابر، پوشش گیاهی، دما، رطوبت نسبی
  • بهروز مرادی عاشور، محمد ربیعی *، بهروز شیران، سعدالله هوشمند صفحات 555-566
    انار (Punica granatum L.) یک محصول مهم باغی و بومی ایران است که مصرف میوه و یا فرآورده های مختلف آن رایج است. با توجه به اینکه ایران دارای غنی ترین ذخیره ژنتیکی انار می باشد، اطلاع از میزان تنوع صفات مختلف و وراثت پذیری آنها در بین ژنوتیپ های موجود و شناسایی ژنوتیپ های پر محصول جهت استفاده در برنامه های اصلاحی از اهمیت خاصی برخوردار است. در این تحقیق برخی خصوصیات میوه 156 ژنوتیپ موجود در کلکسیون انار ساوه، با استفاده از 16صفت مورفولوژیکی و شیمیایی میوه در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی در سه تکرار مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. براساس نتایج تجزیه واریانس، اثر ژنوتیپ در کلیه صفات بسیار معنی دار بود. از 9 صفت مورفولوژیکی، صفات تعداد دانه در 100 گرم آریل و ضخامت پوست میوه تنوع بیشتری نسبت به سایر صفات دارند و از بین صفات بیوشیمیایی صفات شاخص رسیدگی، میزان آنتوسیانین و رنگ قابل جذب آبمیوه دارای بیشترین تنوع بودند که امکان استفاده از تنوع موجود در مراحل بعدی اصلاح انار را مهیا می کند. ارتباط معنی دار آماری نیز بین وزن میوه با صفات طول و عرض تاج، طول و عرض میوه، تعداد دانه در 100 گرم آریل، وزن آریل و نیز ضخامت پوست میوه وجود داشت که در اصلاح همزمان این صفات حائز اهمیت است. مقدار زیاد قابلیت توارث عمومی محاسبه شده برای وزن آریل، وزن میوه، تعداد دانه در 100 گرم آریل، و ضخامت پوست میوه دلالت بر کم بودن اثرات محیطی بر این صفات بوده و این صفات در فرآیندهای انتخاب نتاج در نسل های متوالی قابل استفاده هستند. براساس نتایج این تحقیق، با توجه به نرم و ریز بودن دانه ژنوتیپ شیرین هسته ریز شهداد، این ژنوتیپ می تواند در برنامه های بعدی هیبریداسیون در جهت انتقال صفت نرم دانگی به ژنوتیپ های تجاری به عنوان والد مورد استفاده قرار گیرد. ژنوتیپ دومزه باغ ملک ایذه نیز، از نظر شکل میوه، رنگ میوه و طعم نسبت به سایر ژنوتیپ ها برتر بود.
    کلیدواژگان: انار، تنوع ژنتیکی، وراثت پذیری عمومی، همبستگی
  • عزیزالله خندان میرکوهی *، سیده راضیه واعظ موسوی، احمد خلیقی، روح انگیز نادری صفحات 567-580
    این پژوهش به منظور مدیریت رشد و بهبود کیفیت گل دهی شمعدانی (Pelargonium hortorum L.H. Bailey) در باغ شیشه ای (تراریوم) در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با 5 تکرار و 15 تیمار تنظیم کننده رشد انجام شد. گیاهان شمعدانی در ابتدا با دو نوع کند کننده رشد شامل کلرمکوات کلرید (سایکوسل) در غلظت صفر، 1000 و 2000 میلی گرم در لیتر و پاکلوبوترازول در غلظت صفر، 25 و 50 میلی گرم در لیتر و سپس برای مدیریت گل دهی با غلظت های صفر، 50 و 100 میلی گرم در لیتر بنزیل آدنین تیمار شدند. ویژگی های رویشی، وزن تر و خشک اندام هوایی و ریشه، میزان رنگیزه های فتوسنتزی و همین طور ویژگی های مربوط به گل دهی ارزیابی شد. هر دو کندکننده رشد در غلظت بالا منجر به کاهش معنی دار ارتفاع شدند، در حالی که درمورد صفات قطر ساقه، تعداد برگ و سطح برگ پاکلوبوترازول باعث کاهش معنی دار نسبت به شاهد شد ولی سایکوسل تاثیر معنی داری نشان نداد. هم چنین کاربرد کندکننده های رشد باعث کاهش معنی دار رنگیزه های برگ شامل، کلروفیل ها و نیز آنتوسیانین ها شد. کاربرد بنزیل آدنین به تنهایی و در اثر متقابل با کندکننده های رشد باعث افزاش میزان کلروفیل های برگ شد. میزان رنگیزه های فتوسنتزی، سطح برگ و نیز قطر ساقه صفاتی بودند که در اثر بنزیل آدنین در مقایسه با کاربرد کندکننده های رشد افزایش نشان دادند در حالی که سایر صفات تحت تاثیر تیمار بنزیل آدنین قرار نگرفتند. به طور کلی، تیمار 50 میلی گرم در لیتر پاکلوبوترازول و بدون نیاز به بنزیل آدنین باعث بهبود شاخص های تولید گیاه شمعدانی شد.
    کلیدواژگان: بنزیل آدنین، پاکلوبوترازول، تنظیم کننده رشد، سایکوسل، گلکاری، گیاهان زینتی، گیاهان گلدانی
  • مسعود فتاحی *، عبدالرحمان محمدخانی صفحات 581-592
    این پژوهش به منظور بررسی اثر کم آبیاری بر ویژگی های ریخت شناسی گیاه انگور رقم ʼعسگریʽ در شرایط گلخانه در سال 1396 اجرا شد. آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با سه تکرار و دو فاکتور شامل قارچ ریشه آربسکولار و مقدارهای آب آبیاری بود. در این آزمایش برخی از ویژگی های ریخت شناسی از جمله ارتفاع، طول ریشه، حجم و تراکم ریشه، وزن تر و خشک برگ، ساقه و ریشه، سطح برگ، تعداد برگ آسیب دیده، سطح ویژه برگ، قطر برگ و درصد همزیستی ریشه انگور با قارچ ریشه ها اندازه گیری شد. نتیجه ها نشان داد تیمارهای قارچ ریشه و آبیاری 100 درصد باعث افزایش شاخص های وزن تر و خشک برگ، ساقه و ریشه، سطح برگ و درصد همزیستی قارچ ریشه گردید. در اثر کم آبیاری شاخص های اندازه گیری شده در آزمایش ازجمله ارتفاع، وزن تر و خشک ریشه، برگ و ساقه کاهش یافت به طوری که میزان کاهش در گیاهان بدون قارچ ریشه بیشتر از گیاهان همزیست با قارچ ریشه بود. به طور کلی استفاده از قارچ ریشه در این پژوهش باعث کاهش اثرات مخرب تنش کم آبی بر ویژگی های ریخت شناسی (خصوصیات ریشه، خصوصیات برگ و ارتفاع) گیاه انگور شد که در این بین قارچ ریشه های ورسیفورم و اتونیکیتوم بهتر از قارچ ریشه های موسه و اینترارادیس بودند. بیشترین ارتفاع در قارچ ریشه گلوموس اتونیکیتوم و بدون تنش با میانگین 54 سانتی متر مشاهده گردید.
    کلیدواژگان: تاک، خشکی، ریخت شناسی، مایکوریزا
  • فاطمه داوودی، مهدی رضائی *، پرویز حیدری، حسین حکم آبادی صفحات 593-604
    بررسی تنوع ژنتیکی، شناسایی و معرفی ژنوتیپ های برتر گردو در ایران به عنوان یکی از تولیدکنندگان اصلی گردو و منشا این گیاه، از اهمیت زیادی برخوردار است. از سال 1376 بذور ژنوتیپ های منتخب گردو از مناطق مهم گردوکاری ایران در کلکسیون گردوی مرکز تحقیقات سمنان (شاهرود) کشت شدند. از این دانهال ها 21 ژنوتیپ برتر با ویژگی های مناسب میوه انتخاب شدند و روی دانهال های بذری پیوند شدند. در این پژوهش علاوه بر معرفی ویژگی های مهم میوه این ژنوتیپ ها، تنوع ژنتیکی آن ها با 10 آغازگر ISSR مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. میانگین وزن میوه و وزن مغز در ژنوتیپ های انتخابی به ترتیب 34/14 و 33/7 گرم بود. بیشترین میزان وزن میوه و مغز به ترتیب به میزان 50/17 و 3/10 گرم در ژنوتیپ OR23 مشاهده شد. میانگین درصد مغز گردوهای برگزیده 17/51 درصد بود. بیشترین میزان درصد مغز (7/62 درصد) در ژنوتیپ T12 مشاهده شد. از ده آغازگر ISSR در 21 ژنوتیپ برتر گردو 112 باند ایجاد شد که از این تعداد، 102 باند چندشکلی را نشان دادند و برای آنالیز تنوع ژنتیکی استفاده شدند. بیشترین تعداد باند در آغازگرهای UBC.826 و UBC.888 با 14 باند مشاهده شد. بیشترین قدرت تفکیک کنندگی به میزان 71/7 در آغازگر UBC.826 و پس از آن در آغازگر UBC.887 مشاهده شد. ضریب تشابه بین ژنوتیپ ها از 51/0 تا 88/0 متغیر بود. دندروگرام تنوع ژنتیکی 21 ژنوتیپ گردو را به دو گروه اصلی و سه گروه فرعی در گروه اول تقسیم بندی نمود که با میزان زیادی با نتایج دسته بندی آنالیز به مولفه های اصلی تطابق داشت. نتایج نشان داد فاصله ژنتیکی متوسطی بین ژنوتیپ ها وجود دارد و ژنوتیپ های جمع آوری شده از مناطق ارومیه و تویسرکان فاصله ژنتیکی بیشتری نسبت به سایر ژنوتیپ ها دارند که با توجه به خصوصیات برتر می توانند به عنوان والدین با ژنوتیپ های انتخابی از منطقه شاهرود در برنامه های اصلاحی استفاده شوند.
    کلیدواژگان: تنوع ژنتیکی، تنوع مورفولوژیکی، گردو، نشانگرهای مولکولی
  • رحمت الله غلامی *، عیسی ارجی صفحات 605-614
    به منظور بررسی اثرات کسر آبیاری تنظیم شده بر ویژگی های رویشی، عملکرد و محتوای روغن و کارآیی مصرف آب و نیز تعیین مراحل حساس تجمع روغن زیتون در برابر تنش کسر آبیاری، پژوهشی در قالب آزمایش طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار و پنج تیمار آبیاری طی دو سال 1395 و 1396 در باغات زیتون منطقه جوانمیری واقع در غرب استان کرمانشاه بر روی درختان 14 ساله رقم زرد انجام گردید. درختان زیتون به فاصله 5×5 متر کشت شده اند و هر واحد آزمایشی شامل سه درخت بود. پنج تیمار آبیاری شامل 1- آبیاری به میزان100 درصد نیاز آبی درختان زیتون در طول فصل (شاهد)، 2- عدم آبیاری در طول مدت سخت شدن هسته و تامین آبیاری به میزان 100 درصد در سایر مراحل رشد میوه، 3- آبیاری فقط در سه مرحله قبل از گلدهی، در شروع سخت شدن هسته و یک هفته قبل از برداشت محصول به منظور تهیه روغن، 4- آبیاری به میزان 60 درصد نیاز آبی درختان زیتون طی کل فصل و 5- شرایط دیم، با سیستم آبیاری قطره ای اعمال گردید به منظور تعیین اثر کسر آبیاری تنظیم شده بر زیتون رقم زرد خصوصیات رویشی مانند طول و قطر شاخه سال جاری و نیز خصوصیات زایشی مانند درصد روغن در ماده خشک و تر، عملکرد روغن و میوه در هکتار، درصد ماده خشک میوه و کارآیی مصرف آب تحت رژیم های مختلف آبیاری ثبت گردید. نتایج نشان داد که صفات درصد روغن در ماده تر، عملکرد روغن و میوه در هکتار و نیز بهره وری مصرف آب تحت تاثیر رژیم آبیاری و اثر متقابل رژیم آبیاری در سال معنی دار بود. عدم آبیاری در طول مدت سخت شدن هسته باعث افزایش میزان عملکرد روغن و میوه در هکتار گردید. بهره وری مصرف آب در تولید روغن در تیمار آبیاری در سه مرحله رشدی میوه بالاتر از آبیاری کامل و دیگر تیمارها بود.
    کلیدواژگان: آبیاری، روغن، زیتون
  • فرج الله شهریاری *، عباس تنهائیان، مهدی اخلاقی، نرگس نظیفی صفحات 615-628
    در پژوهش حاضر اسانس گیاهان زیره سبز (Cuminum cyminum)، آویشن شیرازی (Zataria multiflora) و دو عصاره ی اتانولی گیاهان کندل (Dorema ammoniacum) و چویل (Ferulago angulata) در مقایسه با یک پپتید نوترکیب کایمری (لاکتوفرسین-لاکتوفرامپین) که از مهمترین اجزا ضد میکروبی شیر شتر می باشد جهت مهار عوامل بیماریزای قارچ خوراکی تکمه ای سفید، شامل باکتری Pseudomonas tolaasii و قارچ Trichoderma harzianum مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. اسانس گیری با استفاده از کلونجر و عصاره ها با استفاده حلال متانول 80 درصد و با روش خیساندن بدست آمد. پپتید نوترکیب کایمری از سلول های کلیه جنین انسان (HEK 293) استحصال شد. خصوصیات ضد باکتریایی و قارچی ترکیبات مورد آزمایش به ترتیب با استفاده از روش دیسک و اختلاط با محیط کشت بررسی گردید. حداقل غلظت بازداندگی (MIC) و حداقل غلظت کشندگی برای باکتری (MBC) و قارچ (MFC) محاسبه شد. تمام آزمایش ها با سه تکرار در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی انجام پذیرفت. نتایج ارزیابی های ضد باکتریایی نشان داد که پپتید کایمری، در غلظت 20 میکروگرم بر میلی لیتر بیشترین عملکرد را با میانگین قطر هاله بازدارنده 2/32 میلی متر در بین ترکیبات مورد بررسی داشت و بعد از آن اسانس زیره سبز و عصاره کندل به ترتیب با هفت و شش میلی متر دارای بیشترین اثر ضد باکتریایی بودند. نتیجه اثرات ضد قارچی ترکیبات مورد آزمایش در مدت زمان هفت روز نشان داد که اسانس های گیاهان زیره سبز و آویشن شیرازی بطور کامل از رشد قارچ T. harzianum جلوگیری کردند و بعد از آن عصاره گیاهان کندل و چویل با میانگین رشد کلنی قارچ به میزان 26 و 66/60 میلی متر بیشترین اثر ضد قارچی را دارا بودند. کمترین اثر ضد قارچی در مورد پپتید نوترکیب کایمری بدست آمد. با توجه به نتایج این پژوهش، پپتید کایمری اثرات ضد باکتریایی بیشتری در مقایسه با اسانس ها و عصاره های گیاهی دارا بود و در مقابل اسانس ها و عصاره ها در مقایسه با پپتید مورد آزمایش از توان ضد قارچی بیشتری برخوردار بودند.
    کلیدواژگان: اثر ضد میکروبی، پپتید ضد میکروبی، Pseudomonas tolaasii، Trichoderma harzianum
  • عاطفه صفایی فر، عبدالحسین رضایی نژاد*، صادق موسوی فرد، فیض الله شهبازی صفحات 629-640
    پژوهش حاضر به منظور بررسی تاثیر تنش لرزشی بر کنترل رشد گیاه حسن یوسف انجام شد. آزمایش به صورت گلدانی و بر اساس فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام گرفت. اعمال تنش پس از استقرار قلمه‎های ریشه‎دار شده، هر روز صبح بعد از طلوع خورشید در سه زمان صفر (شاهد)، پنج و 10 دقیقه و قدرت تنش در سه فرکانس 5/7 و 10 و 5/12 هرتز توسط دستگاه شبیه ساز لرزش انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد کلیه تیمارهای تنش لرزشی در تمامی قدرت‎ها و زمان‎های اعمال شده باعث کاهش ارتفاع گیاه شد. با افزایش قدرت و مدت تنش، ارتفاع گیاه کاهش بیشتری نشان داد به‎طوری‎که در گیاهان تحت تنش لرزشی با قدرت 5/12 هرتز و مدت زمان 10 دقیقه نسبت به شاهد 31 درصد کاهش ارتفاع نشان دادند. اعمال تنش لرزشی باعث کاهش تعداد و سطح برگ، طول ریشه، بیوماس گیاه و محتوای نسبی آب برگ نسبت به شاهد شد، اما تاثیری در نشت یونی نداشت. در بین تیمارها، گیاهانی که با قدرت 5/7 هرتز و به مدت پنج دقیقه تحت تنش لرزشی بودند، 16 درصد کاهش ارتفاع نسبت به شاهد نشان دادند اما سایر خصوصیات رشدی مانند قطر ساقه، سطح برگ، نشت یونی و مالون دی آلدئید و کلروفیل شرایط مشابه با گیاهان شاهد داشتند. با این حال برحسب شرایط تولید امکان انتخاب سایر شدت ها و مدت های تنش وجود دارد. بطور کلی بررسی نتایج این پژوهش نشان می‎دهد امکان استفاده از تنش‎های مکانیکی کنترل شده برای تولید گیاهان گلدانی کوتاه و پرپشت بدون استفاده از مواد شیمیایی وجود دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: تنش لرزشی، حسن یوسف، کاهش ارتفاع، کنترل رشد
  • هدی زارع میرک آباد، محمد فارسی *، سعید ملک زاده شفارودی، مهرداد ایرانشاهی، عبدالرضا باقری، نسرین مشتاقی صفحات 641-654
    ایران تنها رویشگاه طبیعی گیاه کما (Ferula ovina) است. ریشه های این گیاه دارای فروتینین، یکی از قوی ترین و گران قیمت ترین فیتواستروژن ها، با پتانسیل درمان پوکی استخوان است. با توجه به خواب عمیق بذر کما، عدم امکان تولید فروتینین با روش های شیمیایی و نیاز به تخریب منابع طبیعی به دلیل وجود فروتینین در ریشه کما، دستیابی به فروتینین در شرایط آزمایشگاهی ضرورتی اجتناب ناپذیر است. لذا پژوهش حاضر با هدف کاهش ریشه کنی گیاه در طبیعت و دستیابی به فروتینین در شرایط درون شیشه ای انجام شد. به منظور نگهداری گیاه در شرایط درون شیشه ای، 24 محیط کشت باززایی غیرمستقیم و 11 محیط کشت ریشه زایی با استفاده از طرح کاملا تصادفی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و نتایج آزمون TLC نمونه های کشت بافتی در جهت دسترسی به فروتینین بدون آسیب رساندن به ذخایر ژرم پلاسم مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج مقایسه میانگین ها با استفاده از آزمون توکی نشان داد، کالوس های سبز فشرده بزرگ در محیط کشتMS دارای 5/1 میلی گرم بر لیتر IAA و 1 میلی گرم بر لیتر، شاخه های بلند و شاداب در محیط کشت MSبا ترکیب 5/1 میلی گرم بر لیتر IAA و 1 میلی گرم بر لیتر kin MSو ریشه در شرایط درون شیشه ای در محیط کشت 1⁄2MS با ترکیب 1 میلی گرم بر لیتر IBA با اختلاف معنی دار نسبت به با سایر محیط های کشت، تولید می شود. با توجه به نتایج پژوهش حاضر، امکان تولید و نگهداری درون شیشه ای گیاه کما از طریق کشت بافت وجود دارد. همچنین با تایید وجود فروتینین در نمونه های کشت بافتی، تولید انبوه این ماده از طریق کشت سوسپانسیون سلولی و با استفاده از بیوراکتور امکان پذیر است. نگهداری F. ovina در شرایط درون شیشه ای، امکان دستیابی به گیاه کما بدون محدودیت های فصل رشد و رویشگاه و در نتیجه دسترسی به فروتینین موجود در ریشه آن با حفظ ذخایر ژرم پلاسم گیاه را فراهم آورد.
    کلیدواژگان: حفاظت ذخایر ژرم پلاسم، فروتینین، کروماتوگرافی لایه نازک، کشت بافت، Ferula ovina
  • عظیمه حاجی صادقیان نجف آبادی، ایمان روح اللهی * صفحات 655-664
    گلابی نطنزی از ارقام مهم گلابی بومی ایران است. ریزازدیادی امکان تولید گیاهچه های یکسان و مشابه گیاه مادری را فراهم خواهد نمود. پژوهش حاضر طی سه آزمایش برای شاخه زایی و ریشه زایی درون شیشه ای و سازگاری ریزنمونه ها با محیط بر اساس آزمون فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه کاملا تصادفی انجام شد. جهت تحریک شاخه زایی محیط موراشیگ و اسکوگ تحت تاثیر چهار سطح از تنظیم کننده های رشد بنزیل آمینو پورین3، ایندول 3-بوتیریک اسید4 IBA، همچنین جیبرلیک اسید5 مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. گیاهچه ها در محیط MS و MS با نصف غلظت عناصر ماکرو و میکرو، در حضور چهار سطح از اکسین های IBA و نفتالین استیک اسید6 تحت دو تیمار تاریکی و روشنایی ریشه دار شدند. سازگاری و بقا، درصد کلونیزاسیون میکوریزا، غلظت فسفر و برخی خصوصیت های مورفولوژیکی ریشه از قبیل میانگین قطر و تعداد ریشه گیاهچه ها به کمک دو گونه قارچ مایکوریزا G. intraradices و Glomus mosseae در دو بستر پیت ماس- پرلیت و کوکوپیت- پرلیت مورد آزمون قرار گرفت. بیشترین شاخه زایی در برهم کنش بین غلظت سه میلی گرم در لیتر BAP به همراه نیم میلی گرم در لیتر IBA و بیش ترین درصد ریشه زایی در تیمار محیط MS کامل حاوی نیم میلی گرم در لیتر NAA مشاهده گردید. 100 درصد گیاهچه های ریشه دار شده با محیط سازگار شدند. غلظت فسفر در بستر پیت ماس، میانگین قطر ریشه در حضور قارچ G. mosseae در بستر پیت ماس و تعداد ریشه در بستر کوکوپیت افزایش نشان دادند.
    کلیدواژگان: ریزازدیادی، سازگاری، قارچ همزیست ریشه، گلابی
  • محمدرضا اصغری، زهرا آذرشریف *، حسین تاجیک، علیرضا فرخزاد نانساء صفحات 665-680
    استفاده از مواد شیمیایی برای کنترل ضایعات و حفظ کیفیت محصولات برداشت شده به دلیل اثرات مضر بر محیط زیست با محدودیت های جدی روبرو است. اخیرا پوشش های خوراکی پتانسیل خوبی در حفظ کیفیت و ایمنی میوه و سبزی های مختلف از خود نشان داده اند. تاثیر پوشش صمغ باریجه (در غلظت های صفر، 1، 2 و 3 درصد وزنی/حجمی)، اسانس زیره سبز (در غلظت های صفر، 100 و 200 میکرولیتر در لیتر) و کلرور کلسیم (در غلظت های صفر و یک درصد وزنی/حجمی) بر واکنش های فیزیولوژیکی و کیفی میوه گیلاس رقم سیاه مشهد (Prunus avium cv. Siah Mashhad) مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. میوه های پوشش دار شده به مدت 30 روز در دمای 1±2 درجه سانتی گراد و رطوبت نسبی 95-90 درصد در انبار (پخچال) نگهداری شدند. ارزیابی کیفی میوه ها در ابتدای نگهداری، پس از 15 و 30 روز نگهداری در دمای 1±2 درجه سانتی گراد به علاوه یک روز نگهداری در دمای 20 درجه سانتی گراد انجام گرفت. پوشش صمغ باریجه، اسانس زیره سبز و کلرور کلسیم نه تنها سرعت افزایش pH و مواد جامد محلول را کاهش دادند، بلکه به طور موثری اسیدهای آلی کل، محتوی آب و درصد رطوبت میوه، فعالیت آنزیم فنیل آلانین آمونیالیاز، فنول و فلاونوئید کل میوه را در سطح بالا حفظ نمودند. همچنین در پایان مدت نگهداری بافت میوه های تیمار شده با یک درصد وزنی/حجمی کلرور کلسیم محتوی پرولین بالاتر و مالون دی آلدهید کمتر داشتند. ترکیب صمغ باریجه، اسانس زیره سبز و کلرور کلسیم با همدیگر به صورت معنی داری تاثیر بیشتری نسبت به کاربرد جداگانه تیمارها برکاهش فرآیندهای پیری، حفظ صفات کیفی، ترکیبات آنتی اکسیدانی و ماندگاری میوه گیلاس داشت.
    کلیدواژگان: پوشش دهی، ترکیبات سالم، عمر پس از برداشت، گیاهان دارویی
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  • Davood Akbari Nodehi *, Mohammad Zanguei, Fazl Shirdel Shahmiri Pages 495-506
    Introduction
    Water is one of the most important factors limiting plant growth and agricultural productivity in many areas of the world. Decreasing water losses and irrigation times are one of the basic countermeasures for agriculture development and minimizing the stress to plants. Correct management and applying improved techniques for saving and conserving the humidity of soil and increasing the soil water holding capacity is among the activities for productivity increasing and consequently exploiting limited water resources. New method in science of soil and water is using super absorbent materials as reservoirs and prevention from water wastage and increase of irrigation efficiency.
    Materials and Methods
    In order to evaluate the application effects of different levels of superabsorbent polymer on growth of strawberry plants under drought stress condition, a research was conducted in the Mazandaran province in loamy soil during 2010. Experiment was carried out as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications and three plants for each replication. Dryness stress treatments (30%, 50% and 70% of Maximum allowable depletion of soil moisture; MAD) and superabsorbent polymer (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 % of soil weight) were allocated to main and sub-plots, respectively. In this research the superabsorbent polymer TawaratA200 is used that is produced by the research center of petrochemical and polymer of Iran. Before planting, super absorbent polymer was added to the soil of pots in deepness of root development. For stress application, the pots were weighted every day. During the experiment, the physicomorpholigic characteristics such as number and length of stolones, number of leaves, plant length, biomass, fresh ‎and dry weight, fruit diameter, number and weight of fruit were estimated.
    Results and Discussion
    The results showed, superabsorbent and drought stress and their interaction ‎effects ‎effected on all factors. ‎In vegetative characteristics, number and length of stolones in ‎treatment of 1% superabsorbent and 30%of MAD (maximum allowable ‎depletion) has been maximum.‎ By increasing stress, number and length of stolones ‎declined. The lowest amount was obtained in the treatment of non-superabsorbent and ‎‎70% of MAD. With increasing stress, the number of leaves decreased and with ‎increased ‎superabsorbent, leaf number was increased.‎ Strawberry leaves in treatment of ‎one percent superabsorbent and 30%of MAD has a ‎maximum value and in treatment ‎of non-absorbent and 70% of MAD was minimal.‎ Root length, fresh and dry weight ‎were affected by the water stress. 70% of MAD ‎and 30% of MAD has ‎been the minimum and maximum amount, respectively.‎ The plant length, biomass, fresh ‎and dry weight, by reducing stress and increasing ‎superabsorbent has increased and ‎maximum values were obtained in the treatment of ‎‎30%of MAD and one percent of ‎superabsorbent.‎ In reproductive characteristics, fruit diameter reduction, occurred with ‎increase stress. ‎Fruit diameter was increased by adding superabsorbent and reducing ‎stress. In the treatment of 1% superabsorbent and 30%MAD the ‎maximum diameter of the fruit was obtained. Increased water stress has been causes ‎weight reduction. ‎In treatment 30%of MAD, the weight of fruit was obtained 4.17 g, ‎with the ‎increase of water stress, the ‎fruit weight was reduced to 1.99 g.‎ The use of ‎superabsorbent increases the yield. With an increase of 0.25%superabsorbent, fruit ‎weight was increased from 4.17 to 8.14 g. In the interaction of stress and superabsorbent, ‎the maximum weight of the fruit with ‎‎18.99 g was obtained in treatment of 1% superabsorbent and 30% MAD.‎ the maximum number of fruits was ‎obtained, in treatment with 1% ‎superabsorbent and 30% MAD with the ‎number of 19.67.‎
    Conclusion
    Super absorbent polymer plays an important role in enhancement of absorption capacity and retention of water in soil, fighting against water shortage and decreasing harmful effects of drought stress. The above mentioned rates of polymer have the best effect to all characteristics of strawberry in all levels of water stress treatment. The findings strongly suggest that the irrigation period of strawberry cultivation can be increased by application of polymer.
    Keywords: Maximum allowable depletion of moisture, Vegetative, reproductive growth, Yield
  • Maryam Haghighi *, Bahareh Naghavi Pages 507-518
    Introduction
    Salinity has deleterious effect through ion toxicity and changes nutrient balance on plant growth parameter. For decreasing the hazardous effect of salinity stress, some effort has done to reduce uptake and accumulation of Na. Adding of Ca decreased these deleterious effect of salinity. Calcium ions have significant effects on the physiological processes of plants and improve the morphological and biochemical factors of plants under salinity stress. The effect of calcium on reducing the harmful impacts of salinity from sodium depends on the plant type, calcium concentration and sodium source. Recently, the addition of nanoparticles to plants as fertilizers has attracted the attention of researchers because of its unpredictable effects, such as faster and easier penetration into the membrane of the cell. A few studies have examined the effect of different nanoparticles on the growth and physiology of plants. So, a research was conducted to investigate the effects of salinity and supplemental calcium in the form of spraying into two metal and nano-metal forms on vegetative growth of tomato plants under crop cultivation conditions.
    Materials and Methods
    To study the effect of CaCl2 and Nano-Ca on tomato (Lycopersicon escuhentum var. Falcato), a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 replicates was designed with NaCl (0, 25 and 50 mM) and Ca and N-Ca (0, 150 and 200 mg/l) in Isfahan University of Technology greenhouse. Indicators include chlorophyll index, relative water content, ion leakage, leaf water potential, root and shoot dry weights, root and shoot length and root volume were measured. Finally, the analysis of the results was done by statistical statistic software and comparing the meanings by LSD test at 5% level.
    Result and Discussion
    Results showed that Ca and Nano-Ca was effective on decreasing hazardous effect of salinity on fresh and dry weight of shoot and root volume and Ca was more effective than Nano-Ca. In high salinity level (50mM NaCl), application of 150 mg/l Ca increased fresh and dry weight of root, fresh weigh of shoot and root volume by 60, 63, 50 and 70 % compare to control ,respectively. As well as, the highest root length and shoot was observed in this treatment. Application of 200 mg/l calcium and 150 mg/l of nano-calcium significantly improved chlorophyll content in 50 mM sodium chloride treatment. The plant's compatibility mechanism is very complex in the salinity conditions, from reasons for the growth of the plant under saline conditions are the accumulation of toxic ions, chlorine and sodium in plant tissues, which reduces enzyme activity and changes the pattern of carbohydrate distribution. Loss of the fresh and dry weight shoots and root of tomato has been reported in salinity conditions, which can be attributed to reduce plant growth due to the decrease in leaf area growth and thus the reduction of photosynthesis and the production of proteins. There is little research on the use of nanoparticles in plant growth and the use of nano-calcium has been used to reduce salinity stress for the first time, but the beneficial effects of some nano-materials on plants have been proven. With the use of titanium and nano-titanium in spinach, nano-titanium increases the fresh and dry weight of the plant relative to the use of titanium. In this study, the effects of calcium salinity stress were observed, but nano-calcium had less effects than calcium, and probably due to the fact that the concentrations of nano-calcium were used, using less concentrations in future research to achieve possible concentrations are suggested.
    Conclusions
    The use of nano-calcium to reduce salt stress was used for the first time in this experiment. The results of this experiment showed that the application of 150 mg calcium per liter on many tomato traits such as root and shoot fresh weight, root length shoots and root volume were effective under salinity stress, especially intense salinity (50 mM sodium chloride). The comparison of the effects of calcium and nano-calcium showed that the particle size reduction hadn’t shown a significant effect on calcium salt modification and may be due to the concentrations of nano-calcium. Therefore, nanotechnology needs more research in the application of nano-calcium and other nano-materials. Ca also alleviated the hazardous effects of salinity but comparing Ca and nano-Ca showed that nano-Ca has not significant alleviating effect on salinity stress.
    Keywords: Chlorophyll content, Membrane stability index, Relative water content, Root volume
  • Maryam Kaamali, Mahmoud Shour *, Seyyed Hossein Neamati, Amir Lakzian, Hamid Reza Khazaei Pages 519-529
    Introduction
    Water deficiency is one of important abiotic stresses that severely effects on plant growth. The effects of drought range from morphological to molecular levels and are evident at all phenological stages of plant growth at whatever stage the water deficit takes place. Growth is accomplished through cell division, cell enlargement and differentiation, and involves genetic, physiological, ecological and morphological events and their complex interactions. The quality and quantity of plant growth depend on these events, which are affected by water deficit. Cell growth is one of the most drought-sensitive physiological processes due to the reduction in turgor pressure. Under severe water deficiency, cell elongation of higher plants can be inhibited by interruption of water flow from the xylem to the surrounding elongating cells. Impaired mitosis, cell elongation and expansion result in reduced plant height, leaf area and crop growth under drought. Chlorophyll content is one of the major factors affecting photosynthetic capacity changing in chlorophyll content of plant under drought stress has been observed in different plant species and its intensity depends on stress rate and duration. Chlorophyll content of leaf is indicator of photosynthetic capability of plant tissues. In the mid-80s, RWC was introduced as a best criterion for plant water status which, afterwards was used instead of plant water potential as RWC referring to its relation with cell volume, accurately can indicate the balance between absorbed water by plant and consumed through transpiration.
    Materials and Methods
    To study the effects of drought stress on three varieties of petunia, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted. The treatments consisted of four irrigation levels ((100% control), 80%, 60% and 40% of field capacity) and three varieties of petunia (Supercascade, Tango blue and Tango white). After planting and transplanting and after full deployment in the pot, water stress treatments were applied on three varieties of petunias. At the end of each week fully blossomed flowers were counted, flower diameter, peduncle length and corolla length were measured. In order to determine the stability of the cell membrane electrolyte leakage index was measured. Specific leaf area (SLA) was determined. The amount of chlorophyll a, b, total and carotenoid and relative water content in the leaves were measured. Statistical analysis was performed using the software MSTAT-C. EXCEL was used for diagramming software. Means were compared using LSD test with a 0.05 significance level.
    Results and Discussion
    Results indicated that interaction impacts of variety and irrigation on dry weight, leaf area, flower number, flower diameter, length Corolla, chlorophyll content, electrolyte leakage, relative water content and proline content was significant. The most shoot dry weight (76/1 g) was in control stress (100% FC) and Tango White variety. Also the most leaf dry weight (07/2 g) and root dry weight (g 43/0) were in Tango Blue variety. With increasing drought stress from 100% FC to 40% FC, leaf area decreased in Supercascade from 314 to 49, in Tango Blue from 405 to 44 and in Tango White from 459 to 69 cm2. In 80% FC, electrolyte leakage increased in all varieties (Supercascade variety 2%, Tango Blue 10% and in Tango White 3%) compared to control. Also electrolyte leakage increased in Supercascade 17%, in Tango Blue 9% and in Tango White10% in 40% FC compared to control. Comparison of interaction effects of drought stress and variety also showed the most proline had accumulated in Tango White and drought 40% of field capacity and then in Tango Blue and stress 40% of field capacity. Generally two varieties of Tango Blue and Tango White in control irrigation had better growth and also in low irrigation were more resistant.
    Keywords: Chlorophyll, Electrolyte leakage, Flower number, Proline, Specific leaf area
  • Allah Karam Rostaami, Majid Rahemi *, Mahmood Eizadi Pages 531-541
    Introduction
    As one of the oldest fruit trees, palm, from almost 5,000 years ago till now, has been growing in North Africa and the Middle East. Phenological ripening process of fruit trees are determined through factors such as genetic, environmental and controlled practices. Among these factors, radiation as a natural factor affects other processes such as photosynthesis, flowering, performance and color of a fruit. Considering the importance of producing organic fruits, it is highly effective to use different coatings to improve the gardening products .Results of this study showed the effect of light on strawberry fruit coating which has the capacity to pass higher levels of UV light. As a result of applying coating the average fruit weight, fruit number, phenols, pigments, anthocyanins and flavonoids were significantly increased, but no significant difference was observed for the total yield. Use of coverage on apple trees reduced physical damage and improved the color of the fruit. The blue covering improved the physical and chemical factors in banana. Date palm bunch covers offer several advantages to protect fruits from high humidity and rain, from bird attacks and also from damage caused by insects and diseases. A sturdy light-brown craft-paper is used in the USA to cover and provide good protection of the bunch during the ripening season. Bunch covering is, however, not only practiced against rain damage but traditionally is also used in the form of coarsely woven well-ventilated baskets (sund) to protect the maturing fruits from birds and prevent early ripening fruit from falling to the ground. Bagging treatment has been widely used as a physical protection technique in other fruit-tree species for not only protecting fruits from diseases and pests, but also changing the microenvironment of fruit development growth, which subsequently affects internal and external qualities, such as skin color, acidity, sweetness and aroma. A large number of experimental data obtained in peach, pear, apple etc, showed that bagging treatment might lead fruits to increase or decrease of ascorbic acid (Vc), TSS, anthocyanin, organic acids contents etc. This study also aimed to show how the quality, quantity and speed of the ripening process of fruit date palm Kabkab can be improved using covering method.
    Material and Methods
    This research was carried out at the Tropical Fruits and Dates Research Station in Bushehr Province. Considering the above purpose, a complete randomized block design was employed. Accordingly, 6 treatments including bags with dimensions of 120 × 70 cm in 5 colors (green, yellow, white, gray, and blue) and with a four-time repeating pattern were applied to 20 years old Kabkab palm trees. All trees were pollinated by a controlled pollinator. Factors measured included the ripening speed of fruit per unit of time, the weight of the entire cluster, cluster weight, fruit weight, TSS, TA and pH. Data collection and Analysis: factorial complete randomized block design was carried out and data were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance and least significant differences (LSD 5%).
    Results and Discussion
    Based on the results obtained, the direction and color of the bag on the characteristics of fruit appearance has no significant effect. Awad (2007) achieved similar results with colored bags including black, white, blue and white coating on the date palm Helali obtained. Alcobendas (2012) found that the geographical location of peach fruit on the tree has no effect on the weight of meat, fruit weight, fruit diameter, fruit dry weight and pulp to stone ratio. The results showed that bunch weight and fruit weight significantly increased in the north. Tyas et al (1998) reported lychee trees in directions of northeastern and northwestern produces the highest and directions of southwest and the southeast had the least amount of fruit. Gray coverage significantly increased the rate of ripening of the fruit in the unit time in both years. Awad (2007) said it might be possible that bunch bagging, especially with black and blue polyethylene bags, accumulated higher heat units than other bags and the controls. Consequently, accumulated heat might induce higher respiration rates and the CO2 accumulation within bags might lead to more acetaldehyde production and removal of astringency.
    Conclusions
    According to data obtained from physiological factors it can be concluded that palm bunch covering accelerates the ripening of fruits. Also, the data obtained from the directions of bunch shows those bunches located on the north side of the palm tree weigh more.
    Keywords: Covering color, Date palm, Fruit ripening, Quality
  • Zahra Karimian *, Ali Tehranifar, Mohammad Bannayan, Majid Azizi, Fatemeh Kazemi Pages 543-553
    Introduction
    Considering population growth and urbanization development, one of the main requirements of the urban society is to create appropriate life condition for dwellers. The microclimate is considered as one of the factors that affect the activity of people in the environment and in terms of tourist and recreational industry, it is considered as an important source of economic. Many climatic parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, radiation and wind speed can affect the quality of people's recreational activities. So far, many studies have been conducted in the world about the positive effects of vegetation specially trees in the urban landscape on the optimizing of microclimate and human thermal comfort. The cooling mechanism of trees and clouds in an area mainly by directly shading the ground surface and indirectly by supplying humidity are similar. Thus, perhaps it be possible to calculate the changes in temperature and relative humidity based on cloud categories and impute it to tree canopy and vegetation size. The purpose of the present study was to answer followed questions, 1) does the use of single tree produce a sensible difference in temperature and humidity relative to open space? 2) Does the acacia tree as an indicator for a broad-leaved species compare to the pine tree as an indicator for the needle species in terms of the microclimatic variation of around themselves act differently? 3) Do the microclimatic elements (Temperature and relative humidity) under the canopies are comparable to various cloudiness conditions?
    Materials and Methods
    The experiments were conducted at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. The climate data under two species of false acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) and pine trees (Pinus eldarica) and open space were received from Mashhad weather station over a period of 19 years, recorded and analyzed. In the comparison of the effects of vegetation and cloudy conditions on the temperature and relative humidity an assumption was proposed that has been mentioned in the following. The differences between the means of temperature and relative humidity obtained under SKC (Sky Clear) cloudiness conditions and in open space; under SCT (Scattered Sky) conditions and pine trees; and under BKN (Broken Sky) conditions and false acacia tree must be equal or these differences must be statistically not significant. In addition to the effect of tree canopy, the effects of days and hours on the temperature and humidity were investigated. To analysis and also mean comparison, SPSS 16 software was used.
    Results and Discussion
    The results showed that the temperature (decreasing) and relative humidity (increasing) were significantly different among various cloudiness conditions during 19 years. The results also indicated that between the temperatures recorded under the canopy of pine and false acacia trees, and also among of recorded relative humidity in two trees specious with corresponding outdoor spaces there were significant differences. Also, there were no significant differences among the temperature of the clear sky and the partly cloudy with that of the mostly cloudy sky. Further, clear sky and mostly cloudy sky showed significant differences in terms of relative humidity. Mostly cloudy sky and the partly cloudy sky compared with pine and false acacia trees were about 4.6 and 4.5oC cooler, respectively. The cloud covers, also could enhance the more level of relative humidity in the environment in comparison with single tree canopy, so that were caused a wetter environment equal to16.6 and 8.4 percent, respectively. The results also showed that temperature and relative humidity created by the shade from false acacia and pine trees are not comparable with the same climatic factors created by partly cloudy and mostly cloudy skies. In the present study, false acacia as a broad-leaved tree compared with pine tree and also open space could cool the environment about 0.65 degree C more that is in line with previous studies that showed the microclimatic impact of vegetation depend on crown and leaf size. Temperature and relative humidity in vegetation (trees) and cloudy condition are not comparable with microclimate and their impact on the environment is not the same. The cloud covers, also could enhance the more level of relative humidity in the environment in comparison with single tree canopy, so that were caused a wetter environment equal to16.6 and 8.4 percent, respectively.
    Conclusion
    This finding showed that climatic effects of cloud covers had no similarity compared with two studied trees species. It may also indicate that green space and greenery should not also be ignored in areas where cloudy skies are mostly present throughout the year.
    Keywords: Cloud cover, Relative humidity, Temperature, Vegetation
  • Behrouz Moradi Ashour, Mohamad Rabiei *, Behrooz Shiran, Sadollah Hooshmand Pages 555-566
    Introduction
    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L., Punicaceae family), a native Iranian horticultural plant, is used as fresh fruit and also for other products and has special economic position in the world. It is estimated that pomegranate fruit production in Iran was about 900000 tons in 2016 which provinces of Fars, Markazi, Khorasan, Yazd and Isfahan had the highest production respectively. Iran is the center of diversity and most probably center of origin of Pomegranate, so during the years, many attempts have been done to collect different genotypes. The National Research Station of Pomegranate of Saveh has three set collections including 760 genotypes collected from all around of Iran. Assessment of genetic variation among these genotypes to use in breeding programs should be considered as first priority. Researchers use different methods to measure genetic diversity of plants including DNA markers, isozymes and morphological traits. Using morphological characteristics that are easily measured and have high heritability is a convenient tool to assess the amount of genetic diversity of plants.
    Material and Methods
    In order to determine genetic variation and heritability on morpho-pomological traits, pomegranate genotypes were selected from different habitats of Iran that are already planted in the collection of National Research Station of Pomegranate of Saveh in 2016. Genotypes that had similar descriptor or genotypes that had not sufficient fruit to get involved in the experiment, were excluded. Selected genotypes (156 genotypes) were evaluated based on a completely randomized design with three replications using nine morphological traits including length of calyx, width of calyx, number of seed in 100-gram aril, thickness of peel, weight of fruit, length of fruit, width of fruit, weight of peel, weight of aril. Biochemical characteristics of fruit including total soluble solids, titrable acidity, maturity index, pH, EC, anthocyanincontain and absorbable color of juice were measured for each genotype without replication (five fruit were selected randomly for each genotype). Statistical analyses including analysis of variance, correlation coefficient, and broad sense heritability, phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation were estimated using SAS 9.0 software.
    Results and Discussion
    Analysis of variance showed that the effect of genotypes in each trait is highly significant (p-value=0.01), indicating a wide variation among these genotypes. Considering range for each trait reveals remarkable differences between genotypes especially for number of seed in 100-gram aril and anthocyanin content. Results showed that among 9 morphological traits, aril seed (g 100 aril-1) and peel thickness, also among 7 chemical traits, anthocyanin content, absorbable color of juice and maturity index had the highest variation. The most positive and significant correlation coefficients was observed between fruits weight with length and diameter of fruit, length and diameter of calyx, aril weight, seed number (g 100 aril-1) and peel thickness. Correlation between qualitative and quantitative traits were not significant. The highest phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation was observed on fruit weight, peel thickness, seed number (g 100 aril-1) and aril weight. A high broad sense heritability was observed for aril weight (g 100 aril-1), fruit weight and peel thickness.
    Conclusion
    Based on the results of this study, there was a high genetic variation among genotypes for most traits. As it was expected, Iranian collection of pomegranate is a rich source for this plant and highly supporter for other breeding researches. High correlation coefficient of fruit weight with other morphological traits is useful for early selection of high performance genotypes. For instant, genotypes with high diameter of calyx most probably will produce high yield. There was not statistically significant correlation between morphological and biochemical characteristics. That is to say genotypes with low yield should not be excluded in further research programs because of their beneficial biochemical traits; they can be involved in crosses with high yield genotypes to improve their biochemical characteristics. Pomnograte genotypes with good quality traits are also useful for industrial, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes. Results of our experiment indicate that due high broad sense heritability of aril weight, fruit weight, peel thickness and aril weight, environmental effect on these traits is less than genetic effect. Therefore, selection based on these traits could successfully be used to improve genetic base of pomegranate genotypes in the next generations. Also based on the results of this research Hasteriz- Shahdad and Domaze- Izeh genotypes were the best for soft seed, color and flavor fruit.
    Keywords: Broad sense heritability, Correlation, Genetic variation, Pomegranate
  • Azizollah Khandan Mirkohi *, Seyedeh Razieh Waeez Mousavi, Ahmad Khalighi, Rouhangiz Naderi Pages 567-580
    Introduction
    Cultivation of ornamental plants in terrariums is common, but the use of flowering plants in such environment is difficult and rarely seen. Common geranium (Pelargonium hortorum L.H.) is the most well-known potted and garden plant in the top of 25 popular world's market rankings. Today, one of the main goals of commercial producers is the production of the uniform plants in terms of morphological traits such as uniformity in the height that needs some management. To achieve this objective plant genetic potential, managing the growth and environmental factors, restrictions on root environment, water and nutrition to a level that does not affect the quality as well as application of chemical plant growth retardants (PGRs) could be considered. Paclobutrazol (PBZ) commercially known as Bonzi and chlromequat chloride (CCC) known as cycocel are commonly used to control the height of some pot plants. Additionally, Benzyladenine (BA) as a synthetic cytokinin can influence the growth characters of plants. This experiment conducted to evaluate the effect of paclobutrazol, cycocel and benzyladenine on the growth and flowering of geranium as a flowering terrarium plant.
    Materials and Methods
    The effect of PBZ, CCC and BA evaluated as a factorial experiment based on CRD on the growth and flowering of geranium (Pelargonium hortorum L.H. Bailey ‘Horizon’) as terrarium plant. At first, geranium seeds planted in tray cells as plugs filled by sieved black peat to below 2 mm in early autumn, Oct. 2015. Seedlings were grown in a greenhouse conditions with an average day/night temperatures of 25/20 ± 2 °C, nourished with 1:2 ratio diluted Hoagland nutrient solution as irrigation demand, until 2-4 leaves stage then transferred into terrarium containers (with 20 cm of middle diameter and 15 cm of height). Inside container relative air humidity was about 75±5% and growing environment light intensity (PPF) was about 500 µmole m-2S-1. Irrigation and nutrition also applied at seedling stage in terrarium. Terrarium glass container totally filled to a quarter of volume considering a drainage layer of gravel, activated charcoal, a layer of substrate barrier (plastic net), potting soil containing of 20 vol.% sieved field loam soil, 10 vol.% of fine perlite and 70 vol.% of sieved black peat. PBZ at the levels of 0, 25 and 50 ppm and CCC at the levels of 0, 1000 and 2000 ppm applied one month after transplanting (Feb. 2015) and BA treatment for flowering management applied at the levels of 0, 50 and 100 ppm four months after transplanting (May 2016). Growth and flowering characters evaluated thoroughly while root and shoot fresh and dry weight, photosynthetic pigments of chlorophyll, carotenoids, and anthocyanin index assessed at the end of the experiment.
    Results and Discussion
    Both growth retardants PBZ and CCC led to a significant reduction in plant height in high concentrations. Thus, the effect of PGRs on plant height was significant, while the effect of BA and its interactions by PGRs on this trait was not considerable. Effective treatments on this trait were PBZ in concentration of 50 ppm and then CCC in 2000 ppm. In particular, the use of these concentrations without BA treatment led to the shortest plants. Comparison of plants cultivated in the pot and terrarium conditions showed that the growth conditions had a considerable and significant impact on plant height and growth. Stem diameter, number of leaves and leaf area significantly reduced by PBZ compared to the control, but CCC did not show a significant effect on these traits. Smaller stem diameter occurred through 25 ppm of PBZ together with 50 ppm of BA. Application of PBZ especially at 25 ppm resulted in a significantly reduced number of plant leaves and leaf area compared to the control and application of CCC. Application of CCC at the level of 2000 ppm combined with BA of 50 ppm caused to a significant increase of leaf area compared to the control. Results on the number of lateral branches showed that application of PGRs had no effect on this character, while restriction of growth in terrarium conditions led to decrease in the number of lateral branches. Number of lateral branches raised by application of BA and CCC, while less number of branches observed with PBZ treatments especially at the level of 25 ppm. Chlorophyll and anthocyanin content of leaves decreased by both retardants. Days to flowering shortened by PBZ treatment of 50 ppm and slightly by CCC treatment of 1000 ppm in terrarium conditions. In general, flowering process accelerated via these treatments, while PBZ of 25 ppm and CCC of 2000 ppm delayed the flowering of plants compared to the control. The acceleration effect of 50 ppm PBZ was superior to the effect of 1000 ppm of CCC. The effect of BA on flowering time was insignificant despite of initial prospect. Finally, the photosynthetic pigments, leaf area and stem diameter increased because of BA, while flowering characters not influenced by means of BA. In general, 50 ppm of PBZ and without BA treatment was able to improve production characters of geranium plants in terrarium conditions.
    Conclusions
    The goal of this research was managing the growth and flowering of geranium in the restricted terrarium conditions by PGRs. It was found that treatment of plants by 50 ppm of PBZ could properly control the plant height and whereas positively accelerated flowering without and negative side effects on the plant performance. It seems that a good hormonal balance performed by this concentration of PBZ compared to CCC and BA. Early flowering is a positive quality trait for the most flowering ornamental plants. However, BA application itself and in interaction with CCC could enhance the photosynthetic pigment contents and thus improved the growth characters but it could not influence flowering traits even though delayed the flowering, significantly. Restriction of the root area via planting in terrarium could considerably limit the vegetative growth characters and delayed the flowering compared to the potted plants.
    Keywords: Benzyl adenine, Cycocel, Floriculture, Ornamental plant, Paclobutrazol, Plant growth regulator, Pot plants
  • Masoud Fattahi *, Abdorahman Mohammadkhani Pages 581-592
    Introduction
    Abiotic stresses, in particular drought, not only compromise crop quality and limit yield, but also restrict the geographical range over which crop production is viable. Plant species have evolved a number of physiological and molecular means to cope with adverse environmental conditions. Grapevine is a perennial crop grown in various areas around the world. It is highly responsive to local environmental conditions and viticultural practices. Abiotic stresses cause extensive losses to agricultural productivity. Grapevine is no exception to the rule and faces several abiotic stresses throughout its lifespan. Drought, salinity, or heavy metals are serious problems in many parts of the world. The potential of AMF to enhance plant tolerance to abiotic stress conditions has long been known, and their use in sustainable agricultural systems will be of tremendous importance for soil quality and crop productivity under severe edapho-climatic conditions. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), a kind of beneficial soil microorganism, can create a symbiotic association with plant roots forming arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs), which play a role in the regulation of plant growth. This research was carried out in order to determine the effect of deficit irrigation on morphological characteristics of grapevine ʽAsgariʼ cultivar in greenhouse conditions in 2016.
    Materials and Methods
    The layout was as a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replication and two factors, including Arbuscular mycorrhizal and irrigation regimes. Irrigation treatments were irrigation with 100% moisture content of field capacity (control), 70% moisture content between field capacity and permanent wilting point (MAD 30) and 40% moisture content between field capacity and permanent wilting point (MAD 60) and mycorrhizal treatments was including non-use of mycorrhizal and use of Glomus mosseae, G. intraradices, G. etunicatum and G. verciform. Some morphological traits including height, root length, root volume and root density, fresh and dry weight of leaf, stem and root, leaf area, number of leaf damage, leaf area, leaf diameter and symbiosis percent of grape roots with fungi were measured.
    Results and Discussion
    The results showed that mycorrhizal and 100% irrigation treatments increased the fresh and dry weight of leaf, stem and root, leaf area and the percentage of mycorrhizal symbiosis. Due to irrigation, the indices measured in the experiment such as height, fresh and dry weight of root, leaf and stem decreased, so that the decrease in without mycorrhizal plants was more than the with mycorrhizal plants. Generally, the use of mycorrhiza in this research has reduced the damaging effects of water stress on the morphological characteristics of grapevine, which in between the G. verciform and G. etunicatum were better than the G. mosseae and G. intraradices.
    Conclusion
    Grapevine phosphorus deficiency is usually rarely observed, not only mainly because of limited phosphorus requirement, but also because of sufficient phosphorus richness in the majority of vineyard soils and remobilization from bark, wood, and roots during periods of high P demand. Nevertheless, P deficiency have been described in vineyards in Australia, France, Germany and USA. Phosphorus deficiency symptoms correspond to stunt shoot growth, decrease in dry matter, and berry clusters. Mycorrhizal treatments helped in alleviation of drought stresses. Enhanced uptake and storage of P, beyond what is required for immediate vegetative growth may be of particular importance for heavily pruned crops like grapes, since most of the new shoot growth is removed every year. These results were achieved in the greenhouse under almost controlled conditions and can be difficult to suggest for applying in the field conditions. Such experiments may be organized in the field conditions. Present-day vineyard practices place several constraints on the use of functions provided by mycorrhiza. The risk of large, costly, or irreversible changes is to be reduced or averted. Future (modern) agriculture should be based on the implementation of ecological management practices that deliberately maintain resilience of ecosystem services. This means integrating the development of vineyard management strategies that optimize the impact of beneficial microbes like mycorrhizal fungi on production. Furthermore, AMF vary in their ability to provide ecological services so that suitable tools have to be defined to fully assess their contribution. Molecular tools have considerably improved the possibility to identify and monitor mycorrhizal fungi in ecosystems, but a quick and reliable test for assessing their functionality is still lacking. For producers’ expectations to be met, a novel industry encompassing soil/mycorrhiza analyses and advice to producers/managers is needed. Additional barriers to rationally exploiting beneficial soil microbes like mycorrhizal fungi as ecosystem services range from economical, technical, and cultural aspects to legislative questions. In spite of this, considerable progress has been made in the last decade for crop plants in general, but also for grapevine, towards the use of AMF.
    Keywords: Drought, Grapevine, Morphology, Mycorrhiza
  • Fatemeh Davoodi, Mehdi Rezaei *, Parviz Hidari, Hossin Hokmabadi Pages 593-604
    Introduction
    Iran is known as the origin of Persian walnut in the world, and so the study of genetic diversity, identifying and introducing superior walnut genotypes from the main walnut production areas in Iran is very important. From the beginning of the year 2001, seeds of selected walnut genotypes from important walnut production area of Iran were collected and cultivated in a walnut collection in Semnan Research Center (Shahrood), Iran. From this collection, promising walnut genotypes were selected based on climate adaptability to Shahrood area and pomological characteristics. In this research, in addition to introducing fruit characters of these walnut selected genotypes, genetic diversity and their genotypes relationship in the genome level have been also investigated with the ISSR markers.
    Materials and Methods
    40 selected genotypes of important walnut regions of Iran (Tuyserkan, Orumieh, Karaj and Khorasan province) were cultivated in a walnut collection at the Shahrood Research Center in 2001. From these seedlings, 21 genotypes were selected on the base of pomological characteristics and they were grafted onto Persian walnut seedlings. Pomological traits of the fruits of these selected genotypes including the average of nut weight, kernel weight, kernel percentage, shell attachment to the kernel, kernel color, shell thickness and nut size and shape were measured. DNA was extracted from young leaves of walnut genotype by CTAB method and its quality and quantity evaluated on the agarose gel as well as the Nano drop, and then genomic DNA was amplified with the 10 ISSR primers in PCR. The amplified bands were separated by Metaphor agarose gel and stained with Ethidium bromide. For each primer, the amplified band range, the total number of bands, the number of polymorphic bands, the polymorphic percentage, Average informative band (AvIb) and resolving power (Rp) was determined. UPGMA dendrogram based on Jaccard similarity matrix was the performance by Ntsys 2.0 software. Principle Coordinate analysis was performed based on the genetic distance matrix with GenAlex 6.2 software.
    Results and Discussion
    The mean of fruit and kernel weight in selected walnut genotypes were 14.34 and 7.33 g, respectively. The highest nut and kernel weight was found to be 17.5 and 10.3 g, respectively in OR23. The Kernel weight was more than kernel weight reported by Shamlu et al. (2015), Yarilgak et al. (2001) and Tasmuris et al. (2002) (9.40, 8.88 and 6.32 g). The average of kernel percentage in selected walnuts was 51.5%. The highest percentage of the kernel (62.7%) was observed in T12 genotype. from the ten ISSR primers in 21 walnut genotypes, 112 DNA fragments were amplified and 102 DNA bonds of them were polymorphic and they were used for genetic variation analysis. The highest number of amplified DNA bands was observed in UBC826 and UBC888 primers with 14 bands. The highest average band informative (AvIb), 0.62, was observed in UBC887 and UBC886 primers. The highest resolving power (Rp) was found to be 7.71 in UBC826 primer and then in UBC.887 primer. The Jaccard' similarity coefficient of genotypes varies from 0.51 to 0.88. The results showed that the genetic distance of selected genotypes of walnut is medium. The dendrogram analysis of 21 genotypes of walnuts was divided genotypes into two main groups and three subgroups in the first group, which greatly matched the results of the PCoA. The genotypes were collected from Shahrood were inserted on the first subgroup of GI in dendrogram analysis, except of KH4 and OR37 genotypes, and the highest genetic similarity was observed between some of these genotypes (R1G2 with R2G1 and R1G7). The second group includes genotypes KH34, OR26, and SH1. Subgroup 3 of the first group contains R2G8, K26, OR23, T12, and K28. The second group has high genetic distances including R2G4, KH31, T1, OR4, and T9.
    Conclusion
    The ISSR marker technology is an inexpensive, easy and satisfactory way to evaluate genetic relationships and genetic variation among walnut cultivars. The results of this research showed that these markers (ISSR) are suitable for study of variation in walnut genotypes. The genotypes collected from Shahrood had a lower genetic diversity, and the observed diversity is probably related to human interactions. The Tuyserkan and Urmia genotypes showed more genetic variation. The results of clustering based on molecular markers were largely matched with the grouping based on qualitative traits. The results showed that there is a moderate genetic distance between selected walnuts genotypes. The genotypes collected from Urmia and Tuyserkan regions have a higher genetic distance than other genotypes and which according to their superior characteristics, they can be used as parent along with selected walnut genotypes from the Shahrood area in a breeding program.
    Keywords: Clustering, Genetic diversity, ISSR markers, Walnut genotypes
  • Rahmatollah Gholami *, Issa Arji Pages 605-614
    Introduction
    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is an ever-green and drought-tolerant tree grown on regions with limited water resources to produce oil and table products. Due to existing appropriate environmental conditions in our country for its growing, and also considering public desperate needs to its oil product, olive is economically considered to be an important fruits to be cultivated. The problem of supplying sufficient water for irrigation olive orchards, due to serious threats of ongoing drought and reduction in water resources, is one of the main limiting factors on the way to develop olive industry in country. Accordingly, some suitable approaches like using tolerant cultivars, mulches, reduction of plant transpiration, plant growth regulators, and recently evaluating proper time for irrigation have been examined to increase efficiency of water use. According to this approach, irrigation schedule is designed mainly based on maintaining plant’s water status internally and regarding maximum level of water potential at particular stages of plant cycling, especially at time of lowest sensitivity of fruit growth to drought stress. So far, many studies performed over effects of drought stress and water deficit on vegetable growth of olive under pot conditions. With respect to establishing olive orchards on different regions of country and appearing serious drought threats, it is imperative to investigate the effects of regulated irrigation deficit on all bearing fruit trees. Hence, determining the insensitive stages of fruit growth toward regulated irrigation deficit has been received great attentions in terms of economical yield. The purposes behind doing the current study were to investigate and compare effects of different regulated deficit irrigations on vegetative and reproductive parameters of olive grown under field conditions.
    Materials and Methods
    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of regulated deficit irrigation regime on vegetative, oil yield and oil content and water use efficiency of zard cultivar under field condition. This experiment was conducted in Javanmiri region (Geographical characters was longitude of 58˚, 45΄ E and latitude of 35˚, 34΄ N and the height of sea level 1215m) located in Kermanshah province. An experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Adult olive zard cultivar was uesd. Each experiment unit consists of three trees. Vegetative and reproductive traits were evaluated according to I.O.O.C. descriptors. five irrigation regimes including of full irrigation (as control), regulated deficit irrigation (100% of full irrigation during growing season and no irrigation during pit hardening), irrigation in three stages (before flowering, pit hardening and before harvesting), 60% of full irrigation (continuous deficit irrigation) and no irrigation (Rainfed). To evaluate the effect of irrigation regimes, some vegetative traits including current season growth and current season diameter, dry and fresh oil content, fruit mass percent, oil and fruit yield and water use efficiency were measured. Collected data were analyzed using SAS program.
    Results and Discussion
    Obtained results showed that the highest oil and fruit yield were observed at full irrigation and regulated deficit irrigation (100% of full irrigation during growing and no irrigation during pit hardening, but the lowest one found at Rainfed. The water use efficiency of oil yield of T3 was higher than 100ETc and other treatments. In the arid and semi-arid as well as sub-tropical regions, water shortage is a normal phenomenon and seriously limits the agricultural potential. Therefore, under irrigation or rain-fed conditions, it is important for the available water to be used in the most efficient way. Regulated deficit irrigation is an optimizing strategy under which crops are allowed to sustain some degree of water deficit and yield reduction. During regulated deficit irrigation the crop is exposed to certain level of water stress either during a particular period or throughout the growing season. The main objective deficit irrigation is to increase water use efficiency (WUE) of the crop by eliminating irrigations that have little impact on yield, and to improve control of vegetative growth (improve fruit size and quality).
    Conclusion
    According to the results of this research, it can be concluded that regulated deficit irrigation had a significant effect on reproductive traits. Using regulated deficit irrigation improved pomological characteristics of olive including oil and fruit yield under drought stress and helped to save irrigation water in olive orchards.
    Keywords: Irrigation, Oil, Olive
  • Farajollah Shahriari Ahmadi *, Abas Tanhaeian, Mahdi Akhlaghi, Narges Nazifi Pages 615-628
    Introduction
    The most serious diseases of cultivated mushrooms are caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii and Trichoderma harzianum pathogens. A common method of pathogen control on farms worldwide is the application of various chemical pesticides. Many of these substances are unsafe for human and environment. The interest in discovering and developing natural antimicrobials has significantly increased due to consumer preferences for foods that are free of chemical residues. So, a major challenge for mushroom growers is to control diseases with alternative compounds such as essential oils and plant extracts. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were also known as potential antibiotic and considered as a new antimicrobial agents. In the present study, the antibacterial and antifungal potential of essential oils, plant extracts and a recombinant peptide were investigated for their pathogenicity. For this purpose, the essential oils of Cuminum cyminum and Zataria multiflora and the plant extracts of Dorema ammoniacum and Ferulago angulata and a recombinant peptide were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antifungal effects on the P. tolaasii and T. harzianum pathogens.
    Materials and Methods
    In this study, essential oils of C. cyminum and Z. multiflora were extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus. The plant extracts (D. ammoniacum and F. angulata) were prepared using maceration method. Recombinant peptides (Lactoferricin-Lactoferrampin) were produced from Adherent Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK293). The antifungal properties of essential oils, plant extract and AMPs were studied on growth inhibition. Antibacterial activity of substances were tested against P. tolaasii via disk-diffusion method respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and Minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) to the compounds were studied. All treatments were considered in a completely randomized block design with three replicates.
    Results
    The results of the antibacterial evaluations showed that the Chimera peptide have remarkable activity against pathogenic bacteria with a mean diameter of the zone inhibition region of 32.2mm, followed by C. cyminum and D. ammoniacum extracts with mean values of 7 and 6 mm respectively. Regarding to antifungal activity of substances isolated from above material, it was found that essential oils of C. cyminum and Z. multiflora completely prevent the growth of T. harzianum, followed by D. ammoniacum and F. angulate with maen values of 26 and 60.6 mm respectively. The lowest antifungal activity was observed for chimera peptide.
    Discussion
    The cultivated button mushroom is one of the most extensively cultivated mushroom in the world. The most serious diseases of cultivated mushrooms are caused by P. tolaasii and T. harzianum pathogens. The results of our study showed that the C. cyminum and D. ammoniacum have remarkable activity against pathogenic bacteria. Plant extracts, essential oils and their components have demonstrated strong fungistatic and antibacterial effects against pathogenic fungi and bacteria on cultivated mushrooms. Modes of action of essential oils in their interaction with bacteria have been quite revealed. It has been assumed that Thymol changes the permeability of cytoplasmic membrane of Gram-positive bacteria, acting as a proton exchanger, decreasing the pH gradient and causing a collapse of the proton motive force and eventually cell death. Regarding to antifungal activity, our results also showed that essential oils of C. cyminum and Z. multiflora completely prevent the growth of T. harzianum, followed by D. ammoniacum and F. angulate. One of the possible action mechanisms proposed that fungal growth may be reduced or totally inhibited due to monoterpenes present in essential oils which could increase the concentration of lipidic peroxides such as hydroxyl, alkoxyl and alkoperoxyl radicals and so bring about cell death. According to another mechanism, the essential oils would act on the hyphae of the mycelium, provoking exit of components from the cytoplasm, the loss of rigidity and integrity of the hypha cell wall, resulting in its collapse and death of the mycelium. In our study, a camel recombinant chimeric lactoferricin + lactoferrampin peptide was also tested for its antimicrobial activity. Our result showed that this recombinant peptide have remarkable activity against pathogenic bacteria. The details of the antibacterial mechanism for this recombinant peptide still are unknown. However, amino acid profile, sequence orientation and structural conformation of cationic peptides are the main features which make these peptides capable to inhibit bacterial growth by disrupting of the bacterial cell membrane. As a general results it can be concluded that natural plant-derived antimicrobial as well as recombinant peptides can be used as alternatives to synthetic pesticides, however, further studies on safety and toxicity of these substances should be carried out before use.
    Conclusion
    In summary, this study shows that essential oils and plant extracts isolated from above plant material have remarkable antifungal activities against T. harzianum, while the chimera peptide showed complete inhibition against P. tolaasii. Thus all of these substance could become alternative to synthetic antimicrobial compounds for control of mushroom pathogens. However, further studies on safety and toxicity of these substances should be carried out before use.
    Keywords: Antibacterial effect, Antifungal effect, Antimicrobial peptides, Pseudomonas tolaasii, Trichoderma harzianum
  • Atefeh Safaeifar, Abdolhossein Rezaei Nejad *, Sadegh Mousavifard, Faizollah Shahbazi Pages 629-640
    Introduction
    Coleus (Coleus blumei Benth.) from Laminaceae family is an herbaceous, fast growing plant with colorful and decorative leaves which is used as an ornamental and pot plants. Producing short and compact potted plants is valuable in floral industry. A chemical procedure has long been used for this purpose. However, chemical procedure is environmentally unsafe, while it is expensive. Therefore, researches are carried out to find cheaper and safer methods. Several researches have been done on height control, such as genetic manipulation, temperature management, light quality manipulation, controlled water deficit and withholding nutrients. Controlled mechanical stresses are included the potential non-chemical methods. In the present research, using a laboratory vibration simulator, the effects of vibration stress with different frequencies and durations had been examined on growth control of coleus.
    Material and Methods
    The experiment was conducted at the research greenhouse of Lorestan University, Iran in 2017. Uniform rooted cuttings of Coleus were transplanted in plastic pots (15 cm diameter and height) that filled with equal proportion of soil, sand and cow manure. The experimental design was a factorial based on a completely randomized design with three replications. After plant establishment, the treatments were applied every morning, with 7.5, 10 and 12.5 Hz frequencies and 0, 5 and 10 min durations, using a laboratory vibration simulator. Treatments application lasted for four weeks and then, plant height, stem diameter, total number of leaves per plant and leaf area, total number and length of side shoots, root volume and length, leaf, stem and root fresh and dry weights, relative water content, electrolyte leakage and the amounts of photosynthetic pigments were assessed.
    Results
    The results showed that interaction effects of frequency and duration of mechanical stress were significant at the 0.01 level in plant height, the total number and length of side shoots, root volume, leaf, stem and root fresh and dry weights, relative water content, the amounts of photosynthetic pigments, while it was not significant on electrolyte leakage. The main effects of duration of mechanical stress were significant at the 0.01 level in total number of leaves per plant and leaf area. Mean comparisons showed that with increasing frequency and duration of mechanical stress, plant height, total number of leaves per plant and leaf area, the total number and length of side shoots, root volume and length, leaf, stem and root fresh and dry weights and relative water content decreased. The shortest plant height was found in plants that treated with 12.5 frequency for 10 min which was 31% shorter than control plants. The main effects of frequency and duration of mechanical stress were significant at the 0.01 level in stem diameter, while their interaction effect was not significant. Stem diameter reduced with increasing stress duration. The stress effect on stem diameter was similar in 7.5 and 10 Hz frequencies. However, stem diameter was lower in plants treated with 12.5 Hz. Mechanical stress decreased the total number of leaves per plant and leaf area and the effects of 5 and 10 min duration were similar. With increasing frequency and duration of mechanical stress, the amounts of photosynthetic pigments increased; so that, the highest amount of those were found in plants that treated with 12.5 Hz frequency for 10 min.
    Discussion
    According to the results of the present research, vibration stress could control plant growth in Coleus. Stress treatments with all frequencies and durations, decreased plant height and other growth parameters i.e. the total number of leaves per plant. Leaf area, root length, plant biomass and relative water content were also decreased, while, electrolyte leakage was not significantly affected. At the same time, mechanical stress increased the amounts of photosynthetic pigments. Plants treated with 7.5 Hz frequency for 5 min showed 16% shorter plant height compared with controls, while other plant growth characteristics including stem diameter, leaf area, electrolyte leakage, MDA content and the amounts of photosynthetic pigments were similar to those in control plants. Therefore, this treatment could be recommended as a good vibration treatment for practical use. However, based on the production conditions, other vibration frequencies and durations could be chosen. In total, vibration stress using a vibration simulator could be a proper method for producing short and compact pot plants due to its cheapness and being easy to use and an environmentally friendly method.
    Keywords: Coleus, Growth control, Plant height, Vibration stress
  • Hoda Zare Mirakabad, Mohammad Farsi *, Saeed Malekzadeh Shafaroudi, Mehrdad Iranshahi, Abdolreza Bagheri, Nasrin Moshtaghi Pages 641-654
    Introduction
    There is a growing body of the literature that recognizes the importance of ferutinin (C22H30O4) as one of the natural phytoestrogens with potency to treat osteoporosis and some kind of cancers. One of the greatest challenges is availability of ferutinin that is found just in root of some plants of the genus Ferula (Apiaceae), which is the reason of high price of it in global markets. Ferula ovina , an endemic plant of Iran, is known as one of the greatest sources of ferutinin. Unfortunately, access to ferutinin requires uprooting Ferula ovina especially older plants with more secondary metabolites content. There is a large volume of published studies describing the importance of tissue culture in propagation of endangered plants including secondary metabolites without possibility of chemical production and with deep dormancy seed exactly like the characters of F. ovina. Up to now, far too little attention has been paid to importance of tissue culture in accessing ferutinin without degrading the germplasm resources of it. The main aim of this study was to find an approach to access ferutinin associated F. ovina germplasm conservation.
    Materials and Methods
    In this experiment, the aerial parts of F. ovina were collected from Zoshk area (Mashhad, Iran). The plants were recognized as F. ovina by the Institute of Plant Sciences (Ferdowsi University of Mashhad). Tissue culture part was performed with preparation of sterilized media and explants. Therefore, the MS salts and vitamins was applied as basic medium, however MS salt was decreased to half strength for rooting of shoots. The node (root junction) explants were cultured on 24 callus induction/shooting media with different combinations of plant growth regulators (BAP, IAA, Kin, NAA and IBA). The shoots from direct and indirect regeneration were then transferred to media with different combinations of PGRs (BAP, IBA, IAA and NAA) in order to find rooting medium. Following these treatments, unbalanced ANOVA for analysis of data were performed using IBM SPSS 19. The final stage of the study comprised a TLC test for the purpose of finding ferutinin in samples which resulted from tissue culture. For this purpose, air-dried parts of samples were powdered and extraction was done after being in 3-5 times dichloromethane for 24hours. Then after optimizing solvent system was done with selection the ratio that presented bands in middle of TLC paper.
    Results and Discussions
    The results indicated that from 24 tested media, just 8 of them had potency of callus formation, but just L6 on MS medium containing 1 mg/l BAP and 1.5 mg/l IAA showed significant difference for percentage of callus induction at 5% level with compact green and the heaviest calluses. Although direct and indirect shoot regeneration was observed in this study, L9 on MS medium along with 1.5 mg/l IAA and 3 mg/l kin demonstrated significant difference for percentage of shooting at 5% level. Moreover, R6 on ½MS with 1 mg/l IBA showed significant difference for percentage of rooting of shoots at 5% level. The most surprising observation to emerge from the data comparison was L24 on half strength MS medium containing 0.2 mg/l BAP and 3 mg/l IBA with potency of callus induction, shooting and rooting of shoots. Regarding to the results of TLC test, ferutinin positive bands were observed in some samples.
    Conclusions
    The aim of the present research was to examine possibility of achieving ferutinin without need to uproot F. ovina because there are several problems to achieve this valuable sesquiterpene: 1) Chemical production of ferutinin is impossible, 2) It could be accessible just from roots of genus Ferula, 3) Propagation with seeds of F. ovina is limited because of morphophysiological dormancy of them, 4) Natural habitat of this plant in Iran is going to be destructed, 5) Access to natural habitat is difficult, 6) Time of access is limited with short growth season, 7) Maintaining F. ovina in greenhouse condition is impossible. The results of this research support the idea that producing ferutinin in Iran without any harmful effect on germplasm resources of F. ovina is possible. This is the first study of high scale commercial production of ferutinin which examine associations between tissue culture and ferutinin production.
    Keywords: Ferula ovina, Ferutinin, Germplasm resources conservation, Thin Layer Chromatography, Tissue
  • Azimeh Hajisadeghian Najafabadi, Iman Roohollahi * Pages 655-664
    Introduction
    Natanzi, a native pear cultivar of Iran, is one of the Iranian high quality and commercial pear. True plant type can be produced with in vitro micropropagation. Micropropagation used for species that have long generation time, low levels of seed production, or seeds that do not readily germinate. Auxins in various concentrations are used for rooting depending on the different conditions of the tissue and culture medium. After propagation one of the problems with the production of plants through micropropagation is acclimatization. Low survival and poor growth of rooted seedlings in in vitro conditions after transferring to the environment, limits the use of tissue culture. The fungi symbiosis with root can enhance the success of this method. Natanzi pear propagation in Murashige and Skoog (MS) and propagated seedling acclimatization with mycorrhiza treatment were not reported. The aim of this study is evaluation the effects of various concentrations of BAP, IBA and GA3 on shooting, and NAA and IBA on rooting of Natanzi pear. In the second part of this experiment, the effects of mycorrhizal fungi on root development and absorption of phosphorus were evaluated.
    Materials and Methods
    In this study one-year branch buds of P.communis cv. Natanz from a wild mature tree native in village Tame, Natanz city, Isfahan Province, were used as plant material. Natanzi pear cutting were propagated supplemented with MS media under factorial experimental designs with three replications. Shoot proliferation in MS and MS with half concentration by BAP, IBA and GA3 were studied. Four different levels of IBA and NAA under light and dark condition for rooting were studied. After rooting plants were transplanted into 10 cm×12 cm plastic pots. Transplant was made in conditions of high ambient humidity to reduce damage to the plantlets. At transplant, pots were filled with different sterilized substrates, composed of mixtures of a coco peat:perlit and peat moss:perlit at a 1:1 (v/v) ratio. Substrates were wetted before filling the pots. At transplant, plants were inoculated with the AM fungus Glomus mosseae and G. intraradices, in the form of a mixture of spores, soil, and infected clover roots. Ten grams of inoculum were placed in each planting hole about 1 cm below the roots, for a total treatment. 10 g of the autoclaved mixed soil used for inoculated control treatment. Acclimatization, seedling survival, colonization, phosphorus concentrations and some morphological characteristics of root such as root characteristic were evaluated under G. mosseae and G. intraradices infection. Also two different bed, coco peat:perlite and peat moss:perlite at a 1:1 (v/v) ratio were examined. At the end of the experiment, Roots plants were stained to assess mycorrhiza colonization using Phillips and Hayman method (????). Colonization percentages of colonization were measured using Giovannetti and Mosse method. The total P concentration of plants was assessed using standard analytical techniques.
    Results and Discussions
    BAP (3 mg L-1) with IBA (0.5 mg L-1) is suitable of Natanzi pear proliferation under micropropagation condition. The highest rooting of Natanzi pear under in vitro condition were reported in MS and ½MS and 0.5 mg L-1 NAA under light and dark conditions, respectively. The results of experiments on Natanzi pear showed a positive effect of mycorhiza on the growth of infected seedlings compared to control treatments. Finally 100% of seedling were survived after acclimatization with mycorrhiza. Mycorrhiza increased the seedling length and root growth characteristics. No significant differences were observed in colonization of different mycorrhiza infection. Peat moss with no treatment (control) showed the most phosphorus concentrations and peat moss with G. mosseae mycorrhiza showed the most average root diameter.
    Conclusions
    BAP and IBA (3 × 0.5 mg L-1) showed significant effect on proliferation and NAA (0.5 mg L-1) on rooting in MS respectively. Peat moss with G. mosseae is suitable to increase the acclimatization of Natanzi pear seedlings. Mycorrhiza increased the length of seedling and root growth characteristics during eight weeks of acclimatization. Natanzi pear seedlings showed the highest growth under G. intraradices treatment in peat moss. G. mosseae showed a significant effect on the average root diameter in peat moss. Results of leaf phosphorus concentration and root colonization percentage showed that there was no significant correlation between phosphorus concentration and colonization percentage.
    Keywords: Acclimatization, Glomus, Pear, Propagation
  • Mohammadreza Asghari, Zahra Azarsharif *, Hosein Tajik, Alireza Farrokhzad Nansa Pages 665-680
    Introduction
    Galbanum, an aromatic oleo-resin gum, is produced from umbelliferous Persian plant species in the genus Ferula with the common Persian name “Barije”, chiefly endemic flora of the mountain ranges of northern Iran. Cuminum cyminum is an edible medicinal plant, which is widely distributed in Iran, Turkey, India, Egypt and Central America countries. Calcium (Ca2+) is a secondary messenger that plays pivotal roles (such as cell wall structure, signaling in fruit ripening and ethylene biosynthesis) in regulating physiological functions in fruits, vegetables and flowers during postharvest life. Sweet cherry is one of the most popular fruits among consumers because of its good taste and abundant nutrients and bioactive components such as phenolic compounds and flavonoids. This fruit is a highly perishable product due to its high respiration rate and rapid softening process at room temperature, which ultimately cause the color changes, weight loss, browning and changes of nutrients and restrict its shelf life. Several studies have demonstrated that the postharvest life of sweet cherries can be extended by different preservation techniques, such as refrigeration, synthetic chemical fungicides, modified atmosphere packaging, osmotic treatments, hypobaric treatments, heat treatments and edible coating. In the last several years, edible coatings have been widely studied for the preservation of fruits and vegetables. Edible coating with semipermeable films might extend the postharvest life of sweet cherry through a reduction of moisture migration, gas exchange, respiration and oxidative reaction rates.
    Materials and Methods
    Healthy fruits, uniform in size, shape, color, and degree of maturity were selected from sweet cherries collected from orchard in Kahriz located in Urmia. Effects of galbanum gum (0, 1, 2 and 3% W/V), cumin essential oil (0, 100 and 200 µl/l) and calcium chloride (0 and 1% W/V) coating on the physiological and quality responses of sweet cherry (Prunus avium Cv. Siah Mashhad) fruit were investigated. The fruits were coated, and stored at 2±1 ºC and 90-95% relative humidity for 30 day and then transferred to 20 ºC for an additional 1 day. The quality of sweet cherries was analyzed at the initial day, 15-day after storage in 2±1 ºC and 30-day after storage in 2±1 ºC+ an additional 1 day in 20 ºC. Different qualitative and physicochemical attributes including pH, total soluble solid, titrable acidity, fruit water content and moisture percentage, proline, malondialdehyde, phenyl alanine amonialyase (PAL) enzyme activity and nutraceutical (total phenol and flavonoid) evaluations were performed. Statistical analysis of data was done by SAS (version 9.4) and mean comparisons were performed using Duncan's multiple range test.
    Result and Discussion
    Significant differences were observed in fruit coated galbanum gum 1% W/V, cumin essential oil 200 µl/l and calcium chloride 1% W/V as compared to the control. The coating applications including gum, cumin essence and calcium chloride resulted in slower rise of pH and TSS, and were effective in maintaining higher titrable acidity, fruit water content, moisture percentage, PAL enzyme activity, total phenol and flavonoid. Coating with 1% W/V galbanum gum combined with 1% W/V calcium chloride resulted in highest increase of PAL enzyme activity and total phenol 15-day after storage, which effectively prevented rapid decline enzyme activity and phenolic compound to the end of storage. The combined coating of galbanum gum 2% W/V with CaCl2 1% W/V or 200 µl/l cumin essential oil significantly maintained total flavonoid 30-day after storage in 2±1 ºC + an additional 1 day in 20ºC; These treatment are not significantly different with galbanum gum 1% W/V with CaCl2 1% W/V or 200 µl/l cumin essential oil. Concomitantly proline content (0.002748 mgr/gr F.W.) was at higher levels and malondialdehyde (0.0320 mmol/gr F.W.) at lower levels in tissues of treated fruit with 1% W/V CaCl2 compared with those of control fruit at the end of storage.
    Conclusion
    Fruit and vegetables are highly perishable, and the causes of postharvest losses can generally be ascribed to physiological deterioration associated with consumption of the internal water and reserve substances. In addition, increasing public concern towards healthy foods has contributed to the promotion of interest in the development of alternative (Safe) methods for controlling postharvest decay and deterioration. These results suggest that galbanum gum, cumin essence and CaCl2 treatments delayed the development of senescence process ‘Siah mashhad’ sweet cherry by delaying the loss of quality parameters, polyphenol substances and maintaining the structural integrity of cell membrane. Application of 1% W/V galbanum gum coating combined with 1% W/V CaCl2 might be enhanced low temperature tolerance by maintaining quality parameters, antioxidant compound and shelf life of sweet cherry fruits.
    Keywords: Coating, Medicinal plant, Safe compound, Shelf life