فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:11 Issue: 2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/01/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Shahin Akhondzadeh* Page 1
      Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) represents a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by two main deficits: impaired social communication and interaction; restricted and repetitive patterns of interests, behaviors or activities 1 with prevalence ranges from 2 to 20 per 1,000, worldwide 1,2. Presently, core symptoms of autism have no approved treatment. Autistic disorder management emphasis is on behavioral and educational modalities that target the core symptoms 3. Psychopharmacologic interventions are introduced to improve daily function and treat associated behavioral problems including hyperactivity, irritability, and aggression; leading to support the implementation of behavioral approaches through reducing the interfering symptoms 3.
    In recent years, a growing number of studies have found evidence implicating dysregulation of immune responses and neuroinflammatory mechanisms in patients with ASD 3. Dysregulation of T helper cells 4, increased plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1, 6 and 8 1-3, increased proliferation and activation of B cells and natural killer cells 4, decreased serum levels of immunoglobulin G and M 5 in presence of immunoglobulin G autoantibodies against neuron-axon filament and glial fibrillary acidic proteins 6, and increased microglial and astrocytic density and activation 5 have been documented.
    Risperidone, as a serotonin 5-HT (2A) receptor antagonist that can attenuate dopamine release as well 3, is the only drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of irritability in children with ASD. In recent years, research correlates risperidone use with significant weight gain 3 and with high rate of relapse after discontinuation of the medication in children with ASD 4. Despite this, due to lack of insight into the exact pathogenesis of ASD, no new medication could be approved as an adjuvant or standalone treatment for patients with ASD.
    The fact that diet has a huge influence on our health should be common knowledge by now. But what research has been showing us in recent years is just how fundamental the influence of diet on our health can be. Surprising links between diet and a number of previously unsuspected diseases are being continuously established. But food does not affect us only after we are born, it actually starts to shape our health during pre-natal development. Many of these associations between diet and disease, including neurological diseases, are now known to be modulated by the gut microbiota. Research on the gut-brain axis is a blooming field where new and important findings keep streaming. Individuals with ASD often also have gastrointestinal problems and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, being unclear whether an altered gut flora is a cause of a comorbidity of ASD. It has been suggested that changes in the gut microbiota may indeed play a role in the development of the behavioral symptoms associated with ASD, but the possible mechanisms of this link remain unknown 6.
    As for autism, this link may come down to a particular molecule called interleukin-17a (or IL-17a), which is produced by the immune system. The molecule has already been associated with conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and psoriasis, and has been shown to serve an important role in preventing infections, notably those of the fungal kind. Importantly, it can also influence the way the brain develops in the womb.
    The effects of the microbiome on the development of MIA-induced autism could be prevented either by modifying the pregnant mother’s microbiome, or by directly blocking IL-17a signaling.
    Although ASD primarily impacts the brain, over recent years, links with other systems have become clear, in particular, gastrointestinal (issues seem to occur more often in individuals with ASD than in the rest of the population (6).  
  • Fatma Hashim, Mai Mabrouk *, Walid Al, Atabany Pages 130-148
    The DNA motif discovery is a primary step in many systems for studying gene function. Motif discovery plays a vital role in identification of Transcription Factor Binding Sites (TFBSs) that help in learning the mechanisms for regulation of gene expression. Over the past decades, different algorithms were used to design fast and accurate motif discovery tools. These algorithms are generally classified into consensus or probabilistic approaches that many of them are time-consuming and easily trapped in a local optimum. Nature-inspired algorithms and many of combinatorial algorithms are recently proposed to overcome these problems. This paper presents a general classification of motif discovery algorithms with new sub-categories that facilitate building a successful motif discovery algorithm. It also presents a summary of comparison between them.
    Keywords: Algorithms, Bioinformatics, Consensus, Gene expression regulation, Nucleotide motif, Protein binding
  • Maryam Mehravar, Abolfazl Shirazi*, Mohammad Mehdi Mehrazar, Mahboobeh Nazari, Mehdi Banan Pages 149-155
     
    Background
    The Clustered, Regularly Interspaced, Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system has been used as a powerful tool for genome engineering. In this study, the application of this system is reported for targeting Rag genes to produce mutant mouse NIH/3T3 cell line. The Rag1 and Rag2 genes are essential for generation of mature B and T lymphocytes. Disruption of Rag genes causes disease like Severe Combined Immunodeficiency syndrome (SCID). Here, the efficiency and specificity of CRISPR system were tested with highly active sgRNAs to generate novel mutations in the NIH/3T3 mouse cell line.
    Methods
    Four single guide RNAs were designed to target sequences in the coding region of the Rag1 and Rag2 genes. Four sgRNA-CAS9 plasmids were tested to target Rag1 and Rag2.
    Results
    Based on T7 endonuclease assay and sequencing analysis, the expression of sgRNAs targeting two sites in Rag1 resulted in deletion of the intervening DNA fragment. The expression of sgRNAs with Cas9 targeting two sites in Rag2 gene resulted in indel mutations at both sites. In this report, fragment deletion in Rag1 gene was detected in about 50% of transfected cells.
    Conclusion
    Therefore, CRISPR/Cas9 system can be highly efficient and specific when gRNAs are designed rationally and provides a powerful approach for genetic engineering of cells and model animals.
    Keywords: Cell line, Deletion, Gene editing, Mice
  • Nader Atlasy, Fardin Amidi *, Keywan Mortezaee, Mohammad Sadegh Fazeli, Seyed Javad Mowla, Fatemeh Malek Pages 156-161
     
    Background
    Colon tumor is generated and maintained by a small subset of chemo-resistant cancer cells known as Cancer Stem-like Cells (CSCs) that are able to self-renew and differentiate into various cell types within the cancer milieu. CSCs are identified through expression of CD133 that is the most important surface marker of these cells. Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) is another colon CSCs marker. Other markers that are probably involved in colon tumorigenesis are Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled Receptor 5 (LGR5), B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1 (BMI1) and Ten-Eleven Translocations (TETs).
    Methods
    Here, mRNA expression rates of LGR5, BMI1 and TETs were surveyed by real-time PCR. After collection and digestion, colon samples were used to isolate CD133 and EpCAM positive CSCs through evaluation of AC133 EpCAM by Magnetic Activated Cell Sorting (MACS) and flow cytometry. Real-time PCR was carried out for assessing expressions of LGR5, BMI1 and TETs.
    Results
    High expressions for LGR5, BMI1, TET1 and TET2 in the CD133 and EpCAM positive CSCs (p≤0.05 vs. non-CSCs) were found. TET3, however, showed no significant changes for mRNA expression in the CSCs.
    Conclusion
    In conclusion, high mRNA expressions for LGR5, BMI1, TET1 and TET2 in the CD133 and EpCAM positive CSCs may be a useful criterion for better identification of the cells involved in colon cancer in order to specify therapeutic targets against this type of cancer.
    Keywords: Colon, Flow cytometry, Molony murine leukemia virus, Neoplastic stem cells
  • Hamze Zare, Hamid Mir Mohammad Sadeghi, Vajihe Akbari * Pages 162-168
     
    Background
    Expression of heterologous proteins at large scale is often a challenging job due to plasmid instability, accumulation of acetate and oxidative damage in bioreactors. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize parameters influencing cell growth and expression of recombinant protein.
    Methods
    In the present study, the optimal culture conditions for expression of reteplase by Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21 (DE3) in a bench-top bioreactor was determined. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken design was used to evaluate the effect of three variables (i.e., temperature, shaking speed and pH) and their interactions with cellular growth and protein production. The obtained data were analyzed by Design Expert software.
    Results
    Based on results of 15 experiments, a response surface quadratic model was developed which was used to explain the relation between production of reteplase and three investigated variables. The high value of "R-Squared" (0.9894) and F-value of 51.99 confirmed the accuracy of this model. According to the developed model, the optimum fermentation conditions for reteplase expression were temperature of 32°C, shaking speed of 210 rpm, and pH of 8.4. This predicted condition was applied for the production of reteplase in the bioreactor leading to a protein yield of 188 mg/l.
    Conclusion
    Our results indicate the significant role of culture conditions (e.g., pH, temperature and oxygen supply) in protein expression at large scale and confirm the need for optimization. The proposed strategy here can also be applied to experimental set-up of optimization for fermentation of other proteins.
    Keywords: Bioreactors, Escherichia coli, Fermentation, Reteplase
  • Reihaneh Ramezani, Mahdi Forouzandeh Moghadam*, Mohammad Javad Rasaee Pages 169-175
     
    Background
    The accurate and early diagnosis of tuberculosis is important for its effective management. During the last decade, several molecular methods for detection of Tuberculosis (TB) have been developed. Since RNA especially mRNA has a generally much shorter half-life than DNA, its detection may be useful for the assessment of viability of bacteria. This research is a Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification-Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (NASBA-ELISA) which was designed and developed for rapid detection of viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis).
    Methods
    Oligonucleotide primers targeting tuf gene encoding viability marker EF-Tu mRNAs were selected and used for the amplification of mycobacterial RNA by the isothermal NASBA Digoxigenin (DIG) labeling process and incorporated with DIG-UTP, reverse transcriptase and T7 RNA polymerase.
    Results
    Using the NASBA-ELISA system, as little as 17.5 pg of RNA of M. tuberculosis was detected within 4 hr and no interference was encountered in the amplification and detection of viable M. tuberculosis in the presence of non-target RNA or DNA. Results obtained from the clinical specimens showed 97 and 75% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively.
    Conclusion
    The NASBA-ELISA system offers several advantages in terms of sensitivity, rapidity and simplicity for detection of M. tuberculosis. Furthermore, due to its simplicity and high sensitivity feature, it could be used in limited access laboratories in a cost-effective manner.  
    Keywords: : Microbial viability, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, NASBA-ELISA
  • Erfan Shahbazi, Firouzeh Moreshedzadeh, Davood Zaeifi* Pages 176-179
     
    Background
    In this study, bacteriostatic potency of the Iron oxide nanoparticles against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) (a clinical sample and the ATCC11700 strain) was investigated.
    Methods
    Nanoparticles’ bacteriostatic concentration was determined and used to appraise the characteristics of the Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) against the isolates. Antimicrobial examinations with 108cfu.ml-1 were performed at the baseline. Due to evaluation level of potency, after performing Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), the assessment of death kinetic and susceptibility constant of nanoparticles was done by suspension at two MICs in 0 to 360 min treatment time.
    Results
    Fe2O3 nanoparticles in size range of 10-50 nm demonstrated the most effective susceptibility reaction against E. faecalis and ATCC11700 strain in Z=78.125 ml/μg-1 and 39.0625 ml/μg-1, respectively. The kinetic reaction of E. faecalis against Fe2O3 suspension was supposed to be decreased through the elapse of treatment time, whereas increased concentration was along with bacteria growth after a certain time. So, the efficient concentration of nanoparticles was applied with semi-sensitive and antibiotic resistant for both strains. However, synergism of Fe2O3 nanoparticles with Ceftazidime and Clindamycin revealed a higher susceptibility compared with Fe2O3 nanoparticles alone against E. faecalis.
    Conclusion
    The experimental results reveal that Fe2O3 has a strong antimicrobial effect at a certain concentration over the time so could potentially be used for bacterial inhibition and this feature will be strengthened in combination with antibiotics.
    Keywords: Enterococcus faecalis, Ferric oxide, Nanopaticles
  • Hamid Esmaeilkhani, Iraj Rasooli*, Masoomeh Hashemi, Shahram Nazarian, Fatemeh Sefid Pages 180-186
     
    Background
    Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is a bothersome fatal patho-gen, particularly in healthcare system. Persistence and successful invasion of A. baumannii in vertebrate host cells largely depends on iron acquisition methods. Sidero-phore molecules and Iron-Regulated Outer Membrane Proteins (IROMPs) are the two essential members of iron acquisition system. Siderophores are secreted by bacteria to bind peripheral ferric iron and the IROMPs are expressed at the bacterial outer membrane as the receptor of ferric-siderophore complex. BauA is the corresponding siderophore receptor of A. baumannii. In this study, an attempt was made to assess the immunogenicity of antigenic domains of BauA which could be effective in iron uptake restriction and protection against bacterial invasion of the host cells.
    Methods
    The antigenic domains of bauA were amplified from A. baumannii ATCC-19606. The PCR products were ligated into pET32a and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21 (DE3). Purification of recombinant domains was done by Nickel-Nitri-lotriacetic Acid (Ni-NTA) affinity chromatography. The recombinant domains were injected into BALB/C mice separately and in combination. Sero-reactivities of the recombinant proteins and mouse challenge tests were carried out.
    Results
    The antibodies raised in mice could successfully recognize and bind antigenic domains. Passive immunization studies accomplished by immune rabbit serum inhibited the establishment of infection in mice.
    Conclusion
    The results adapted from the present study disclose the protective role of functional domains of BauA, especially the cork domain, suggesting a novel recombinant immunogen candidate.
    Keywords: Acinetobackr baumannii, Immune sera, Iron, Siderophore
  • Azadeh Mohamadhosseini, Reza Mansouri *, Ali Javinani Amir Ashraf, Ganjouei Massoumeh Akhlaghi, Saeed Aslani, Elham Hamzeh, Ahmadreza Jamshidi, Nooshin Ahmadzadeh, Mahdi Mahmoudi Pages 187-191
     
    Background
    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a debilitating disorder in which the immune system mainly targets the synovial tissue. Janus kinase family including tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) is one of the crucial mediators of the downstream signaling pathway of inflammatory cytokines that further contributes to RA pathogenesis. In this study, the association of TYK2 gene rs34536443 polymorphism, which may affect the function of TYK protein and, hence, the inflammatory settings, with RA susceptibility was investigated. Moreover, its correlation with demographic and serological features of the patients was assessed.
    Methods
    In the present study, 700 RA patients and 700 sex, age and ethnicity-matched healthy individuals as the control group were included. MGB TaqMan real-time allelic discrimination method was used to determine the rs34536443 polymorphism. Rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were also measured.
    Results
    The frequency of rs34536443 minor allele (C allele) was not different between patients and control group [1.7 vs. 2.61 percent, OR (95% CI)=1.35 (0.78-2.33);p=0.27]. There was not a statistically significant association between rs34536443 genotypes and RA susceptibility. Genotypes of rs34536443 polymorphism were associated nor with demographic neither with serological features of RA patients.
    Conclusion
    In the present study, there was not any association between TYK2 gene rs34536443 polymorphism with either disease susceptibility, demographic and serological features of Iranian RA patients. These findings are not compatible with previous works from other ethnicities, further supporting the role of genetics in disease susceptibility.
    Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, TYK2 kinase
  • Heba Takleef Majeed, Ahmed Abduljabbar, Jaloob Aljanaby* Pages 192-201
     
    Background
    Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) caused by multi-drug resistance and Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL)-producing gram-negative bacteria has been increased in different countries. The aim of the present study was to detect the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and the distribution of Bla-TEM, Bla-SHV and Bla-CTX-M genes in gram-negative bacteria isolated from outpatients infected with UTI, with and without CKD in Al-Najaf city, Iraq.
    Methods
    A total of 120 non-duplicate urine samples were collected from outpatients (37 male and 83 female) infected with UTI in Al-Najaf city, Iraq; 60 samples from patients Without Kidney Disease (WKD) and 60 samples from patients with CKD. The antibiotic susceptibility testing was done according to Kirby-Bauer method. PCR technique was performed to investigate the prevalence of Bla-TEM, Bla-SHV and Bla-CTX-M genes.
    Results
    A total of 126 different gram-negative bacterial strains were isolated. Escherichia coli (E. coli) was the most prevalent bacterium (49 isolates) followed by Idebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) (35 isolates), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) (18 isolates), Citrobacter freundii (C. freundii) (12 isolates), Enterobocter aerogenes (E. aerogenes) (8 isolates) and Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) (4 isolates). All bacterial isolates from UTI patients with CKD were resistant to antibiotics and carried Bla-TEM, Bla-SHV and Bla-CTX-M genes more than isolates from UTI patients with WKD.
    Conclusion
    This study demonstrated that all bacterial isolates from UTI patients with CKD were more virulent than isolates from UTI patients with WKD.
    Keywords: Iraq, Chronic kidney disease, SHV, TEM, Urinary tract infection
  • Parisa Ebrahimisadr, Fatemeh Ghaffarifar*, John Horton, Abdolhossein Dalimi, Zohreh Sharifi Pages 202-205
     
    Background
    Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) are the cause of phagocytosis activation and destruction of the infection agents. In addition, new evidences support the idea that TLRs play a vital role in starting the acquired immunity reactions.
    Methods
    In this study, it has been attempted to infect the BALB/c mice with Leishmania major (L. major) and treat them using morphine and imiquimod; then the expressions of TLR2,4 from treated lesion were studied by using Real-Time PCR method. Treatment with morphine 1 mg/kg, imiquimod 5% and nalmefene 1 mg/kg began four weeks after the challenge. After treatment period, half of the mice of each group were killed and their lesions were isolated for RNA extraction and making cDNA. For the rest of mice, lesion size was measured weekly.
    Results
    The results showed increase of expression of TLR2 gene among all treated groups relative to the control, and the difference was significant (p<0.05). The expression of TLR4 gene only was reduced in groups under treatment with morphine and morphine plus nalmefene relative to the control group and in the other groups increased. The highest expression of TLR2 was seen in the group treated by glucantime (p<0.0001).
    Conclusion
    However, in this study it was found that despite decreasing the size of lesion in all treated groups, expression of TLR4 in the morphine, nalmefene, morphine plus nalmefene treated groups compared to the control group was decreased. Therefore, morphine may have a different function mechanism in treatment of the Leishmaniasis with the L. major.
    Keywords: : Leishmania major, Lesions, Mice, Morphine, Toll-like receptors