فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:19 Issue: 1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/10/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Simin Mouodi, Seyed Reza Hosseini *, Reza Ghadimi, Robert Graham Cumming, Ali Bijani, Marjan Mouodi, Yadollah Zahed Pasha Page 1
    Background
    This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of short-term structured interventions on healthy lifestyle behaviors, dietary intake, anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and serum lipid profile of middle-aged adults. Study design: Randomized controlled trial study.
    Methods
    Overall, 300 individuals out of apparently healthy (non-patient) adults aged 40-60 yr living in Amirkola, Babol the north of Iran were enrolled in 2016-2017. The Persian translation of the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II) and two days 24-h food recall questionnaires were used for data collection. Eligible participants were allocated randomly in three groups (high-intensive, low-intensive and the control). The follow-up examination has been conducted after 16 wk of intervention.
    Results
    The three study groups had no significant difference in age (P=0.888), sex (P=0.395), BMI (P=0.969), healthy lifestyle score (P=0.675) and total daily energy intake (P=0.612). After intervention, the mean scores of all the six subdomains of HPLP-II questionnaire had significant improvement (P<0.001). Mean weight loss was 1.5, 1.0 and 0.3 kg, in high-intensive, low-intensive and control groups, respectively. BMI although reduced, was still in the overweight range in two sexes. Mean of neck, arm, waist and buttock size, diastolic blood pressure, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and HDL levels have been changed to a better condition in comparison with the baseline values (P<0.001). Dietary intake had good changes in total daily energy (P<0.001), daily intake of carbohydrate, protein, and fat (P<0.001), and proportion of energy from carbohydrate (P=0.007) and fat (P=0.022) after the intervention.
    Conclusion
    Our intervention program could have positive impact on healthy lifestyle behaviors, dietary intake and weight in addition to some other anthropometric variables and serum lipid profile of middle-aged adults.
    Keywords: Lifestyle, Weight loss, Middle age, Diet
  • Saeede Jafari, Ghobad Moradi, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Fatemeh Azimian Zavareh, Ebrahim Ghaderi * Page 2
    Background
    Transmitting blood-borne diseases is alarming in places with high prevalence of people who inject drugs. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of drug injection and its related predictors among prisoners with a history of tattooing in Iran. Study design: Cross-sectional study.
    Methods
    By using a census sampling, 5493 prisoners with a history of tattooing of 11988 prisoners participated for hepatitis B and C bio-behavioral surveillance surveys (BSS) in prisons of Iran, during 2015-2016 from 55 prisons in 19 provinces were assessed. The data for the BSS were collected using face-to-face checklist-based interviews. Weighted prevalence and the association between variables and history of drug injection were determined using Chi-square test and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was estimated through multivariate logistic regression test using survey package.
    Results
    The mean age of participants was 33.9 ±8.3 yr. Most of them were male (96.4%) and had a history of drug use (85.4%). The prevalence of drug injection among drug users was 20.2%, of which 33.9% had a history of shared injection. The prevalence of drug injection among prisoners with a history of tattooing is associated with male gender (P=0.047), age ≥35 yr (P<0.001), being single (P=0.002), being divorced/widow (P=0.039), and a history of imprisonment (P<0.001).
    Conclusion
    The prevalence of drug injection increases in the presence of other high-risk behaviors. It is necessary to initiate harm reduction programs and preventive interventions in groups with multiple high-risk behaviors.
    Keywords: Drug injection, Prisoners, Tattooing
  • Maysam Rezapour, Narges Khanjani *, Hamid Soori Page 3
    Background
    Bullying in school-age children is a public health concern that less discusses in Middle East countries like Iran. The goal of this study was to determine and compare whether exposure to various forms of bullying behaviors contributes to disparities in life satisfaction and self-rated health among Iranian pupils. Study design: A cross-sectional study.
    Methods
    Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study on 834, 8th and 9th-grade students conducted in northern Iran in 2014. Bullying was measured by the Iranian-version of the Olweus Bullying Questionnaire. Life satisfaction and self-rated health were assessed by a single item of the Global School Health Survey (GSHS) in Persian. Descriptive statistics and two-level logistic regression analysis were used for data analysis.
    Results
    Positive self-rated health and life satisfaction were significantly higher in boys than girls (P<0.002). Self-related health and life satisfaction were similar in the 8th and 9th-grade students. After controlling for gender and grade, students involved in only-victim of verbal bullying (OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.67), and bully-victim of relational bullying (OR=0.29, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.67) reported lower self-rated health compared to non-involved students.
    Conclusion
    Life satisfaction and self-rated health were differently related to types of bullying behaviors. Our findings highlighted the necessity to detect victims and bully-victims and develop prevention programs to stop bullying and its negative consequences in Iranian schools.
    Keywords: Bullying, Quality of life, Self-assessment, Health status, Pupils
  • Saeed Bashirian, Majid Barati, Manoj Sharma, Hamid Abasi *, Manoochehr Karami Page 4
    Background
    Water pipe smoking (WPS) has increased and is becoming a major leisure pastime among young people in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine of efficacy of an educational intervention based on Multi-Theory Model (MTM) to reduce WPS in the male adolescent students in Iran. Study design: A randomized controlled trial.
    Methods
    Overall, 94 male adolescent students (grades 10, 11) smoked water pipe (WP) in the past month (current WP smokers) were selected, allocated randomly in two groups (47 students in intervention group and 47 students in control group), in two different schools in 2018 in Hamadan City, western Iran. Data were collected utilizing a valid and reliable questionnaire based on MTM constructs and demographic variables. Educational intervention was designed in five 45-min sessions. Two groups were followed-up three-months after completion of intervention. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 22 software through Chi-square test, independent-sample t-test, paired-samples t-test, and Friedman test.
    Results
    There were significant differences between the mean score of participatory dialogue, behavioral confidence, emotional transformation and practice for change in the intervention group compared with the control group after the intervention (P<0.001). In addition, significant reductions in the frequency of WPS (from 14.9% to 4.3%) were observed in the intervention group compared to the control group (P<0.001).
    Conclusion
    The developed educational intervention based on MTM constructs was efficacious and can be replicated for effectiveness studies to reduce WPS in the male adolescent students in Iran.
    Keywords: Water pipe smoking, Smoking reduction, Health behavior, Students, Adolescent
  • Konstantinos D. Tambalis, Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos, Glykeria Psarra, Labros S. Sidossis * Page 5
    Background
    To examine the concomitant associations between physical activities (PA) and lifestyle factors in a representative sample of children and adolescents. Study design: Cross-sectional, observational study.
    Methods
    Population data were derived from a school-based health survey carried out in 2015 on 177,091 (51% boys) Greek children aged 8 to 17 yr old. PA, sedentary activities and sleeping habits were assessed through self-completed questionnaires. Dietary habits were evaluated using the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents. Anthropometric and physical fitness measurements were obtained by trained investigators. Logistic regression models were estimated and adjusted for relevant covariates.
    Results
    More boys as compared to girls (65.1% vs. 50.7%, P<0.001) and children than adolescents (59.8% vs. 52.8%, P<0.001) met the recommendations for PA. Frequent fast food consumption and skipping breakfast were associated with inadequate PA levels. In the whole population, sufficient dietary habits, sufficient (>8-9 h/d) sleeping and accepted screen time increased the participant’s odds of adequate PA levels by 38% (95% CI: 1.32, 1.44), 5% (95% CI: 1.01, 1.09) and 21% (95% CI: 1.16, 1.26), respectively, while, overweight/obese and central obesity decreased the odds of adequate PA levels by 7% and 5%, respectively, after adjusting for several covariates. Participants with combination of healthy aerobic fitness/dietary habits/screen time had 60% increased odds for adequate PA levels than those with unhealthy choices.
    Conclusion
    Healthy aerobic fitness, dietary habits and screen time were strongly associated with PA status among children. The results support the development of interventions to help children adopt a healthy lifestyle.
    Keywords: Physical activity, Feeding behavior, Children, Adolescents, Lifestyle
  • Houda Ben Ayed *, Sourour Yaich, Maroua Trigui, Mariem Ben Hmida, Maissa Ben Jemaa, Achraf Ammar, Jihene Jedidi, Raouf Karray, Habib Feki, Yosra Mejdoub, Mondher Kassis, Jamel Damak Page 6
    Background
    Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is a public health problem among school-adolescents. This study aimed to identify the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of neck, shoulders and low-back pain among school-adolescents. Study design: A cross-sectional study.
    Methods
    School-adolescents aged from 12 to 18 years between October 2017 and February 2018 in South of Tunisia were recruited. Eligible participants were randomly selected and were asked to respond a four-section questionnaire. Factors independently associated with MSP were determined through multivariate logistic regression analysis.
    Results
    Among 1221 enrolled subjects, shoulders, low-back and neck pain were reported in 43%, 35.8% and 32%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that independent risk factors of neck pain were female gender (Adjusted odds ratio AOR=1.55; P=0.002), using computer ≥4 hours/week (AOR=1.50; P=0.010), too low desk (AOR=2.30; P<0.001) and carrying schoolbag ≥60 minutes (AOR=1.58; P=0.008). Female gender (AOR=3.30; P<0.001), BMI ≥25 Kg/m2 (AOR=1.6; P=0.018), playing videogames ≥2 hours/day (AOR=2.37; P<0.001) and schoolbag weight to body weight ≥10% (AOR=1.46; P=0.026) were independently associated with shoulders pain. For low back-pain, independent risk factors were high-school grade (AOR=2.70; P<0.001), playing videogames ≥2 hours/day (AOR=1.83; P<0.001), watching TV≥12 hours/week (AOR=1.5; P=0.016), too low seat backrest (AOR=1.4; P=0.005) and too far seat-to-black (board) distance (AOR=1.5; P=0.041). School-adolescents consumed drugs for MSP in 19.5%, had sleep disturbance in 34% and aggressive behaviors in 22.8%.
    Conclusions
    The prevalence of MSP was substantially high among school-adolescents and their associated risk factors included sociodemographic factors, leisure activities and classroom furniture. An ergonomic specific and behavior-based school program is urgently needed.
    Keywords: Adolescents, Musculoskeletal pain, Risk factors, Schools
  • Azam Nadali, Alireza Rahmani, Ghorban Asgari, Mostafa Leili *, Hosein Ali Norouzi, Afsaneh Naghibi Page 7
    Background
    The aim of the present study was to calculate and to assess the potential lifetime cancer risks for trihalomethanes from consuming chlorinated drinking water in Hamadan and Tuyserkan cities, western Iran in 2016-2017. Study design: A cross-sectional study.
    Methods
    Seventy-two water samples were collected from the distribution systems and from the outlet of water treatment plants (WTPs) and the experiments were carried out to determine the desired parameters. All the sampling and measurement methods were according to Standard Methods. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS software.
    Results
    The mean concentration of total THMs in the summer and winter was 42.75 and 17.75 μg/L, respectively, below the WHO and Iranian standard. The positive correlation was observed between temperature and THMs levels. Moreover, THMs concentration in Shahid Beheshti’s WTP was several times lower than in Ekbatan’s WTP. Chloroform, the dominant species of THMs, was identified at different sampling points. The highest cancer risk in Hamadan was 1.4×10-5 and 4.8×10-5 for male and female, respectively; and the cancer risk was obtained to be 5.6×10-7–2.26×10-6 in Tuyserkan.
    Conclusion
    The drinking water obtained from the studied area is safe in terms of THMs concentration. Nevertheless, the highest cancer risk was higher than the EPA’s acceptable level of 10-6.
    Keywords: Trihalomethanes, Health risk assessment, Drinking water, Iran
  • Fatemeh Shahbazi, Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari *, Hamid Soori, Soheila Khodakarim Page 8
    Background
    Although the epidemiology of road traffic accidents (RTAs) and their determining factors have been extensively investigated and debated in Iran, yet there is no data regarding socioeconomic inequalities in mortality from RTA in Iranian context. Since effective interventions to control, management and diminish the negative influence of RTAs would require understanding of numerous contributing factors, including the inequalities We aimed to quantify for the first time the socioeconomic differential in mortality or injuries from RTAs. Study design: A cross-sectional study.
    Methods
    Overall, 50755 died and injured people from RTA from Mar 2015 to Feb 2016 were evaluated. The data were taken from traffic police department in Iran. We calculated concentration index (CI) to measure socioeconomic inequality in traffic-related mortality & injury. Data were analyzed using Stata software.
    Results
    The mortality and injury rate from accidents was 1130.80 per 10000 accidents. The concentration index was negative for mortality rate (-0.11) of RTA, indicating the higher concentration of the rates among deprived groups.
    Conclusion
    People with low socioeconomic level were more at risk for fatal accidents and injuries. Therefore, specific interventions on road safety should be delivered in the deprived drivers which uses from low safety level vehicles.
    Keywords: Road traffic accident, Inequality, Mortality, Injury, Concentration index, Socioeconomic status