فهرست مطالب

معماری و شهرسازی آرمان شهر - پیاپی 25 (زمستان 1397)
  • پیاپی 25 (زمستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/12/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 29
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  • فهیمه اسمعیلی، امید دژدار*، محمدمهدی زبرجدیان صفحات 1-11
    بحران هویت و چگونگی مواجهه با فرهنگ وارداتی غرب که نتیجه تحولات ناشی از ورود مدرنیسم به جوامع غیر غربی است، در چند دهه اخیر مورد بحث قرارگرفته است. این بحث نه تنها در ایران که در بسیاری کشورهای دیگر منجر به پیدایش جریاناتی شده است که دغدغه چگونگی تداوم هویت را دارند. در این میان کشور ژاپن توانسته است چالش تضاد بین سنت و مدرنیسم را به فرصت تعامل سنت و مدرنیسم تبدیل نماید. هندوستان نیز تا حدودی در رسیدن به این هدف موفق عمل نموده است. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی و مقایسه سیر تاریخی تغییرات ناشی از ورود مدرنیسم به سه کشور ایران، هند و ژاپن می باشد تا با بررسی جنبش ها، سبک ها و آثار حاصل شده از تقابل سنت و مدرنیسم تحولات و نتایج به دست آمده از آن مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. روش تحقیق در این مقاله روشی کیفی مبتنی بر انتخاب مورد مطالعاتی است. نتیجه استخراج شده از این مقاله ارائه معیارهایی جهت سنجش معماری معاصر با هویت می باشد. نتیجه حاصل از این پژوهش بیانگر این واقعیت است که آثاری در دست یابی به معماری با هویت مطابق با استانداردهای معاصر موفق بوده اند که در طراحی معیارهای ذیل را رعایت نموده اند: استفاده از دست آوردهای فناوری و مصالح نو، طراحی حجم های مدرن و به کارگیری جزییات بومی.
    کلیدواژگان: سنت، مدرنیسم، ایران، هند، ژاپن
  • ملیحه جاویدمهر، پریسا هاشم پور* صفحات 13-26
    از آنجایی که هندسه می تواند بر کیفیت و چگونگی درک معنا و مفهوم بنا تاثیرگذار باشد، هدف از تحقیق حاضر، بررسی معیارهای تاثیرگذار هندسی معماری جهت ارتقاء مفهوم حیات پذیری و انتقال حس سرزندگی به کاربران است. از این رو، در این تحقیق بناهای فرهنگی با محوریت فرهنگ سراها به عنوان یکی از مراکز فرهنگی- اجتماعی مهم برای حیات جمعی در دوران معاصر انتخاب شده اند. عبارت «ویژگی های هندسی در حیات پذیری فرهنگ سراها موثر است»، فرضیه این تحقیق بوده و جهت بررسی آن، روش تحقیق، توصیفی- تحلیلی و ابزار پیمایشی غیرمستقیم مبتنی بر نظر خبرگان انتخاب شده است. مجموعه ای از شاخص ها برای تبیین مفهوم حیات پذیری و همچنین ارزیابی ویژگی های هندسی یک بنا مبتنی بر ادبیات موضوع، مبنای تدوین پرسش نامه بوده است که عبارت اند از: مرکزیت، تناسبات متفاوت، حفظ سلسله مراتب، فرم ها و زمینه کامل، ساده و قابل درک، تعادل، انسجام و پیوستگی اجزاء، وجود نشانه ها برای تمایز، انطباق با نوعی بی نظمی درون زا، زایش تشابه ها و تعادلی پویا بین فضاهای مثبت و منفی. براساس نتایج ارائه شده در ادبیات موضوع و نظرات خبرگان، چگونگی تاثیر هندسه بر حیات پذیری معماری در انواع معنوی، مادی و ادراکی- معنایی در این تحقیق ارزیابی شده و در نهایت فرضیه پژوهش تایید شده است. نتایج تحقیق، حاکی از تاثیرگذاری هندسه معقول و محسوس (هندسه حیات بخش) بر القای حس حیات در بنای فرهنگ سراهای مورد بررسی است. رتبه بندی نهایی هر یک از شاخص های هندسی تاثیرگذار بر حیات پذیری فرهنگ سراها بررسی و تحلیل همبستگی و ارتباط آن ها با یکدیگر نیز ارائه شده است. نتایج همبستگی تحلیل شده نشان می دهد که ارتقای هر یک از معیارهای هندسی می تواند بر ارتقای معیارهای همبسته بر آن تاثیر گذاشته و در نهایت ارتقای هر دو منجر به بهبود وضعیت حیات پذیری در معماری فرهنگ سراها شود. به طور خلاصه یافته های تحقیق مبتنی بر تحلیل های آماری حاکی از اهمیت بالای معیارهای هندسی تناسبات متفاوت، زایش تشابه ها، حفظ سلسله مراتب و زمینه کامل و ساده در میان دیگر معیارها با هدف ارتقای حیات معماری نمونه های موردی است.
    کلیدواژگان: حیات پذیری معماری، هندسه محسوس، هندسه معقول، حیات مادی، حیات معنوی، حیات ادراکی- معنایی، فرهنگسرا
  • علی حسینی*، منوچهر فروتن، سعید صالحی صفحات 27-44
    سرعت تغییر در بافت قدیم شهرها ما را در رویارویی با نحوه نگرش و چگونگی برخورد با آن ها قرار می دهد. صرف نظر از برشمردن جنبه های مثبت یا منفی تحولات کالبدی که به دیدگاه های برنامه ریزان و سیاست های اتخاذ شده آن وابسته است. لزوم ثبت و ضبط الگوهای معماری پیشین مسجل می باشد. چالش اساسی در این رویارویی این است که آیا بناهای قدیم شهر اراک قابلیت دسته بندی و گونه شناسی را داراست؛ و چند گونه اصلی را برای شناسایی بناهای این بافت می توان برشمرد. این پژوهش با روشی توصیفی به شرح کلی شمای معماری پرداخته و عرصه بندی در معماری مسکونی بافت قدیم، جهت گیری عمومی بناهای مسکونی، عناصر عمومی بناهای مسکونی، عناصر کالبدی و اجزای آن به تفکیک نام و کاربرد آن ها در خانه های قدیمی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در نتیجه این پژوهش که تحقیقی توصیقی- تاریخی و ترکیبی است، به گونه شناسی و تفکیک انواع عمده الگوهای معماری مسکونی در بافت قدیم انجامید و در پایان، سه گونه اصلی، گونه کوهستانی، گونه کویری، گونه برون گرا در خانه های اراک معرفی شد که گونه کوهستانی برگرفته از معماری اقلیم سرد و خشک ایران مثل همدان، کردستان و غیره، گونه کویری بر گرفته از معماری شهرهای کویری ایران مثل یزد و کاشان و گونه برون گرا که در دوره پهلوی به وجود آمده برگرفته از معماری معمول دوره پهلوی ایران است.
    کلیدواژگان: گونه شناسی، خانه، فضای معماری، اراک
  • مهدی حمزه نژاد، پدرام قلیچی* صفحات 45-55
    مطابق داده های جدید روان شناسی محیط، یکی از مهم ترین ارزش های محیطی، میزان اجتماع پذیری و کیفیت قرارگاه های رفتاری است و با سنجش آن ها می توان، موفقیت طرح های محیطی و معماری را بررسی کرد. هدف از این پژوهش سنجش شاخصه های مطلوب برای شکل گیری قرارگاه های رفتاری و به تبع آن اجتماع پذیری فضا در پارک های دانشگاهی است. این تحقیق به بررسی این مقوله در پارک دانشگاه علم وصنعت ایران در تهران به عنوان قدیمی ترین پارک درون دانشگاهی ایران، می پردازد. به این منظور در در ابتدا بر مبنای ادبیات روانشناسی محیط، مقوله اجتماع پذیری و قرارگاه رفتاری تدقیق شده و مولفه های اصلی و موثر بر شکل گیری این دو عامل مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. شاخصه های تاثیر گذار در افزایش اجتماع پذیری محیط شامل حضور طبیعت و درختان؛ وجود نشانه ها مانند تابلوهای اطلاع رسانی و اعلامیه ها و غیره، وجود خدمات جانبی و وجود آب در فضای کالبدی؛ اندازه فضا و محدود نبودن آن مانند گستردگی دید؛ چگالی پایین فضا مانند خلوتی جان فضا و ایجاد فضای خلوت برای دید، دور بودن قلمروها از نوار حرکتی می باشند. بعد از برآورد جامعه آماری و حجم نمونه، این مولفه ها از طریق مصاحبه ساختار یافته و پرسش نامه به شکل تصادفی از 68 نفر از کاربران پارک دانشگاه مورد پرسش واقع شد. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها علاوه بر روش های آمار توصیفی، از روش آمار استنباطی شامل تحلیل همبستگی در نمونه موردی استفاده شد. نتایج بازخورد کاربران، وجود شاخصه های اجتماع پذیری موثری، همچون وجود آب، مبلمان نیمه ثابت و غیره را تایید کرد. در عین حال موانعی همچون چگالی بیش از حد فضا و انبوه بودن درختان، توسعه دانشگاه به دور از پارک مرکزی و عدم وجود کاربری های عمومی در اطراف پارک، اجتماع پذیری آن را محدود نموده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: قرارگاه رفتاری، اجتماع پذیری، پارک درون دانشگاهی، پارک دانشگاه علم وصنعت ایران
  • علی اکبر حیدری*، مهدی سعدوندی، الهام دمشناس، الهه دمشناس صفحات 57-68
    افراد همواره در طول دوران زندگی خود، بارها با مقوله انتخاب خانه و مکانی برای سکونت مواجه می شوند. عوامل و شاخص های متعددی بر این انتخاب تاثیرگذار هستند که بعضی از آن ها عواملی بازدارنده و بعضی دیگر عواملی برانگیزنده هستند و افراد در فرآیند انتخاب خود ملزم به برقراری تعادل میان این شاخص ها می باشند. بر این اساس پژوهش حاضر قصد آن دارد که موضوع ترجیحات مسکونی را در ارتباط با سه مقیاس واحد مسکونی، ساختمان مسکونی و محله مورد سنجش قرار دهد و اولویت های مختلفی که افراد در ارتباط با هرکدام از این شاخص ها در ذهن دارند را مورد تحلیل قرار دهد. پیمایش مذکور در سه شهر مشهد، نیشابور و تربت جام انجام گرفت و در هر شهر 350 نفر از مستاجرین به عنوان جامعه آماری انتخاب شدند. گردآوری داده ها از طریق پرسشنامه بسته و نیز مصاحبه انجام گرفت و در تحلیل داده ها از آزمون تحلیل واریانس F و نیز تحلیل سلسله مراتبی AHP استفاده شد. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که معیارهای مرتبط با انتخاب واحد مسکونی و محله برای ساکنین سه شهر مورد بررسی دارای تفاوت های معنی داری است. افراد در انتخاب محل زندگی خود ابتدا به انتخاب محله و سپس به انتخاب واحد مسکونی و در نهایت به ویژگی های ساختمان مسکونی توجه نشان می دهند. همچنین در انتخاب واحد مسکونی، هرچه مقیاس شهری کوچک تر می شود، تمایل به انتخاب خانه با ابعاد فضایی بزرگ تر و نیز تعداد اتاق های بیشتر، افزایش می یابد. در انتخاب محله نیز در شهرهای بزرگ، توجه به دسترسی به شبکه حمل ونقل عمومی و نیز دسترسی به خدمات شهری در بالاترین اولویت ها قرار دارد؛ این در حالی است که برای ساکنین شهرهای کوچک تر، بافت اجتماعی محله و نیز شناخت ساکنین آن در اولویت های بالاتر قرار دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: ترجیحات مسکونی، واحد مسکونی، آپارتمان، محله
  • حمیدرضا دلفانیان، مهدی خاک زند*، سعید کامیابی صفحات 69-79
    ویژگی های آب و هوایی هر منطقه نقش برجسته ای در شکل دهی معماری آن منطقه دارد. در گذشته معماران و مردم توجه بسیار زیادی به اقلیم1 و آسایش حرارتی داشته اند. شناخت پتانسیل های طبیعی برای ایجاد آسایش توسط شاخص های آسایش حرارتی2 و برداشت از الگوهای معماری بومی که پاسخگوی مسائل اقلیمی بوده اند می تواند در شکل دهی بهتر معماری امروز مفید باشد. همواره معماری، استفاده از تجارب، سنت ها و شیوه های زندگی بوده و هست که مبانی اصلی معماری بومی را تشکیل می دهد. به طور کلی اجتماع پذیری فضاهای جمعی و سکونت در یک مکان ملزوم وجود آب و هوای مناسب و شرایط آسایش می باشد. برای رسیدن به آسایش حرارتی باید ویژگی های اقلیمی هر ماه را شناسایی کرد و از تدابیر معماری برای مقابله یا استفاده از آن بهره گرفت. هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی شاخص های آسایش حرارتی و ارائه دستورالعمل های طراحی و مقایسه نتایج به دست آمده با معماری بومی منطقه است. برای دستیابی به اهداف تحقیق از دوره آماری 40 ساله (2016-1977) ایستگاه سینوپتیک نوشهر به روش تحلیلی-توصیفی بهره گرفته شده است. برای شناسایی گروه اقلیمی منطقه و طول دوره خشکی از فرمول دمارتن، آمبرژه و نمودار آمبروترومیک استفاده شده و برای تعیین محدوده آسایش حرارتی از شاخص های اولگی، گیوانی3 و ماهانی4 بهره گرفته شده است. با بررسی های به عمل آمده مشخص شد که شهر نوشهر دارای اقلیم فرامرطوب می باشد و به لحاظ آب و هوایی، شش ماه از سال دارای هوای سرد و کمی سرد، چهار ماه راحت و دو ماه گرم و شرجی است. دستورالعمل های به دست آمده از شاخص ها با معماری بومی منطقه در یک راستا قرار دارند، لذا بهره گیری از الگوهای معماری بومی به عنوان الگویی اثبات شده پیشنهاد می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: اقلیم، شاخص های آسایش حرارتی، آمبروترومیک، گیوانی، ماهانی
  • نرگس دهقان* صفحات 81-95
    دستیابی به سهولت مسیریابی در فضای داخلی، از عواملی است که خوانایی را افزایش می دهد. این فعالیت به ظاهر ساده چالش های جدی را برای طراحی معماری ارائه می کند؛ زیرا مسیریابی برای کاربران در فضای داخلی، رفتاری هدفمند، جهت دار و حرکتی پویا از مبدا به مقصد و شامل تعاملاتی بین راهبر و محیط است که به طور مستقیم توسط آن ها درک نمی شود و در برخی موارد منجر به شکست، سرخوردگی، نگرانی و یا گمشدگی آن ها می شود. تعاملات بین راهبر و محیط تحت عنوان راهکار مسیریابی بررسی می شود که ساختاری ادراکی دارد و افراد از آن ها برای پیدا کردن مقاصد خود استفاده می کنند. نو بودن این دانش در ایران و تفاوت با پژوهش های پیشین به علت تاثیرگذاری عادات و رفتارهای حرکتی در انتخاب راهکارهای مسیریابی و همچنین وجود این تفاوت ها در نوع کاربری و میزان پیچیدگی فضایی نمونه های بررسی شده در راستای تعیین راهکارها، هدف از انجام مقاله را به سوی دستیابی به راهکارهای مسیریابی، سوق داد. در این مقاله از روش تحقیق کیفی استفاده شده که براساس دانش محیطی و مشاهده داده های رفتار محیطی افراد و به دست آوردن این داده ها در حین مسیریابی، در فضای داخلی معماری تکیه دارد. در نتیجه، کاربران از راهکارهای چارچوب مرجع، مستقیم، جستجوی سیستماتیک و شناخت مقصد و مسیر، به ترتیب زمانی استفاده می کنند که بیشترین گمشدگی تا کمترین آن را در حین مسیریابی تجربه کرده باشند. سپس نقاط اصلی فضای داخلی از فرآیند دستیابی به راهکارهای مسیریابی حاصل شد که کاربران برای تسهیل مسیریابی از آن ها استفاده می کردند. با کمک این راهکارها و کشف آنچه انسان ها در حین مسیریابی به آن توجه دارند، می توان به اصول طراحی معماری دست یافت که خوانایی را افزایش می دهند و راهبران را از سردرگمی در فضاهای پیچیده و بلندمرتبه رهایی می بخشند.
    کلیدواژگان: مسیریابی، راهکار مسیریابی، فضای داخلی معماری، خوانایی، دانش فضایی
  • مریم طلایی، وحیده عفیفی*، اصغر فهیمی فر صفحات 97-109
    مجتمع اخلاصیه، یکی از بزرگترین مراکز آموزشی، فرهنگی و خیریه هرات دوره تیموریان است که بین سال های 880 تا 886 ه.ق. (1475 تا 1481م) در شهر هرات افغانستان توسط امیر علی شیرنوایی بنا شده است. متاسفانه مجتمع اخلاصیه طی سالیان متمادی تخریب شده و در حال حاضر چیزی جز ویرانه هایی چند برجای نمانده است. آگاهی از ساختار مجتمع اخلاصیه که در زمره بزرگترین و مشهورترین مجموعه های چند عملکردی دوره تیموریان قرار می گیرد، برای شناخت پیشینه معماری و شهرسازی در دوره تیموری ضروری بوده و مقدمه ای است برای رسیدن به طرح مجتمع های چند عملکردی در بستر شهرسازی عصر تیموریان. این نوشتار به بررسی طرح فرضی مجتمع اخلاصیه با تکیه بر روش توصیفی و تحلیلی و براساس نگرش علمی- استدلالی با رویکرد استفاده از منابع تاریخی مبتنی بر دقت در مطالب و نکات ذکر شده در متن وقف نامه و تحلیل محتوا می پردازد. از بین نسخ مختلف وقف نامه، مهم ترین مرجع و منبع مستند درباره این مجتمع، نسخه کتابخانه ملی فرانسه می باشد که بر اساس آن می توان به طرح کلی از اخلاصیه و ساختار و سازمان فضایی آن دست یافت. براساس مطالعه منابع مکتوب تاریخی، چنین نتیجه می شود که فضاهای مجتمع اخلاصیه شامل مسجد جامع، مدرسه، دارالحفاظ، دارالشفاء، خانقاه و گنبدخانه می باشد و رود انجیل از میان این مجموعه می گذرد. همچنین مجموعه فضاهای اخلاصیه، خانقاه و گنبدخانه در جنوب رود انجیل و سایر فضاها، در شمال آن رود واقع شده است. با توجه به الگوی رایج دوره تیموری و توضیحات وقفنامه می توان نتیجه گرفت که غالب فضاهای این مجتمع دارای الگوی حیاط مرکزی بوده که در برخی از فضاها از الگوی چهار ایوانی استفاده شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: بازآفرینی، مجتمع اخلاصیه، رساله وقفیه، الگوی فرمی- کالبدی، طرح فرضی
  • ارسلان طهماسبی، هوشمند علیزاده، پرویز اصلانی* صفحات 111-124
    در دهه های اخیر موضوع کیفیت محیط شهری به یک بحث تخصصی و عمومی در جامعه تبدیل شده و تحقیقات نشانگر آن است که محیط های شهری شامل مولفه های شکل دهنده کیفیت محیط است که در صورت بی توجهی به آن ها، از کارآمدی محیط های شهری کاسته می شود. از این رو پژوهش حاضر بر آن است که به شناسایی مولفه های موثر بر بهبود کیفیت محیط شهری پرداخته و تعیین کنندگی هر کدام از این مولفه ها را در کیفیت معنایی- ادراکی محله قطارچیان شهر سنندج، مورد سنجش قرار دهد. نوع پژوهش، از نظر هدف؛ کاربردی و از لحاظ روش انجام تحقیق، «توصیفی- تحلیلی» است. با استفاده از فرمول کوکران، نمونه ای به حجم 343 نفر از ساکنین به شیوه نمونه گیری در دسترس انتخاب و کیفیت محیط محدوده مورد مطالعه توسط آنان مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته است. ابزار گردآوری داده ها پرسشنامه بوده که پاسخ آن ها به صورت بسته بوده است و نسخه اولیه آن مشتمل بر 23 شاخص است. همچنین روایی ظاهری پرسشنامه با استناد به نظر متخصصان و پایایی آن با استناد به ضریب آلفای کرونباخ (75/0) بررسی و تایید شده است. در این راستا با به کارگیری نرم افزارهای SPSS و Lisrel، داده ها توسط روش های آماری نظیر تحلیل عامل تاییدی و آزمون t تک نمونه ای مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته است. مهم ترین نتایج تحلیل عامل تاییدی نشانگر آن است که شاخص های بیانگر کیفیت معنایی- ادراکی محیط می توانند توصیف مناسبی از متغیر کیفیت معنایی- ادراکی به عمل آورند اما مولفه امنیت نمی توانست بیان کننده این متغیر باشد. همچنین یافته های پژوهش نشانگر آنست که افراد نمونه، کیفیت معنایی ادراکی محیط را در مجموع و بر حسب هر سه مولفه هویت، حس تعلق خاطر و خوانایی در سطح بالاتر از متوسط بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: کیفیت معنایی- ادراکی، ادراک محیطی، ساختار عاملی، محله قطارچیان شهر سنندج
  • علیرضا فلاحی، محمدرضا حافظی، عاطفه امیدخواه* صفحات 125-136
    توجه ویژه به مقوله ایمنی در برابر آتش سوزی در ساختمان های بلندمرتبه که تعداد زیادی جمعیت را در خود جای می دهند حائز اهمیت است. به دلیل چالش های منحصر به چنین ساختمان هایی، تامین ایمنی این بناها نیازمند انجام برنامه ریزی و مدیریت ایمنی است. یکی از اصلی ترین موضوعات مورد توجه انجام تخلیه اضطراری ایمن و به موقع می باشد. پژوهش حاضر، به معرفی مفهوم «زمان تخلیه» در قالب دو بازه «زمان تاخیر» و «زمان حرکت» پرداخته است. بدین‏منظور بازه زمانی تاخیر پیش از شروع حرکت به دو روش، و بازه زمانی حرکت به سه روش برای دو ساختمان بلندمرتبه مورد مطالعه محاسبه شده و مقدار بیشینه نتایج به‏دست آمده از هریک، انتخاب و با هم جمع شده و به ‏عنوان زمان کلی تخلیه درنظر گرفته شده است. سپس از طریق ترسیم خط ‏زمان برای هر ساختمان و مراجعه به مولفه های اثرگذار در روشی که زمان بیشینه را نتیجه داده اند، عوامل موثر در افزایش زمان تخلیه مورد تحلیل و بررسی قرار گرفته اند. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد به‏دلیل نبود ساختاری منسجم برای عهده دار شدن مسئولیت های مرتبط با ایمنی در ساختمان های بلند مسکونی، نگهداری نامناسب تجهیزات ایمنی، در هنگام رخداد آتش‏سوزی به علت تاخیر زمانی در شروع تخلیه ساکنان میزان زیادی از زمان موجود برای فرار را از دست خواهند داد و علاوه بر آن در هنگام خروج نیز با مسائلی چون حرکت کند جمعیت، مسدود شدن راه های خروج به دلیل کاهش عرض مفید و ورود دود و گازهای سمی به آن ها مواجه خواهند شد. نتیجه گیری نشان می دهد که تسریع فرآیند تخلیه اضطراری صرفا به مفهوم حرکت سریع تر افراد در خروج نیست، بلکه با به حداقل رساندن زمان تاخیر پیش از تخلیه از طریق آموزش و مانور و انجام واکنشی سریع تر از طرف ساکنان و نیز کاربرد آسانسورها می توان ایمنی آتش را در تخلیه اضطراری افزایش داد.
    کلیدواژگان: مدیریت ایمنی، آتش‏‏سوزی، ساختمان بلند مسکونی، تخلیه اضطراری، زمان تخلیه
  • حامد کامل نیا*، فرهاد کریمانی صفحات 137-148
    شهر مشهد به عنوان دومین شهر بزرگ ایران و نیز یکی از پرمخاطب ترین شهرهای جهان اسلام در سال های اخیر به سمت توسعه عمودی روی آورده است. این مساله علی رغم وجود نقدهای منفی خود، می تواند با استفاده از راهکارهای مناسب و درک صحیح از نیازهای کاربران خود تبدیل به یک فرصت توسعه مناسب برای شهر مشهد شد. توجه به بلند مرتبه سازی به ویژه در بخش های شمال غربی شهر مشهد در حال افزایش است. با وجود توسعه کمی سال های اخیر، نکته قابل توجه، عدم وجود ضوابط مدون ساختمانی برای ساختمان سازی بلند مرتبه است که می تواند وضعیت نامناسبی را در آینده به همراه داشته باشد. از طرفی دیگر عدم توجه به نیازسنجی ساکنان این بناها مشکلاتی چند را به همراه داشته است. این تحقیق که براساس نیازسنجی از کاربران ساختمان های بلند مسکونی در منطقه 9 شهرداری شهر مشهد صورت گرفته نشان می دهد که به طور عمده کاربران، واحدهای سه و چهار خوابه را ترجیح می دهند. مطالعات نشان می دهد بیش از نیمی از کاربران واحدهای دوبلکس را ترجیح می دهند؛ و بیشترین تقاضا مربوط به واحدهای بین 150 تا 250 مترمربعی است. اکثر مخاطبان، محدوده مورد نظر را برای ساخت بناهای بلند مرتبه مناسب می دانند و بیشتر تمایل به سکونت در طبقات بالا دارند. موضوع بسیار پر اهمیت، وجود تراس یا حیاط است که اکثر کاربران به آن توجه دارند. همچنین مطالعات نشان می دهد میان سن کاربر و طبقه انتخابی، همچنین نوع واحد، رابطه معنی دار و همبستگی وجود دارد. هرچه سن کاربر بالاتر می رود طبقه انتخابی بالاتری را مورد نظر قرار می دهند. از نظر نوع کاربری ها و خدمات مورد نیاز در این ساختمان ها برخی از فضاها نظیر مارکت، باغ و فضاهای سبز عمومی، مجموعه های ورزشی و غیره در اولویت است.
    کلیدواژگان: طراحی ساختمان بلند مرتبه، کاربر، نیازسنجی، برنامه ریزی کالبدی، منطقه 9 شهرداری شهر مشهد
  • سید مهدی مداحی، الهه اسفندیانی مقدم*، لیلا عباسی، مونا بمانی نایینی صفحات 149-161
    اکثریت نظریه پردازان حوزه معماری و فرهنگ بر تاثیر شکل و کالبد فضا بر شیوه زندگی و رفتار انسان تاکید دارند چرا که فرم، شکل و سازمان فضایی خانه ها در یک همسایگی می تواند زندگی ساکنانش را حمایت یا مختل نماید. از جمله اندام های فضایی تاثیرگذار بر شیوه زندگی ساکنان، فضاهای نیمه باز مسکونی است. فضاهای نیمه باز، فرصتی برای ارتباط بیش تر با محیط بیرون و مکانی برای بروز برخی از رفتارهای حاصل از شیوه زندگی می باشد. در پژوهش حاضر به خوانش و فهم ویژگی های کالبدی- فضایی در فضاهای نیمه باز مسکونی گذشته و امروز پرداخته شده است. در خانه های بومی سنتی، فضاهای نیمه بازی نظیر ایوان، صفه و طارمی وجود داشته که نقش به سزایی در بروز شیوه زندگی و نظام رفتارها داشته اند، لذا هدف از پژوهش حاضر قیاس تطبیقی تاثیر این ویژگی ها بر میزان مطلوبیت فضایی مسکن بومی- سنتی در گذشته و خانه های امروزی می باشد. روش تحقیق در این پژوهش ترکیبی بوده که شامل روش تاریخی، توصیفی و تحلیلی می باشد. در جمع آوری داده های کیفی از مطالعات کتابخانه ای، مشاهده، برداشت میدانی، مصاحبه و پرسشنامه استفاده شده و داده های کمی از طریق شبیه سازی به وسیله نرم افزار Ucl depth map به دست آمده است و در نهایت برای تحلیل داده ها و نتیجه گیری از روش استدلال منطقی استفاده شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که در خانه های بومی- سنتی شهر مشهد فضاهای نیمه باز نقش مهمی در بروز شیوه زندگی و نظام های رفتاری ساکنان ایفا می کرده است و امروزه باید بخشی از تلاش معماران و برنامه ریزان شهری به منظور حفظ هویت و پایداری فرهنگی جامعه معطوف به ایجاد راهکارهایی در راستای حفظ شیوه زندگی بومی و نظام های رفتاری حاصل از آن باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: فضای نیمه باز، شهر مشهد، شیوه زندگی و نظام رفتاری، خانه های بومی
  • رامین مدنی*، علیرضا عینی فر، بروس جاد، محمد جلیلی صفحات 163-176
    از چند دهه پیش تاکنون، ظهور و گسترش مجموعه های مسکونی برنامه ریزی شده با محدوده های سخت و قابل کنترل، به نام مجموعه های مسکونی محصور و بحث درخصوص پیامدهای اجتماعی زندگی در آن ها، توجه پژوهشگران را به خود جلب کرده است. در ادبیات مسکن سازی، اختلاف های زیادی در خصوص ادراک حس تعلق اجتماعی، به عنوان شاخصی برای کیفیت زندگی اجتماعی ساکنان مجموعه های مسکونی محصور وجود دارد. مطالعات نشان می دهند که مجموعه های مسکونی محصور می توانند هم موجب افزایش و هم کاهش حس تعلق اجتماعی شوند. با توجه به کارکردهای مهم حس تعلق اجتماعی، این پژوهش سعی کرده است نگاه دقیق تری به عوامل موثر بر شکل گیری و ارتقاء آن در مجموعه های مسکونی محصور داشته باشد. در این تحقیق، با استفاده از روش پیمایش و بهره گیری از شیوه نمونه گیری خوشه ایو توزیع پرسش نامه، حس تعلق اجتماعی 360 نفر از ساکنان بالای بیست سال، سه مجموعه مسکونی محصور در شهر همدان تحلیل شده است. یافته ها نشان می دهد متغیرهای پیوند اجتماعی محلی، اعتماد و کنترل اجتماعی، احساس امنیت، مدت اقامت، استفاده از فضای عمومی و وجود کاربری های مختلط، رابطه معناداری با حس تعلق اجتماعی دارند. مطابق نتایج تحقیق، میزان حس تعلق اجتماعی در میان ساکنان مجموعه های مسکونی مطالعه شده، در حد بالایی نیست. نتیجه تحقیق، تاییدکننده آن دسته از دیدگاه های مخالف در ادبیات است، که بر روی هزینه های اجتماعی مجموعه های مسکونی محصور تاکید می کنند. بر این اساس، مجموعه های مسکونی محصور می توانند یک مانع در برابر تعامل باشند و ممکن است بر مشکلات ایجاد شبکه های اجتماعی که فرصتی برای فعالیت های اجتماعی و اقتصادی فراهم می آورند، بیفزایند.
    کلیدواژگان: مجموعه مسکونی محصور، محدوده سخت، حس تعلق اجتماعی، فضای عمومی، همدان
  • علی مصلی نژاد، خسرو موحد*، هادی کشمیری صفحات 177-188
    در این پژوهش تلاش بر این است که با توجه به اهمیت عناصر و مولفه های معماری و نقش آن ها در ارتقاء کیفیت فضاهای شهری به ویژه معابر شهری در قالب مفهومی تحت عنوان سرزندگی بتوان ارتباط موثری میان عناصر کالبدی معماری و سرزندگی شهروندان به دست آورد. هدف این پژوهش بررسی و شناخت مهم ترین مولفه های کالبدی معماری در معابر شهری و تاثیر آن ها بر سرزندگی شهروندان است. مقاله حاضر ضمن شناسایی عوامل موثر بر ارتقاء سرزندگی، رابطه همبستگی بین این مولفه ها را با زیرعامل های عناصر کالبدی معماری معابر شهری در قالب یک مدل تحلیلی ترسیم می کند. روش مورد استفاده در این پژوهش، پیمایشی بوده و با عنایت به نامشخص بودن تعداد دقیق جامعه آماری از روش نمونه گیری غیر احتمالی هدفمند در این پژوهش استفاده شده است. نتایج این پژوهش بیانگر آن است که عوامل روانی- اجتماعی با میزان 0.749 در مقایسه با عوامل کالبدی- فضایی به میزان 0.547، عوامل محیطی به میزان 0.312 و تسهیلات رفاهی و خدماتی به میزان 0.514 در خیابان عفیف آباد شیراز بیشترین تاثیر را در ارتقاء سرزندگی شهروندان دارد. همچنین براساس نتایج پژوهش مشخص شد که توجه به نوع مصالح و رنگ نمای ساختمان ها، وجود پارکینگ مناسب برای مراجعین، هماهنگی و تناسب بصری ساختمان های مجاور معبر، وجود فضاهای سبز و ورزشی و تفریحی و همچنین توجه به وجود کاربری های خدماتی در عصر و شب، مهم ترین نکات کلیدی هستند که در جهت ارتقاء سرزندگی شهروندان در معابر شهری باید مد نظر معماران و طراحان شهری قرار گیرند.
    کلیدواژگان: عناصر کالبدی معماری، سرزندگی، معابر شهری، خیابان عفیف آباد
  • سید جلیل موسوی*، سنبل حاتمی، غلامرضا طلیسچی صفحات 189-199
    در رویکرد پدیدارشناسانه که مبتنی بر حضور انسان در جهان است، به بررسی چگونگی حضور انسان در جهان (نحوه باشیدن) و نحوه ارتباط وی با جهان پیرامونش پرداخته شده، همچنین این رویکرد به بررسی مرزهای موجود -به عنوان یکی از مولفه های مهم در ساختار مکانی- میان انسان و محیط اطرافش و مرزهای موجود میان پدیده های گوناگون نیز می پردازد. بر این اساس و از آن جایی که این تحقیق به روش کیفی انجام شده و با رویکرد پدیدارشناسانه شکل گرفته، به دنبال ایجاد چارچوبی در جهت درک عمیق و صحیح از ماهیت مکانی و ویژگی های کیفی مکان است، لذا هدف این تحقیق در راستای بررسی نقش مرزها در مکان های گوناگون (مکان طبیعی و مکان انسان ساخت) و نقش میزان درک افراد از چگونگی ساختار این مرزها در مداخلاتشان و تاثیراتشان برای بهبود کیفیت در مکان های انسان ساخت است. از این رو پس از مطالعاتی در زمینه پدیدارشناسی مکان و شناخت ساختار مکان و درک محیط با توجه به این رویکرد و با الگوبرداری از معیارهای پدیدارشناسانه به شناخت، بررسی و توصیف ساختار زیستگاه نگارنده (در شهر ملایر واقع در استان همدان) در غالب یک دشت که بستری مناسب برای به وجود آمدن تاکستان هایی که شهر را در محاصره خود درآورده اند- پرداخته شده است. سپس به بررسی ارتباط میان افراد با مکان های طبیعی و مکان های انسان ساخت و بررسی مرزهای موجود در این مکان ها پرداخته شده، و در نهایت سعی در یافتن راه حلی برای بهبود رابطه میان سه پدیده مهم انسان، مکان طبیعی و مکان انسان ساخت (ساختار کارگاه های بسته بندی خشکبار) در این منطقه شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: مرز، پدیده مکان، حس مکان، مکان طبیعی، مکان انسان ساخت
  • محمد جواد مهدوی نژاد*، ساناز مسعودی تنکابنی صفحات 201-208
    میزان بالای مصرف انرژی برای سرمایش و گرمایش ساختمان، همواره از دغدغه های اساسی معماران در فرآیند طراحی معماری بوده است. مروری بر ادبیات موضوع و پیشینه پژوهش نشان می دهد که یکی از این تدابیر مهم و اساسی در تحقق الگوی «معماری سرآمد»، به کارگیری مفهوم «خودسایه اندازی» در طراحی به معنای استفاده از راهکاری برای ایجاد سایه بر روی سطوح پیرامونی ساختمان است. براساس چارچوب مفهومی طراحی شده، فرم های خودسایه انداز برای آن که بتوانند به عنوان فرم بهینه به کار گرفته شوند، باید حداکثر انرژی تابشی ممکن را در زمستان و حداقل آن را در تابستان کسب نمایند. از این رو هدف از این پژوهش، تحلیل نقش خودسایه اندازی در کاهش مصرف انرژی ساختمان و تحلیل میزان تاثیر به کارگیری فرم های خودسایه انداز در بهبود عملکرد انرژی ساختمان های شهر تهران است. براساس روش تحقیق، راهبرد نیمه تجربی، روش توصیفی- تحلیلی، تکنیک شبیه سازی و تدبیر مقایسه نمونه ها برای پژوهش انتخاب شده است. با بهره گیری از ابزار یکی از نرم افزارهای تجاری موجود، شانزده نمونه از فرم های متداول ساختمان های میان مرتبه موجود در معماری معاصر جهان؛ با هدف دست یابی به فرم بهینه ساختمان در اقلیم تهران، مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نمونه های اصلی در ماه های مختلف سال، از طریق شبیه سازی و تحلیل و مقایسه میزان جذب انرژی خورشیدی توسط مدل های ساخته شده، به صورت خاص مورد بررسی قرار گرفته و سپس شاخص های در نظر گرفته شده بر روی مدل های مورد نظر ارزیابی شد. دستاوردهای حاصل از مطالعات صورت گرفته نشان دهنده آن است که به کارگیری شیوه خودسایه اندازی و ایجاد سایه در سطوح پیرامونی ساختمان ها به واسطه کنترل انتقال حرارت به محیط داخلی ساختمان، تاثیر زیادی در بهینه سازی مصرف انرژی دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: خودسایه اندازی، بهره وری در مصرف انرژی، فرم بهینه ساختمان معماری معاصر ایران، معماری سرآمد
  • محمد تقی نظرپور*، احمد حیدری، مرضیه سلیمی صفحات 209-223
    امروزه دانشگاه ها نقش کلیدی در رشد و شکوفایی جامعه ایفا کرده، به همین دلیل بسیاری از جوامع برای گسترش کمی و کیفی مراکز آموزش عالی، قدم های حساب شده ای برداشته اند. یکی از مسائلی که برای توسعه این مراکز مهم است، اهمیت رفاه و مهم تر از همه، ارائه مسکن برای دانشجویان (خوابگاه ها) می باشد. از این رو مطالعات فراوانی برای ارزیابی رضایت مندی دانشجویان، صورت گرفته است. یکی از شاخصه های موثر در رضایت مندی نیز، محیط کالبدی بوده که پیکربندی فضایی از مولفه های اصلی محیط کالبدی می‎باشد. بنابراین هدف از این مقاله ارزیابی رضایت ساکنین در فضاهای خوابگاه با توجه به پیکربندی فضایی بوده که می تواند در بهبود کیفیت زندگی دانشجویان مفید باشد. برای رسیدن به این مهم در مرحله اول، ابتدا دو نوع بلوک خوابگاهی (خوابگاه دختران شهید بهشتی) که از نظر پیکربندی فضایی با یکدیگر متفاوت بوده (بلوک 5، «خطی شکل» و بلوک 6، «آپارتمانی») انتخاب شدند. سپس این دو بلوک از نظر پیکربندی فضایی توسط شاخصه های نرم افزار نحو فضا، UCL Depth Map (هم پیوندی، عمق، مساحت دید و فشردگی حوزه دید) مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. در مرحله ی دوم، با توجه به شاخصه ها از دو بلوک خوابگاهی پرسش نامه ای (برای بلوک 5 خطی، 160 پرسش نامه و برای بلوک 6 آپارتمانی، 65 پرسش نامه) تهیه شده و مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. در پایان نیز برای مشاهده سازگاری، نتایج دو مرحله با یکدیگر مقایسه و نشان داده شد که بین پیکربندی فضایی خوابگاه های دانشجویی با ترجیحات فضایی دانشجویان و رضایت مندی آن ها سازگاری وجود دارد. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که 3 عامل عمق، دسترسی (فیزیکی و بصری) و سلسله مراتب فضایی با اثرگذاری بر پیکربندی فضایی خوابگاه های دانشجویی سبب شده است که زندگی در خوابگاه های آپارتمانی به طور معنادارتری برای دانشجویان نسبت به خوابگاه های خطی مطلوب تر باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: سازگاری، پیکربندی فضایی، خوابگاه دانشجویی شهید بهشتی، ترجیحات فضایی، رضایت مندی
  • نوشین نظریه، نیما ولی بیگ، شهریار ناسخیان* صفحات 225-236
    ساکنین مناطق گرم وخشک در تقابل با تابستان های سوزان به راه حلی رسیدند تا نوشیدن آب سرد و گوارا و نیز استفاده از یخ برای نگهداشت طولانی مواد غذایی را ممکن ساخت. این راه حل یخچال بود که با بهره گیری از دمای پایین در آستانه یخبندان شب های زمستانی، یخ می ساخت. ابعاد، اندازه، جهت و محل قرارگیری اجزای یخچال ها بر روی فرم نهایی آن ها به طور مستقیم تاثیرگذار است. در شهرهای مختلف، شکل های متفاوتی از یخچال ها وجود دارد. این تفاوت به دلیل فرم و هندسه عناصر و اجزاء آن ها است. با بررسی های انجام شده بر روی فرم و هندسه اجزای یخچال ها می توان علاوه بر شناخت جامع تر آن ها، گامی موثر در حفظ این دستاورد ایرانیان برداشت. همچنین با این پژوهش توانمندی معمار ایرانی در آشنایی با رموز هندسی به کاررفته در عناصر معماری آشکار خواهد شد. این مقاله باهدف بازخوانی ویژگی هندسی (پلان و نما) عناصر یخچال ها سعی دارد تا تاثیر آن ها بر فرم نهایی یخچال های کرمان را مورد تحلیل قرار دهد. پژوهشگران تابه حال بیشتر بر روی جنبه شناخت یخچال ها و نحوه یخ سازی در آن ها تحقیق کرده اند. در این مقاله برای اولین بار به جایگاه هندسه اجزاء یخچال در شکل گیری فرم نهایی آن ها پرداخته شده است. در پژوهش حاضر از روش تحقیق تحلیلی- توصیفی استفاده شده است. روش داده اندوزی ترکیبی از کتابخانه ای و میدانی می باشد. پس از برداشت تک به تک یخچال های موجود استان کرمان و پیاده سازی نما، پلان و مقاطع آن ها به تحلیل تطبیقی ویژگی هندسی آن ها پرداخته و عوامل تاثیرگذار بر ویژگی آن ها شناسایی شد. با بررسی های انجام شده آشکار شد شکل دیوار سایه انداز متاثر از ایستایی، عوامل جغرافیایی و محل قرار گرفتن گنبد در پلان می باشد. چینش گنبد و دیوار سایه انداز براساس زاویه تابش خورشید منطقه صورت گرفته است که این چینش خود بر محل قرارگیری ورودی ها اثرگذار است. نوع اتصال دیوار سایه انداز به گنبد با توجه به محل قرارگیری اجزاء فرعی در پلان یخچال ها متفاوت بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: یخچال های کرمان، هندسه در معماری، عناصر سازنده یخچال ها، یخچال های سنتی
  • حسنا ورمقانی*، حسین سلطان زاده، سید عطاالله طاهایی صفحات 237-249
    ورودی هر خانه به مثابه راه ارتباطی عرصه بیرونی و داخلی، بیان کننده خصوصیات فرهنگی ساکنان و نوع باورهای آن ها به محرمیت و حجاب است. هم چنین میزان و شیوه ارتباطات اجتماعی آنان را مشخص می کند. اگرچه به نظر می رسد خانه های قاجاری گیلان و مازندران، و به تبع آن، ورودی خانه ها - به سبب تشابه اقلیمی- با یکدیگر شباهت بسیار دارند. بررسی تطبیقی، تفاوت هایی را در شکل و سازمان فضایی، درجه محرمیت، میزان و نحوه کنترل قلمروهای خصوصی و عمومی آشکار می سازد که ناشی از عوامل متعددی چون تمایز فرهنگ، جغرافیا، اجتماع و شیوه معیشت است. ادعای تحقیق حاضر آن است که ویژگی های ورودی خانه های قاجاری در شهرهای دو استان گیلان و مازندران، به علت شیوه های متفاوت زندگی در این دو منطقه، از یکدیگر متمایز است. برای سنجش این ادعا، ابتدا تفاوت های فرهنگی مورد توجه قرار می گیرد و سپس با گزینش دوازده نمونه موردی از خانه های قاجاری در بافت قدیم شهرهای دو استان گیلان و مازندران، تاثیر شیوه های زندگی و فرهنگ بر ساختار شکلی ورودی ها بررسی می شود. در این مقاله با استفاده از روش تحقیق تطبیقی و نمونه موردی ورودی خانه ها با یکدیگر مقایسه شده و نشان می دهد که در خانه های قاجاری مازندران، ورودی کنترل شده با سلسله مراتب محرمیت، بازتاب فرهنگ درونگرا بوده؛ اما شیوه زندگی در گیلان، حریم های خصوصی و عمومی را تقلیل داده است. نتیجه تحلیل های ارائه شده نشان می دهد که شیوه های زندگی، آداب و رسوم، عقاید و باورها، و تعاملات اجتماعی بر ساختار فرهنگ اثرگذار بوده و تفاوت در ساختارهای فرهنگی دو جامعه، تغییرات بارزی در شکل گیری کالبد ورودی خانه ها ایجاد می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: فرهنگ، شکل خانه، ورودی، گیلان، مازندران
  • علی اصغر آبرون*، فریبا قرایی، مریم طباطباییان صفحات 251-263
    سازمان بهداشت جهانی، محیط را بر سلامت روانی افراد تاثیرگذار می داند. نادیده انگاری جنبه های تاثیرگذار محیط ساخته شده بر سلامت روانی شهروندان، سبب شکل گیری مسائل مختلف روحی و روانی برای آنان شده است. وجود استرس، پرخاشگری، زودرنجی، افسردگی، بی حوصلگی و شکایات جسمانی نتایج چنین شرایطی است. در این پژوهش با فرض این که کیفیت محیط شهری بر سلامت روانی شهروندان تاثیر دارد، سعی شده چگونگی این تاثیر مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. نوع پژوهش حاضر کاربردی بوده که به روش ترکیبی، و به شیوه ای توصیفی- تحلیلی انجام شده است. بدین منظور جهت بررسی رابطه همبستگی میان کیفیت محیط شهری محله سکونت و سطح سلامت روانی شهروندان، سعی شده است ارتباط یا عدم ارتباط دو متغیر سنجش شود. تعداد 380 نفر از ساکنین دو محله از شهر سبزوار به روش در دسترس احتمالی برای شرکت در این مطالعه انتخاب شدند. برای ارزیابی کیفیت محیط شهری محله از پرسش نامه کیفیت محیط شهری که توسط محققین و با استفاده از مطالعات نظری صورت گرفته، تنظیم شده است، و در سنجش سطح سلامت روانی شهروندان از پرسش نامه سلامت عمومی (GHQ) استفاده شده است. پایایی برای مجموع سوالات پرسش نامه با مقدار 0,885 تایید شده است. یافته های تحقیق به وسیله نرم افزار SPSS از طریق آزمون های تی دو گروه مستقل و همبستگی پیرسون مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته؛ در ادامه با استفاده از تحلیل عاملی و تحلیل رگرسیون مدلی جهت تبیین ارتباط مفاهیم تحقیق ارائه شده است. نتایج نشان می دهد میان کیفیت محیط محله های شهری و سطح سلامت روانی ساکنین رابطه مثبت و معنی داری وجود دارد. که در این میان، به ترتیب، ارزش های معنایی محله، کیفیات عملکردی محله و کیفیت فیزیکی محله، سه عامل اصلی تاثیرگذار بر سطح سلامت روانی شهروندان در محله های شهری می باشند.
    کلیدواژگان: طراحی شهری، سلامت روان ساکنین محله شهری، کیفیت محیط محله های شهری، شهر سبزوار، محله های بهار و انقلاب اسلامی
  • شیما اسلام پور*، حسن سجادزاده صفحات 265-277
    امروزه توسعه کالبدی شهرها، حجم زیاد ترافیک، آلودگی محیط زیست و کاهش سطح سلامت عمومی شهروندان، از پیامدهای رویکرد اتومبیل محور در شهرهای معاصر می باشد که با ورود خودروها به عرصه های مختلف شهری، شاهد تداخل حرکت سواره و پیاده و در پی آن عدم توجه به پیاده روها و نادیده گرفتن تاثیر پیاده روی بر سلامت افراد می باشد. همچنین در چند سال اخیر کاهش قابل ملاحظه در پیاده روی به عنوان زنگ خطری در علم پزشکی به حساب درآمد؛ تا آنجا که تحقیقات اخیر سلامت که بیش از هر چیز بر فعالیت های فیزیکی و تغذیه، به عنوان مهم ترین عامل موثر بر سلامت عمومی، متمرکز است، نشان می دهد که پیاده روی، فعالیت فیزیکی ارزشمندی است که برای دستیابی به سلامت عمومی جامعه قابل سرمایه گذاری است. مقاله حاضر بر آن است تا پس از تعریف خیابان ها و پیاده روها و پیشینه شکل گیری آن ها، از روش مطالعات اسنادی و با روش پیمایشی و تهیه 382 پرسش نامه با 37 سوال از عابرین شش خیابان منشعب شده از میدان امام همدان، مورد سنجش و ارزیابی قرار گیرد. بدین ترتیب عوامل و اولویت های تاثیرگذار در ارتقاء خیابان های شهری به لحاظ قابلیت پیاده محوری شناسایی شد. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که دو عامل اصلی کالبدی شامل عوامل ساختاری، عوامل عملکردی، عوامل زیباشناختی، زیست محیطی و انسانی شامل امنیت، تعاملات اجتماعی، حس مکان و خاطرات جمعی به عنوان عوامل موثر در اولویت قابلیت پیاده محوری در خیابان های شهری می باشند. بر این اساس شاخص های کالبدی به ترتیب در خیابان های بوعلی، شریعتی، تختی، باباطاهر، اکباتان و شهدا و شاخص های انسانی به ترتیب در خیابان های بوعلی، شریعتی، باباطاهر، اکباتان، شهدا و تختی در اولویت قرار دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: خیابان های شهری، قابلیت پیاده محوری، عوامل کالبدی، عوامل انسانی، همدان
  • فاطمه بی نیاز، تکتم حنایی* صفحات 279-292
    ادراک فضای شهری، اولین گام در جهت برقراری ارتباط فرد با محیط است و این شناخت، سبب شکل گیری تصویر ذهنی و در نتیجه آن نقشه شناختی از فضا می شود که جنسیت، گروه سنی و آشنایی با محیط تاثیر به سزایی در این فرآیند دارند. هدف از این مقاله شناخت شباهت های ادراک شناختی بزرگسالان بر مبنای جنسیت می باشد و به طور کلی از روش کیفی- تحلیلی برای انجام پژوهش استفاده شده است. بدین صورت که از روش کتابخانه ای- اسنادی برای گردآوری مبانی نظری، از روش مشاهده و بازدید میدانی جهت سنجش وضع موجود و از ابزار پرسش نامه و تکنیک نقشه شناختی جهت گردآوری داده های پژوهش استفاده شده است. گروه هدف تحقیق را زنان و مردان 64-15 سال تشکیل می دهند و حجم نمونه آماری تصادفی با فرمول کوکران 132 نفر محاسبه شده است. جهت تحلیل داده ها و استنتاج یافته های پژوهش نیز از روش آماری- کیفی برای تحلیل پرسش نامه ها و از تکنیک روی هم اندازی نقشه های شناختی جهت استنتاج شباهت های ادراکی استفاده شده است. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد که چارچوب ادراکی مردان و زنان از فضا بر مبنای نشانه، راه و گره شکل می گیرد و لبه و محدوده، نقش موثری در تصویر ذهنی ترسیمی افراد ایفا نمی نماید. همچنین بازه های سنی مختلف به صورت دو به دو در ادراک نشانه مشابه یکدیگر می باشند؛ اما در بازه 28-15 سال، ادراک لبه متمایز از سایرین است. لازم به ذکر است ادراک کیفیت هایی چون محصوریت، تمایز و تنوع در دو جنسیت مشابه یکدیگر بوده است. همچنین 88 درصد از مردان و 86 درصد از زنان، نقشه های شناختی خود را با الگوی متوالی ترسیم نموده اند و هندسه فضایی ترسیمی توسط بازه های سنی مختلف نشان دهنده این است که 22 درصد افراد 64-15 سال براساس الگوی فضایی محیط را ادراک و ترسیم می نمایند.
    کلیدواژگان: ترجیحات محیطی، جنسیت، گروه سنی بزرگسالان، نقشه شناختی
  • عباس ذکری، سمانه جمالزاده* صفحات 293-300
    بدون شک افزایش جمعیت سالمندان یکی از مهم ترین چالش های اقتصادی، اجتماعی و بهداشتی در قرن بیست و یکم به شمار می رود و این چالش مهم مسئولان را بر آن می دارد که به کیفیت زندگی این افراد در خانه سالمندان که اغلب مورد غفلت واقع می شوند اهمیت بیشتری دهند. وقتی سکونت در سرای سالمندان ضرورت یابد، سالمند اغلب احساس طرد شدن و جدایی می کند. اگر سالمند احساس کند به خاطر ارزش کم و بهای اندک دور انداخته شده است، عکس العمل طبیعی فرد این است که دچار احساس منفی شود. این افراد اغلب احساس بی اهمیتی، بی علاقگی و بی مهری می نمایند. با توجه به تاثیر متقابل انسان، بر فضا و فضا بر انسان این مساله پیش می آید که چگونه در خانه سالمندان می توان حس تعلق به مکان را افزایش داد که مزایای آن آرامش، احساس امنیت و برگشت احساسات نابود شده و تغییر تلقی فرد و جامعه از این مکان هاست. پژوهش حاضر از نوع توصیفی- همبستگی است که همبستگی عوامل شکل دهنده حس تعلق به مکان و کیفیت زندگی سالمندان مقیم خانه های سالمندی شیراز مد نظر است، بدین منظور عوامل شکل دهنده حس تعلق به مکان که شامل عوامل ادراکی- شناختی، عوامل اجتماعی و عوامل محیطی- کالبدی است در سه فرضیه مورد آزمون قرار گرفته است. حس تعلق به مکان که عامل مهم در شکل گیری پایه های ارتباطی استفاده کنندگان و محیط می باشد، نهایت منجر به ایجاد محیط های با کیفیت خواهد شد. ویژگی های کالبدی نظیر (فرم، رنگ، اندازه، شکل، مقیاس و بافت) و عوامل ادراکی- شناختی و همچنین فعالیت های اجتماعی نقش مهم و موثر در شکل گیری حس تعلق در خانه سالمندان دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: مکان، حس تعلق، سالمند
  • ملیحه معماریان*، بهادر زمانی صفحات 301-317
    رشد جمعیت و تاثیر آن بر شهرنشینی و شهرسازی تغییر شکل بافت های سنتی را سرعتی فزاینده و به دور از سیر رشد طبیعی آن ها بخشیده است. مراکز شهرها به عنوان قطب های اقتصادی، اجتماعی شهرها، به صورت مداوم، به واسطه ساخت و سازهای جدید، دستخوش تغییر قرار می گیرد و سرعت آهنگ این تغییرات سبب می شود ساختار شهرها و سازمان کالبدی آن ها از نظم پاسخگو و هویتمندی تبعیت نکرده و میزان تصورپذیری شهر نزد مردم تا حد زیادی کاهش یابد. عدم خوانایی و تصورپذیری شهر باعث ایجاد تصویر مبهم از این مراکز شده و راه یابی افراد به سمت عناصر مهم را با مشکل مواجه می نماید. این در حالی است که با تقویت کیفیت خوانایی و تصورپذیری در محیط های شهری، مردم می توانند مظاهر احساسی شهر را بی آن که خللی به تصویر نخستین و اصلی آن ها از شهر وارد آید، درک کرده و هر عامل تازه را با عوامل قدیمی پیوند دهند. این مقاله، با هدف شناسایی و ارزیابی مولفه های ادراکی و ارتقای خوانایی و تصورپذیری و تدوین چارچوبی جهت سنجش این کیفیت ها به استخراج شاخص های کیفیت خوانایی و تصورپذیری در قالب سه لایه ادراکی- بصری، فضایی- کالبدی و عملکردی- فعالیتی براساس دیدگاه نظریه پردازان می پردازد و سپس با روشی توصیفی- تحلیلی میزان خوانایی و تصورپذیری مرکز شهر قم را به عنوان مورد مطالعاتی، مورد ارزیابی قرار می دهد. شیوه جمع آوری اطلاعات میدانی بر پایه مشاهده، مصاحبه، اخذ نقشه شناختی بوده است. در بخش تحلیل نیز تکنیک نحوفضا، تکنیک SPSS، تکنیک های ارزیابی نقشه ذهنی مورد استفاده قرار می گیرد. نتایج نشان داد میزان شکل گیری ساختار محدوده در سطح جزء در ذهن افراد در وضعیت متوسط و در سطح کل در وضعیت مطلوبی قرار دارد. پیکربندی فضایی محدوده به لحاظ ارتباط کل و جزء دارای خوانایی مناسبی است؛ اما توزیع تقاطع ها و فاصله آن ها از ساختار اصلی در کل مجموعه در جهت بهبود خوانایی عمل نمی کند.
    کلیدواژگان: خوانایی، تصورپذیری، تصویر ذهنی، مسیریابی، شهر قم
  • مریم دانشور*، علی غفاری، حمید ماجدی صفحات 319-328
    امروزه رابطه بین نظریه و کنش برنامه ریزی مورد توجه بوده و نظریه های برنامه ریزی به عنوان جزیی از جامعه به شمار می آیند. با این حال فقدان نظریه معتبر از ماهیت روش برنامه ریزی به معنای واقعی کلمه همچنان وجود دارد. در این ارتباط ضمن تاکید بر ضرورت لحاظ چارچوب های خاص ملی، سعی در ارائه چارچوب مفهومی عمومی و عملی در نظریه برنامه ریزی رو به تزاید است. هدف این مقاله تبیین جایگاه نهادگرایی در برنامه راهبردی به عنوان راهکار غلبه بر جدایی نظریه و عمل برنامه ریزی است. روش تحقیق در این مقاله تطبیقی- تحلیلی بوده و از ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات اسنادی و کتابخانه ای استفاده شده است. چارچوب مفهومی نحوه کاربست نظریه برنامه ریزی راهبردی در فرآیند تحول نهادی، بر پایه تحلیل محتوای کیفی منابع مختلف از جمله برنامه ریزی راهبردی در حوزه نظری و تجربیات عملی برنامه ریزی راهبردی در آمریکا و اتحادیه اروپا احصا شده است. روش برنامه ریزی در اینجا به عنوان یک دانش نهادی و امری که کارکرد و ظرفیت کلی آن در طول زمان تجدید می پذیرد، معرفی شده است. رویکرد نهادی، برنامه ریزی را در پیوند با تغییرات و ویژگی های سیاسی، اجتماعی، فرهنگی و اقتصادی مطرح می کند. این امر تغییر در عملکرد برنامه ریزی را تحت تاثیر فرآیند تحول در تغییرات نهادی توضیح می دهد. ماهیت تکاملی نهادها، ظرفیت استفاده از این مفهوم در نظریه و عمل برنامه ریزی راهبردی را فراهم می سازد. در برنامه ریزی راهبردی نهادگرا، با آگاهی از مشکلات و نواقص آشکار شده از عمل جمعی و با توجه به چشم انداز دگرگون شده جدید از حکومت دموکراتیک و مترقی، هدف اصلی، کمک به بازیگران حکومت و جامعه مدنی به منظور همکاری هر چه بیشتر با یکدیگر است.
    کلیدواژگان: نظریه برنامه ریزی، برنامه ریزی در حوزه عمل، برنامه ریزی راهبردی، نهادگرایی
  • پویان شهابیان، سپیده تابان تراشکار*، مریم توسلی صفحات 329-342
    تحلیل تراکم ساختمانی1 به عنوان عامل تعیین کننده و اثرگذار در برنامه ریزی شهری و شناخت عوامل تشویق کننده و یا بازدارنده موثر بر آن، راهی مفید در جهت حل بسیاری از مسائل ناشی از تراکم در شهرهای امروزی می باشد. در بیشتر مواقع به دلیل وابستگی این عوامل نسبت به مکان، رابطه ای متفاوت بین متغیر وابسته و مستقل وجود دارد. در بین روش های آماری، روش رگرسیون وزن دار فضایی در کشف رابطه بین متغیرهای وابسته و مستقل با در نظرگرفتن عامل مکان، از دقت و در نتیجه نزدیکی بیش تر به واقعیت برخوردار است. لذا در تحقیق حاضر سعی شده با بهره گیری از روش 2GWR روابط بین برخی مولفه های اجتماعی و اقتصادی با متغیر وابسته تراکم ساختمانی تحلیل شده و میزان آن با دقت بالاتر نسبت به روش های کلاسیک بیان شود. روش تحقیق در این پژوهش کمی می باشد که پس از تشریح رویکرد مورد مطالعه، بررسی مفهوم تراکم ساختمانی و مولفه های موثر برآن، میزان تراکم ساختمانی با استفاده از مدل رگرسیون وزن دار فضایی در محله تختی واقع در منطقه 12 شهرداری شهر تهران به کمک برخی از متغیرهای اجتماعی و اقتصادی مانند: تراکم جمعیتی، سطح سواد، قیمت زمین، مساحت بلوک شهری، تعداد طبقات و امنیت اجتماعی در سطح محله پیش بینی شده است. نتیجه این تحقیق می تواند بیان گر تفاوت میزان تاثیر هر یک از متغیرهای مستقل مورد بررسی (قیمت زمین، تراکم جمعیتی و غیره) بر تراکم ساختمانی در مختصات جغرافیایی مختلف باشد، که با در نظر گرفتن عامل مکان این تاثیر کم تر و یا بیش تر می شود، هم چنین منجر به درک دقیق تر پدیده های شهری متاثر از عامل فضا در برنامه ریزی و طراحی شهری می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: فضا، تراکم ساختمانی، رگرسیون وزن دار فضایی، مولفه اجتماعی و اقتصادی، محله تختی
  • سید سجاد عبدالله پور، ناصر برک پور* صفحات 343-359
    منطقه بندی به عنوان یکی از روش های هدایت توسعه شهری، در اوایل قرن بیستم در شهرسازی جهان مطرح شد. ضوابط و مقررات ناشی از منطقه بندی، علی رغم داشتن نتایج مثبت، پیامدهایی مانند: پراکنده رویی، تضعیف بافت کهن، افزایش سفرهای درون شهری و غیره را برای شهرها در پی داشت. در این میان فرم های مناسب توسعه و ارتباط فرم فضاهای عمومی و خصوصی به دلیل پرداختن بیش از حد به کاربری زمین کمتر مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. رویکرد کدهای فرم بنیاد1 در پی حل این مشکلات مطرح شد. تحقیق حاضر براساس هدف بیرونی تحقیق، کاربردی و براساس هدف درونی، توصیفی است. در این پژوهش برای نظم دهی و سازماندهی به منطقه مطالعاتی از روش پهنه بندی شهر- روستا استفاده شده است و همچنین برای جمع آوری اطلاعات لازم از مصاحبه، پرسش نامه، جلسات مشارکتی بهره برده شده است. با توجه به هدف تحقیق حاضر که بهره گیری از روش کدهای فرم بنیاد در تدوین ضوابط و مقررات لازم توسعه در ناحیه دو شهرداری شهر بابلسر است، ابتدا منطقه مورد مطالعه براساس معیارهای تعریف شده، به پهنه هایی تقسیم شدند، سپس با استفاده از تجزیه و تحلیل های انجام شده بر روی عناصر بزرگ مقیاس و کوچک مقیاس و همچنین بهره گیری از نتایج چشم انداز، ضوابط و مقررات ارائه شد. با توجه به نتایج حاصل از تجزیه و تحلیل، در ناحیه دو شهر بابلسر براساس روش پهنه بندی شهر- روستا، سه پهنه T3 ,T4 ,T5 در نظر گرفته شده و براساس این پهنه ها، پلان ضوابط که تدقیق شده پلان توضیحی می باشد به همراه ضوابط و مقررات لازم ارائه شده است. نتایج تحقیق حاضر نشان دهنده تفاوت هایی مانند رفت وبرگشتی بودن فرآیند، تعیین چارچوب توسعه های آتی، مشارکت عمومی، توجه به هماهنگی با طرح های آتی، توجه به مقیاس انسانی، تفاوت در شیوه های کنترل و غیره میان روش های منطقه بندی سنتی و روش کدهای فرم بنیاد است.
    کلیدواژگان: منطقه بندی، کدهای فرم محور، پهنه بندی شهر- روستا، ناحیه دو شهرداری شهر بابلسر
  • ابوالفضل کربلایی حسینی غیاثوند*، جمال الدین سهیلی صفحات 361-373
    با گسترش جوامع انسانی و ارتقاء نیازهای اجتماعی بشر برای زندگی بهتر و همچنین محدودیت های فضای مسکونی برای تامین برخی از این نیازهای اجتماعی، ضرورت حضور در فضاهای جمعی برای انجام برخی از فعالیت های انسانی از اهمیت زیادی برخوردار شده است. عملکردهای فرهنگی به دلیل دارا بودن فضاها و برنامه های غیررسمی به همراه سایر عملکردها، زمینه مناسبی را برای برقراری تعاملات اجتماعی ایجاد می کند. در نتیجه توجه به ابعاد اجتماعی فضا در طراحی بناهای فرهنگی و یافتن ارتباط بین کیفیت های فضایی و مفاهیم اجتماعی ازجمله اجتماع پذیری، در موفقیت این فضاها از اهمیت زیادی برخوردار است. هدف از مقاله حاضر بررسی چیدمان فضایی و ارتباطات فضایی موجود در مجموعه های فرهنگی معاصر کشور و رابطه آن با کیفیت و مفاهیم اجتماعی نظیر اجتماع پذیری، در این مجموعه ها می باشد. در مقاله حاضر از روش تحقیق به صورت ترکیبی در تحلیل نمونه های موردی استفاده شد. بدین ترتیب روش های توصیفی- تحلیلی و استدلال منطقی و در نهایت همبستگی مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. همچنین در شرح این مراحل و فرآیندهای انجام پژوهش از ابزارهای مشاهده، مطالعات کتابخانه ای و اسنادی و شبیه سازی در نمونه های مطالعاتی فرهنگسرای دزفول و نیاوران استفاده شد. در فرآیند شبیه سازی از نرم افزار تخصصی نحو فضا1 جهت بررسی شاخص های ارتباط، هم پیوندی و عمق، برای رسیدن به تحلیلی جامع و دقیق استفاده شده است. با به کارگیری نتایج حاصل از گراف های تصویری فضاها و بررسی پارامترهای هم پیوندی، ارتباط و عمق، همچنین ثبت مشاهدات و تحلیل مولفه های اجتماع پذیری در نقاط کانونی موردهای مطالعاتی، عوامل موثر بر موفقیت این فضاها در شکل گیری تعاملات اجتماعی استخراج شد. نتایج پژوهش حاکی از آن است که چیدمان فضایی مناسب در مجتمع های فرهنگی می تواند بر اجتماع پذیری این فضاها تاثیرگذار باشد
    کلیدواژگان: فضاهای فرهنگی، اجتماع پذیری، نحو فضا، عمق فضا، هم پیوندی فضا
  • کورش مومنی*، کورش عطاریان، محمد دیده بان، نگین حاج موسی بروجردی، بهزاد وثیق صفحات 375-390
    «گندی شاپور» یا «جندی شاپور» یکی از مهم ترین شهرهای دوره ساسانی بود که توسط شاپور یکم ایجاد شده است. جندی شاپور از همان بدو تاسیس به تدریج به صورت یکی از مراکز علمی و پزشکی جهان آن روز درآمد. تاکنون پژوهش هایی در حوزه علوم تدریس شده در جندی شاپور و دیگر علوم آن دوره انجام شده است؛ لیکن توجه خاصی به بازشناسی شهر جندی شاپور، در زمینه شیوه شهرسازی و ساختار شهری آن نشده است. در این پژوهش با بررسی ویژگی های شهرسازی شهرهای معاصر و هم دوره آن، به بازشناسی شیوه شهرسازی شهر باستانی جندی شاپور پرداخته می شود. روش تحقیق این پژوهش، به شیوه تطبیقی می باشد که در نمونه های مورد مقایسه در حوزه و شیوه شهرسازی ساسانی مورد ارزیابی قرار می گیرند. با بررسی ویژگی های شهرسازی شهر باستانی جندی شاپور، این نتیجه به دست می آید که در این دوره زمانی (دوره پادشاهی شاپور اول و شاپور دوم) شیوه شهرسازی شطرنجی «هیپوداموس» مورد استفاده قرارگرفته است و شیوه شهرسازی این شهر، تلفیقی از شهرسازی تمدن های مختلف دوره باستان از جمله یونان و روم (شهرسازی هیپوداموس) و مشابه ساختار شهری شهرهای معاصر خود مانند: شهرهای ایوان کرخه، نیشابور، بیشابور و شهر انطاکیه می باشد. شکل شطرنجی شهرها به خاطر دو هدف کاملا متضاد مورد توجه قرارگرفته است: یکی به منظور اطمینان از کنترل مرکزی و بیان کمال افسانه ای و دیگری تحقق جامعه ای که افراد آن دارای حقوق فردی برابر باشند. این طرح عبارت است از طرح مستطیل شهرسازی با خیابان های وسیع، مستقیم و چهارراه های منظم و کوچه های موازی که بناها نیز یک طبقه و گاهی دو و یا سه طبقه بوده اند. در نهایت از بررسی فرمی محدوده شهر، تقسیمات و ابنیه شهر می توان گفت که دوره های تاریخی احداث شهر در توسعه شهرهای باستانی، اقلیم و نزدیکی به مناطق جغرافیایی همسایه، وسعت بستر و اقتدار حکومت وقت تاثیرگذاری زیادی در شکل گیری فرم اصلی شهرها داشته است.
    کلیدواژگان: جندی شاپور، شهرسازی ساسانی، دانشگاه جندی شاپور، شار ساسانی، شهرسازی هیپوداموس
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  • Fahimeh Esmaeili, Omid Dezhdar *, Mohammad Mehdi Zebarjedian Pages 1-11
    Identity crisis and facing the cultural invasion of the west, which is the result of changes caused by the advent of modernism to non-western societies, has been discussed in recent decades. Not only in Iran but also in other countries, this discussion has led to the advent of trends concerning continuity of identity. What has been neglected in these tendencies is a comparative approach to the works and experiences of other nations. Therefore, this research conducts an analytical-comparative overview on contemporary architecture of Iran, India and Japan with a heuristic approach in given time periods. Japan is the country that has been able to take the challenge of contradiction between tradition and modernism and change it into an opportunity for the interaction of tradition and modernism. India has also somewhat succeeded in achieving this goal, too. The most important questions in this article are:1. How the Indian and Japanese architecture have been able to obtain identity in the international community?2. Which characteristics led the architects such as Raj Rawal, Balkar Khan Dashi and Chalz Korea from India, and Kisho Kurokawa, Kenzo Tange and Tadao Endo from Japan to be able to introduce the architecture of India and Japan in the international level?After determining the theoretical frameworks, the theoretical information of the research was analyzed based on previous research. The theoretical information gathering is explained based on references to previous books and research. To assess the evolution of the three countries, three columns were designed in three tables (1), (2) and (3) to examine the architectural evolution during three periods; pre-modernism, modernism and post-modernism. The reason for choosing these three countries as case studies is their main similarity in having effective factors in architecture. In addition to having ancient histories, each of these three countries were influenced by the powerful religions of Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism to some degree. The reason for choosing the last hundred years period for this research is the foreign countries’ attention to this period.Architects who are known internationally and their works have been introduced as contemporary works with identity, architects who have won international prizes, architects who have founded a style or method identifying architecture, and architects with acceptable theoretical and practical ideas and works in contemporary architecture have been selected. The choice of architects is based on the characteristics of their works in using traditional elements and architectural design standards at their time. Therefore, Seyed Hadi Mirmiran, Kamran Diba and Farhad Ahmadi from Iran; Raj Rewal, Balkrishna Doshi and Charles Correa from India and Kisho Kurokawa, Kenzo Tange and Tadao Ando from Japan were elected.Due to main differences between social, cultural and architectural structures in these countries, sometimes, positioning and classifying the intellectual trends has not been simply possible. Sometimes, these differences have caused contradiction of positioning. Therefore, a flexible approach is elected for further comparison and analysis. The main focus has been based on steady and consistent principles. Cited terms are the same concepts that architects and critics have addressed for describing architectural criteria. As a result, for a case analysis, a set of key words was collected to determine the level of information which was used in the subsequent analysis. Studies reveals that there are common principles in the architecture of the countries, each of which has played a fundamental role in the formation of content, space and structure. Their role are explored in traditional architecture as well as contemporary architecture. Religious thoughts, naturalism, geometry, simplicity, hierarchy, climate, flexibility, space, decoration, materials and cost reduction are the common principles in the architecture of these three countries.For explanation of analytic terms of the research, buildings from Iran, India and Japan with architectural identity, and the buildings known internationally as contemporary works with identity, and the ones that have succeeded in creating and interaction between tradition and modernism were further scrutinized. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of these buildings suggests that there are several indicators for giving identity to a building. In order to recognize a building as a contemporary one with significant identity, some criteria for assessing native identity and global contemporary standards must be identified.This article concludes that architects have succeeded in achieving contemporary architectural style that offer identity. They have used some methods to create modern buildings (body, materials, producing technology) and indigenous features (concepts, decoration, spatial relationships) in design. It seems that what is understood by the native respondent is not very coordinated with the understanding of an international audience. A categorization of needs and answers must be made to respond to the addressees’ comprehensive understanding of the identity.
    Keywords: modernism, Tradition, Iran, India, Japan
  • Maliheh Javidmehr, Parisa Hashempour * Pages 13-26
    Nowadays, architectural spaces are engaged in a kind of semantic crisis, with major causes, including encountering with architecture without a spirit and a sense of invitation. This process leads to changes in the vitality of architecture in the contemporary era. Due to the key role of the geometric features in understanding concepts of architecture, the main goal of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the geometric features of perception of the architecture vitality via considering case studies of some of Tehran cultural centers. The main hypothesis of this paper is that the geometric features have significant impacts on the vitality of architecture. The mentioned hypotheses are evaluated via using a descriptive-analytical research method and a questionnaire survey tool in order to get data from the respondents. A comprehensive collection of assessment criteria is considered in this research, including centrality, different proportions, preserve of hierarchy, simple, complete and understandable concepts, equilibrium, cohesion between design components, distinguishable signs, compliance with an endogenous disorder, birth of similarities, and dynamic balance between positive and negative spaces. Centrality, the main structure is the central part and the other sections follow it. In different proportions, different parts are created at specific levels with a balanced and varied scale depending on the various applications of space. In preserve of the hierarchy, the components must have different hierarchies in various aspects such as motion, dimensions, form, and so on. This diversity reminds a kind of vitality. In simple, complete and understandable concepts, the elements of each component are constituted of simple and complete forms. Therefore, inconspicuous background space is not achieved. In addition, the useless and shapeless space of background is not created. In equilibrium, asymmetry means life and survival. The perfect symmetry could be considered as dead. In cohesion between design components, the inseparability of one component from its surrounding environment components is one of the signs of life and a kind of natural growth of objects. In signs to distinguish, there will be life if there are extensive diversity in form, design, and other similar items. In this situation, the component is unique and its easy diagnosis is possible. In compliance with an endogenous disorder, the adaptation of the building with the disorder of the environment around it is indicative of natural birth and its survival. However, the regular buildings have a kind of inner mourning. In the birth of similarities, the components of any living phenomenon are inherent in their internal similarity. This phenomenon causes their continuity and integrity as it indicates the belonging of that component to the overall set. In the dynamic balance between positive and negative spaces, the existence of spaces to create quiet and silent surroundings with interactive and cumulative spaces and other similar objects will ensure a deep and viable balance to meet the various needs. Based on the obtained results, the investigated hypothesis is confirmed via using statistical analysis methods. The Javan and Niavaran cultural centers in Tehran in accordance to the considered research scope are assessed in this study. The main results based on the statistical correlation analysis indicate that the position and significance of reasonable geometric criteria are clearly observed among the geometric measures affecting life. The research results indicate that there is a significant impact of the reasonable and sensible geometry in the perception of a sense of architecture vitality of understudied cultural centers. In addition, the results of the research indicate the superiority of Niavaran Cultural Center in terms of architectural viability over Javan cultural center which is more influenced by reasonable geometric criteria. It is suggested that the geometric criteria such as different proportions, similarities, preservation of the hierarchy, and simple, complete and understandable concepts in designing cultural centers should be more considered by designers. In addition, the correlations between the considered geometric criteria are examined statistically. The statistical results illustrate that enhancing each of the considered assessment criteria could have a positive impact on their correlated criteria. Furthermore, improving these assessment criteria could result in enhancing the sense of the vitality of the cultural centers. The obtained results show the superiority of some of the geometric criteria to others in term of positive impact in the sense of architecture vitality such as different proportions, the birth of similarities, preserve of the hierarchy, and simple, complete and understandable concepts. Therefore, designers should consider the most important issues in designing a cultural center with the aim of achieving maximum viability such as diversity in size and dimension of spaces, dissimilarity of spaces, maintaining a common spirit in the design of the various spaces, existence of rational system for allocating space next to each other and determining their access structure, Simplicity in the design and readability of spaces and the optimal use of all spaces.
    Keywords: Vitality, Sensible Geometry, Reasonable Geometry, Cultural Center
  • Ali Hosseini *, Manouchehr Foroutan, Saied Salehi Pages 27-44
    The fast pace of changes in the old urban fabrics accentuates the way we approach and deal with these fabrics, regardless of the positive or negative aspects of the physical changes that depend on the views of the planners and the policies adopted. It is necessary to document and record the previous architectural patterns. The main challenge in this confrontation is whether the old buildings of the city of Arak have the ability to be categorized in a typology, and how to recognize the main types of identified structures in this fabric. This research, with a descriptive approach, elucidates the architectural theme and zoning in the historic urban fabric, and focuses on the general orientation of residential buildings, the generic elements of the building, its physical elements and its components, and their applications in the old houses. As a result, this descriptive–historical study, in which a combination of methods was used, led to recognition of residential typology and understanding of major types of residential architecture patterns in the old context. Finally, three main types were introduced in the houses of Arak.Given the developments in the last century, historic houses are severely subject to destruction, while the majority of residential areas in Iran are located in historic urban fabrics. Studies show that there has not been much research conducted on these houses and there is no comprehensive understanding of them, while emphasizing on the basic needs of the Iranian people and their environment can lead us to the appropriate housing pattern for Iranians.The city of Arak has been considered majorly from an industrial and commercial point of view. In this regard, the architecture and urbanization of Arak have been neglected and its developments have been neglected. Except for a few cases that have generally addressed the subject, this idea has not been previously researched. On the other hand, the houses of Arak are suitable models for understanding the development of Arak architecture due to their dispersion in the city and belonging to different time periods. For this purpose, in this research, the typology of traditional houses in Arak has been studied.Studies show that there are different definitions and methods for typology. Therefore, after studying the shape, climate, cultural, and structure of materials, the historical typology of Qajar houses in Arak is discussed.Three house types have been identified by surveys carried out on Arak houses:- Type A (Mountainous Type)- Type B (Desert Type)- Type C (Extrovert Type)The mountainous type is derived from the architecture style of cold and dry climate of Iran such as Hamedan, Kurdistan, and so on. In this type, the shape of the plan is compact with one or two sides; it is asymmetric, with two floors most often and an average occupancy level with a large number of rooms.The desert type is based on the architecture of Iranian desert cities such as Yazd and Kashan. In this type, two other subcategories are also observed. The first subcategory (B1) is very similar to the houses of the hot and dry climate of Iran with a central courtyard. Mostly the central courtyard has three or four sides and is symmetrical, with mostly two floors and a medium occupancy level with a large number of rooms. The second subcategory (B2) is more closely related to desert type in terms of spatial organization and is generally different from the central courtyard houses. In terms of the shape of a plan, it has two or three sides, and is asymmetric, most often with two floors and an average occupancy level with a small number of rooms.The extrovert type, which originated in Pahlavi period, is derived from the typical Persian Pahlavi architecture of Iran. This type has been created outside the fabric of the castle. In terms of shape, they have extrovert plans; it has an asymmetrical structure, mostly with two floors and with a low occupancy level with a large number of rooms. On the other hand, over time, the spatial organization of houses has changed from Qajar period to Pahlavi era:- The houses have become more extrovert and the central courtyards have become fewer.- There is less symmetry in Pahlavi houses.- The vast majority of houses in the old city (castle of Sultan Abad) have a central courtyard, but this pattern is lost once the city was expanded outside the castle. Overall, in houses outside the fabric, the area of the yard is larger than the houses inside the fabric.
    Keywords: Typology, House, Architectural Space, Arak
  • Mahdi Hamzenejad, Pedram Ghelichy Ghelichy * Pages 45-55
    Based on the latest studies on the environmental psychology, ‘social acceptance’ and ‘behavior setting qualities’ are considered as the most important parts of environmental value. The quality of design regarding the environmental value can be evaluated by quantitative and analytical methods. The objective of the current study is to assess desirable measures regarding the ‘Social values’ in the open spaces in university.The statistical population of this study is the Operators of the University of Science and Technology Park on a business day and includes student groups and administrative staff and university lecturers. The statistical population of this research is a small society, therefore, its volume is estimated using the limited population sampling formula. Indicators that affect the increasing social sensitivity of the environment are: the presence of nature and trees in the environment, the presence of signs in space, including: information boards and leaflets, the presence of peripheral services in the natural environment, the presence of water in the physical space, The size of space and its limitlessness: the visibility, the low density of space: the quietness of space and the creation of a quiet environment for viewing, the remoteness of the realms from the movement axes. In order to do the research, firstly, based on the psychology of environment literature, the category of sociality and behavioral camp were determined and the main and effective components on the formation of these two factors were studied. After estimating the statistical society and sample size, these components were questioned through a structured interview and a random questionnaire from 68 university park users. The method of data collection in this research is a structured interview. Questions were asked in the form of four questionnaires and descriptions of the users. For analyzing the data, in addition to the descriptive statistics, inferential statistics including correlation analysis of case study was used. Validation of the questions in this research (validity and reliability) and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient a = 0.954 indicates the validity of the test and its questions. In order to investigate the societal and behavioral structure of the University of Science and Technology, firstly, the effective indicators, by examining previous research were achieved. These indicators were measured in the form of structured interviews in the architectural space. It was controlled in measuring some factors that caused changes in results and data. In examining these variables, the relationships between the indexes were determined after the analysis with Excel software. In this way, the rate of performance and performance of the desired components of socialization was determined from the students’ point of view. Data was analyzed by descriptive and interpretive method, and because of the generalized generalizability, the characteristics derived from previous studies regarding the behavioral and social space of students were questioned. These indicators are known as first-factor factors. According to the data, some of these indicators in the University of Science and Technology Park are not desirable, and some others do not have enough returns in this space. From the viewpoint of the students, the environment and the quality of green space and the presence of water in the environment are quite desirable, while some other characteristics, such as the remoteness of the realms of to the traffic places, or the size of space and semi-fixed furniture is relatively well-considered. However, some features such as space density, the presence of services near the park, especially the treadmill, as well as the presence of scientific signs and signs have not been effective. This research focuses on the Iran University of Science and Technology main park as the oldest one in Iran. Having used a quantitative method, the current research evaluated the above mentioned measures by distributing a designed questionnaire among students. The result confirmed the occurrence of the social measures such as: portable seat, existence of water. On the other hand, limitation of social interaction in the park stems from obstacles likewise the high density trees, accessibility issues to the park and lack of public services.By identifying these indicators, urban designers can provide the right environment for creating green spaces and parks, and create flexible environments in universities that allow the formation of behavioral settings tailored to the diverse mindsets of student groups and administrative staff and university lecturers. Since everything that happens in universities will occur on a larger scale and in the future in cities, the socialization of spaces in universities and the ability of architects and environmental planners offers the best social model. It will help making a more social city. Therefore, the design of general academic environments is a mode of modeling for community in the city.
    Keywords: behavior setting, Social, University Park, Pro-Environmental Behavior
  • Ali Akbar Heidari *, Mehdi Sadvandi, Elham Damshenas, Elahe Damshenas Pages 57-68
    People have always been faced with the choice of house and place of residence during their lifetime. Several factors and indicators are effective on this selection. Some of them are deterrent factors and some are other triggers. Individuals in their selection process are required to balance these indices. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to measure the issue of residential preferences in relation to three apartment, buildings and neighborhoods, and analyze the different priorities that individuals have in mind with regard to each of these indicators. Therefore, the three dimensions, including apartment, buildings and neighborhoods in which the individuals live, is defined as the spatial domain of the research. It should be noted that the meaning of the apartment is the interior of the house; the buildings consists of a multi floor building with several residential units; and, in the final, the neighborhood consists of several rooms with a partition. The city service is surrounded by a network of passages with a population of up to 3,000. In this study, in order to generalize the results as well as accuracy of the findings, three cities of Mashhad as a metropolis with a very large spatial scale, Neyshabour as a medium-sized city, and finally Torbat-e Jam as a small-scale town Selected as case samples. The statistical population of the study included 350 inhabitants of each of these cities. In total, the final sample size is 1050. These samples were selected from tenants who were in a moderate and downward position in terms of income level. Also, the reason for choosing tenants as the target community in this study is the annual exposure of these individuals to the issue of housing displacement and selection. The selection of these individuals was based on their monthly income record in the relevant questionnaire. Sampling was done by cluster and random method and information was collected from different parts of these three cities.The data were collected through a closed questionnaire and interviews. Then, data were analyzed by ANOVA and also by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The results of the research showed that, in general, regardless of who the people are on and on what scale, their first priority in choosing their place of residence is the choice of the neighborhood. After that, the choice of housing unit and its related indicators are the second priority of individuals. And finally, the choice of apartments is in the third priority of the people. It seems that the reason for this is largely influenced by the nature of the sub-indexes associated with each of the aforementioned scales. In comparing the preferences of people in three cities with different scales, research findings showed that in small towns, peopledesire to choose residential units with larger spatial dimensions with more rooms. Meanwhile, in larger cities, indicators such as rental prices and equipment used are considered to be among the top priorities for selecting residential units. It seems that the reason for this discrepancy is the difference in land value and housing prices in these cities. This means that in big cities, due to the high cost of housing as well as other living expenses, people with a certain income level (tenants including middle-class people) are forced to choose smaller houses. In contrast, in smaller cities, because of a decline in land value and rentals, people have the power to choose larger apartments. In connection with the building, the results of the research showed that residents in all three cities had almost identical views, and almost the first priority of the people in choosing the desired building was the availability of facilities and equipment. In relation to the scale of the neighborhood, research data showed that for people living in large cities, indicators such as access to urban transportation networks, access to centers and service facilities are prioritized; Meanwhile, in smaller cities, people’s tendency to social dimensions of the neighborhood, including recognition of the neighborhood and its inhabitants, as well as security in that neighborhood increases. The reason for this can be sought in the cultural and social dimensions of the lives of people in different cities. This means that people living in smaller cities are more likely to communicate with their neighbors. Therefore, they prefer to choose neighborhoods as living places that they are familiar with or have cognition relative to those living in it. Meanwhile, due to the urbanization of cities in large cities, increase of population, and long distance between the workplaces and houses, the level of social interaction in the area around the house, especially socializing with neighbors, is at the lowest possible level. Therefore, this component has the lowest priority in choosing their place of residence.
    Keywords: Home Preferences, Home, Apartments, neighborhoods
  • Hamidreza Delfanian, Mehdi Khakzand *, Saeid Kamyabi Pages 69-79
    The climatic characteristics of each region have a remarkable role in shaping the architecture of that area, thus having a great influence on the formation of the architecture by the people. In the past, architects and people have paid much attention to climate and thermal comfort. Understanding natural potentials for comfort by thermal comfort indicators and harvesting vernacular architectural patterns that respond to climate issues can be helpful in shaping the architecture of today. Architecture is always accompanied by experiences, traditions, and lifestyle, which form the core of vernacular architecture. In general, the socialization of communal and residential spaces in a place is necessary for the proper climate and comfort conditions. To achieve thermal comfort, climate features should be identified every month and architectural measures be used to counteract or use it. The purpose of this study was to investigate the thermal comfort indicators and provide design guidelines and comparison of the results with the local architecture. In order to achieve the research objectives of the 40-year statistical period (1977-2016), the synoptic station of Nowshahr was utilized using analytical-descriptive method. To identify the climatic group of the region and the length of the period of drought, the formula of Demarthen, Amberge and Ombrothermic diagram was used and to determine the range of thermal comfort, Givoni and Mahoney Indices were utilized. The results of this study revealed that the city of Nowshahr has a transboundary climate and has a cold climate of about 6 months, has four months of warmth and two months of warm and hot weather. The guidelines derived from the indices with the vernacular architecture of the region are in the same direction, so using vernacular architecture patterns as a proven model is suggested. According to the studies on thermal comfort indicators, the use of synchronous fundamentals of synchronization should be taken into consideration, including the prevention of the effect of winter cold winds and the use of breeze. Sea-to-coast, shade, and air flow in hot weather, direct sunlight during cold weather and benefiting from the solar power, ventilation, or humidification, and the use of insulation are recomneded. Moisture protection, building protection against rain, connection between indoor and indoor areas and preventing humidity are also important. In the meantime, in the city of Nowshahr, creating facilities for creating ambient air in the interior is more important than protecting the building against sunlight during hot weather and utilizing solar energy during cold weather. It is also intended to locate buildings in the northern part of the south with the eastern extension of the west, so that the architecture of the building is low in the open space. Considering the orientation of the building towards the western east axis to protect the building from moisture and precipitation due to the moderate and humid climate of Nowshahr, it is necessary to achieve comfort in architectural design with the region’s climate. The size of the openings in the east and west is 20 to 40 percent, and in the north and south it is 40 to 80 percent.The results of the case study of vernacular buildings of Mazandaran province indicate how much physical comfort in vernacular houses is considered and the proof of the adaptation of residents’ experiences and thermal comfort indicators can prove the correctness of the modeling of these buildings. One of these patterns is the increase of blindness, the use of large openings, lightweight materials with relatively low thermal capacity, Chinese seats, the use of ductwork and doors and tiles, and the establishment of interconnected buildings in the middle sections of the southern slope, the use of sloping roofs, the use of thermal insulators in walls and roofs, the use of different types of curtains and moving networks (insulation) behind the windows, the use of stretched planes with narrow sections (the expansion of the plan in the direction of the eastern western direction), the prediction of outdoor spaces suitable for various activities: porch, hallways and terraces ,use of roof rails, covered porch, balconies or canopies to create a complete shadow over the outer surface of glass windows, openings and sun blinds. Today’s architecture is the result of our neglect of the physical conditions of the inhabitants and past experiences and the introduction of Western architecture without localization. The continuation of this process intensifies the aesthetic priority of comfort and will further increase the use of fossil fuels and eliminate its identity. Therefore, it is suggested that, by referring to the past architecture in each climate and using their tried and confirmed solutions, the thermal comfort conditions be provided by the climate-compatible architecture.
    Keywords: Climate, Thermal Comfort Indices, Ombrothermic, Baruch Givoni, Mahoney
  • Narges Dehghan * Pages 81-95
    People use wayfinding strategies every day. However, they are not aware of the importance of infrastructure helping them to arrive. wayfinding process involves a series of decisions made by those who are moving in the environment. These decisions are guided by architecture criteria and the elements of space design as well as the signs. All of these factors lead to the conclusion that it is important for people to successfully navigate their way in public buildings and other places. This is because it increases productivity, ease of access, and personal health on the one hand and decreases failure in navigate selection, stress, worry, delay in arrival, and the time spent on the way on the other hand. For navigating in architectural spaces, people use strategies to guide them in the space and help them get to their destinations in the building. The information highlights the importance of this research study: 1. Designing interior spaces to facilitate wayfinding in architecture is a very complex responsibility the basic processes of which are not fully clear yet. 2. Today, due to the lack of a way to design interior spaces which facilitates wayfinding, architecture is greatly dependent on architects. As a result, what is being built today is strongly influenced by fashion and imposed taste. 3. The majority of architects do not care about wayfinding, because they believe it prevents elegant design of space. They think wayfinding problems should be tackled by installing signs on important points. Achieving the ease of wayfinding in the interior space is a factor that increases readability. This seemingly simple activity provides a serious challenge to architecture design. It is because wayfinding for users of interior space is purposeful and directional behavior. It is a dynamic movement from place of origin to destination and includes the interaction between user and the environment. It is not directly perceived by users and in some cases leads to failure, frustration, or being lost. The interaction between the operator and the environment is studied as a wayfinding strategy with a conceptual structure and is used by people to find their purpose. Considering the fact that this science is new in Iran, the aim of the present paper is to achieve wayfinding strategies. The present study aims at selecting a case which is public and can be used by all users (and not just a special group of them) and can be permanently used by all people freely (not just at a specific period of time). On the other hand, readability depends on two main variables: 1) The complexity of spatial layout and 2) Prominence and importance of the signs). Complexity of spatial layout occurs in two dimensions and importance of signs occurs in three dimensions. As a result, the case (the National Library of Iran) was selected with an emphasis on these two principles in two stages; the first step: choosing a building among cultural buildings with different cultural functions (cultural center, museum, library, exhibition, and research center) through interviewing professional architects, and the second stage: the final selection of the case with the help of application of space syntax software (Depthmap). Considering the two stages, readability in the National Library of Iran is extremely low compared to other cases. Qualitative research method was used in this article based on knowledge of the environment and observation of behavior-environmental data of individuals. In the present study, in addition to field notes, video footage and audio recordings of individuals during navigating were used by a video camera as a tool to obtain the required information. Obtaining the data during wayfinding emphasizes on interior architecture. As a result, users use the strategies of reference framework, direct, systematic search, and identification of the destination and route, in chronological order in order to experience the highest number of cases of getting lost to the lowest number. Then, the main points of the interior space were obtained through the process of achieving wayfinding strategies to be used by users to facilitate wayfinding. In strategy of reference framework, users find their position as far as possible with the help of familiar parts of the building such as stairs, elevators, and the point of entry and entrance hall. In direct navigating strategy, straight lines are considered in internal space, which can be matched with the element of edge. In accordance with the definition of a systematic search strategy and design principles, spaces with the same application should be in one area. This increases spatial knowledge of user. With the help of these strategies and discovering what is important to people while navigating, we can obtain the principles of architectural design that increase readability and prevent the confusion of users in complex spaces.
    Keywords: Wayfinding, Wayfinding Strategy, Interior Architecture, readability, Knowledge of Space
  • Maryam Talaei, Vahide Afifi *, Asghar Fahimi Far Pages 97-109
    Ikhlasiah complex as one of the greatest educational, cultural and charity centers of the Timurid era, was founded by Ali-Shir Nava’i in Herat city during 880-886. The location of the Ikhlasiyah complex is attributed to Ali-Shir Nava’i by Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqara. Ali-Shir Nava’i was one of the prominent political, cultural, and highest-ranking position people of the Timurid era. He devoted most of his personal possessings to people and spent them on charity affairs. The endowment was one of the most parameters for developing economic and social aspects of Timurid dynasty. He complied a deed of endowment named Waqfiah to describe the location of the building functions and the people’s salary and employees. The first building constructed in the Ikhlasiah complex was Ali-Shir Nava’i’s house. A while after building his house, he ordered to construct a great mosque, school, hospital, and Dar-ul huffaz. Around this complex, pleasant gardens were added. Unfortunately, during a long time, this complex has been destroyed and now there exist nothing except for ruins. To acquire information about Ikhlasiah complex, recognizing it as one of the largest and most well-known multi-functional Timurid complexes, is necessary for obtaining knowledge about the historical background of architectural and urban aspects of the Timurid era. Since the whole structure of Ikhlasiah complex has been ruined during the past decays and no explorative archeological missions has been conducted on this site, Ali-Shir Nava’I Waqfiah has led the researchers for future investigations. The authors try to consider all the previous studies regarding the previous research on regenerating the Ikhlasiah complex. Hence, the aim of this paper can be achieved in three steps. 1) comprehensive and profound reviewing of Ali-Shir Nava’i’s Waqfiah as the most prominent sources for this study and analyzing its context; 2) studying the other references including valuable historic references that mentioned this place and pointed out to Ali-Shir Nava’i’s charity works; 3) and finally deep review of the sources containing characteristics of Timurid era to recognize the design pattern of Ikhlasiah complex. This paper aims to recognize hypothetical design structure of Ikhlasiah complex through a descriptive- analytical research method and based on scientific- deductive approach applying historical references. This paper also draws the conclusion based on Ali-Shir Nava’i’s deed of endowment and analyzes its content. To recognize the design principles of the Timurid era in terms of multi-functional complexes, archeological excavations seem necessary. Considering the fact that no precise excavations have been conducted on this site, the authors are to find the answer to their crucial question by doing comprehensive research about this complex themselves. This site is now recognized as a residential region in Herat. Fortunately, Waqfiah presents valuable information on this issue, although the text is not coherent, the authors decided to explore the design principles as well as space organization based on their analytical potential. Various researchers studied the Ikhlasiah complex. Accordingly, Hafez abrou, in his book “Zobdato-l tavarikh”, displayed the location of Ikhlasiah spaces. In his sketches, the structure of the complex was located on the left side of the Injil river, while, the precise placement was not determined. Based on Waqfiah, was extended through the right side of Khiaban (an important and ancient street in Herat). However, he did not mentioned the Khiaban in his book. Besides, Pugachenkova Galina in “the art of central Asia” presented a general layout of Ikhlasiah complex near the Injil river and elucidated the imprecise placement of its spaces. Among different drafts of Waqfiah, the most reliable reference is the draft maintained in the National Library of France. According to the historical texts, it could be said that Ikhlasiah spaces include, great mosque, monastery, Dar-ul-huffaz, Dar-ul-shafa, and gonbad-khaneh. The Injil river passed through this complex and divided it into two major parts. Among the Ikhlasiah spaces, monastery and gonbad-khaneh were located on the southern side of the river, while other spaces were located on the northern side. At that times, the educational principles of Islam were not detached form the real life and social rules. Hence, it could be inferred that the mosque and the school were placed next to each other. According to the common space pattern of the Timurid era, it could be concluded that most of the spaces included court yard and followed Chahar Ivani organization.
    Keywords: Regeneration, Ikhlasiah Complex, Waqfiah, Formal- functional Pattern, Hypothetical Plan
  • Arsalan Tahmasebi, Hooshmand Alizadeh, Parviz Aslani * Pages 111-124
    In the last decade the quality of the urban environment has become a specific significant issue and research shows that the urban environment include the environmental quality components. The efficiency of the urban environment will be reduced if these components are neglected. Thus, this study aims to identify semantic- perceptual factors that affects the quality of the urban environments. Also, this paper aims at studying the relationship between these components and their role in the quality of the environment in Sanandaj Qatarchyan neighborhood. This is an applied research in which descriptive -analytic method is used. Data collection tools of this research has been questionnaire which consists of the semantic- conceptual expression of the quality of the environment: identity, sense of belonging, legibility and security.This paper aims to investigate the spatial- physical environment quality of Sanandaj Qatarchyan neighborhood from residents’ point of view based on demographic variables (Age, gender, residence history and education) and to look for more scientific explanation and more expertise view on factors influencing the environment quality. Accordingly, the theoretical literature on environment quality and related conceptual framework has shaped principles and theoretical model of study. Theoretical model has hierarchical structure and is based on empirical research perspective and according to questionnaires received from residents’ perception of study subject. In this model, conceptual- perceptual component of environmental quality includes four indicators of identity, sense of belonging, readability, safety and security; each of its sub- criteria was the base of study for the questionnaire.This study is applicable in terms of objective and is descriptive- analytic in terms of research methodology. The sample size of questionnaire for district (Sanandaj Qtarchyan neighborhood) was 343 inhabitants using Cochran formula and considering the maximum heterogeneity hypothesis. Questionnaire validity was studied and confirmed according to experts and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients (0.75). SPSS software and one- sample t-test were used in order to analyze the data and investigate the semantic- conceptual quality, ANOVA and LSD post hoc test were used in order to compare the views of people in terms of demographic variables and finally, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was used in order to examine the relationship between demographic variables and twenty-three components of semantic- conceptual component of environment quality.Residents consider functional- activity, perceptual- conceptual and aesthetic- appearance components significantly more than average among the second level criteria of experimental model. Quality of environmental factor is significantly lower than average level. This result can be due to a lack of green space, contradiction of work and environment, congestion of cars and dilapidated buildings atmosphere in study area. It was found that three criteria of identity, sense of belonging and readability are significantly higher than average and security is significantly lower than average. Visual and symbolic pollution, neglecting the needs and constraints of low income and lower-middle-class residents in designing space, narrow passageways and damaged buildings in city context are among the negative factors affecting the low security of mentioned area.According to results, the age and authenticity, symbolic values, religious identity, maintaining professional identity, collective identity and strong mental memory, personal-social dependency, collective memory, meaning of space are related to body-sense understanding of the elements of the neighborhood, that are fit between the pause and movement. Finally, the presence of local residents of the indicators is a positive correlation.Living history of authenticity, symbolic values, maintaining local identity, human identity, collective identity, strong mind and memory, personal-social dependency, meaning of space are in a positive correlation. Also the presence of space is negative and significant.Findings focus on the fact that four perceptual- conceptual components have significant and positive correlation with environment quality. This indicates that a combination of semantic- conceptual indicators can predict environmental quality. The results show that environmental quality of Sanandaj Qtarchyan neighborhood is significantly higher than average (1 <3 <08 <5). The inhabitants of the criteria in the second model, the functional components - activities, semantic-conceptual and aesthetic form- are significantly higher than the average. Quality as well as environmental factors are significantly lower than the average level. This result can be due to lack of green space, lack of fitness activities in the environment, congestion of cars and dilapidated buildings in the study area. Residents complained only from safety among four semantic- conceptual components of environment quality. Also, there is significant relationship among people perspectives on semantic- conceptual quality in terms of demographic variables.
    Keywords: Environmental Quality, Semantic- perceptual Quality, Perception of Environmental, Structural Factor, Qtarchyan Sanandaj Neighborhood
  • Alireza Fallahi, Mohammad Reza Hafezi, Atefeh Omidkhah * Pages 125-136
    Population expansion in line with the rapid urban development, has resulted in the limitation of proper land for construction and the increase in the land values. This fact in one hand, and the advances in the construction industry in the other hand, lead the high-rise residential buildings to be the dominant type of settlement in Iran megacities such as Tehran and Karaj. High-rise residential buildings possess unique challenges in terms of fire safety that requires special attention to be given to safety management efforts. The limitations according to the means of egress for evacuation and fire service access in the time of fire emergencies, and presence of large number of occupants, properties and equipment in the building which increases the fire severity, are some examples. There are three key aspects that should be considered in any fire safety planning: 1) occupants and their attributes; 2) building physical aspects and installed equipment; 3) management and maintenance procedures. Despite suggestion of approaches such as elevator evacuation, or defend-in-place strategies for high-rise buildings, evacuation through the stairs is known as the ultimate way to provide safety and is required by Iran’s safety regulations.This study examines the aspects of safety management for reducing loss and damage of fire events in two high-rise residential buildings based on evaluating the evacuation time-line for a similar scenario. Iran’s prescriptive fire safety code provides the requirements for components in the means of egress to acquire the optimal safety level. In this regard the concept of evacuation time is limitedly being known and utilized. Moreover, since it is argued that for each building/ occupants/ scenario, there would be a probable range of time that evacuation is more likely to take place in this period, by analyzing the evacuation time-line, the worst probable conditions for safety management planning could be determined. The methodology used in this research is based on field survey with a combination of quantity and quality data analysis. Field surveys based on checklist and preparing updated existing layouts, in addition to in-depth interviews with the management team, security and maintenance personnel, and fire safety experts provide the qualitative data for analyzing the building parameters and components of the exit route. In the next step, noticing that total evacuation time is consisted of two time periods which are delay time and movement time, each time period is calculated in several procedures, and the method that resulted the maximum amounts are considered as the reference for further analysis. Findings indicate that the maximum delay time is obtained from the European confederation of fire protection association method that categorizes and ranks each building in terms of occupancy parameters and occupant’s status, alarm features, complexity of built-environment and management mechanism. These are called behavioral scenario categories and each rank is equivalent to an estimated delay time in evacuation. The maximum movement time is resulted from a formula which calculates movement time based on effective unit of exit path for each occupant in stairs and doorways, the densities in the stairway, and the movement speed. In calculation for both buildings, significant amount of total evacuation time was due to the delay time (78% for building A and 68% for building B). It could be resulted that although life safety systems and equipment are installed in high-rise buildings, because of the improper maintenance of building and unfamiliarity of residents and staffs with the functions of these installations, and lack of a coherent pre-determined plan to response the emergency situation and assisting disabled occupants to egress, number of problems may occur during fire incidents which may result increasing delay time in evacuation time. The more delay time, the greater chance of saving occupants lives is wasted, so reducing delays in responding an emergency could be a critical priority in safety management. Higher amount of delay time results in lowering safe available time for travel period. From movement time calculations, it was achieved that during operation period, dominant use of elevators for vertical movements in high-rise residential buildings resulted the lack of consideration to the mobility of staircase for emergency situation and numerous obstacles were placed in stairs that resulted the lowering of effective exit width and movement speed. Safety management measures should ensure that the maximum available capacity of means of egress is not being lost in operation and maintenance. In addition since the elderly and children constitute a considerable part of the residential apartment occupants, in safety management planning, strategies should be made to avoid interference of slow movements of these people with the flow of others. Training occupants, evacuation drills and providing refuge areas if they are missing could be proper solutions. Finally it is proposed that Iranian building codes should be revised by noticing to the importance of evacuation time in architectural design of exit route.
    Keywords: Safety Management, Fire, High-rise Residential Building, Emergency evacuation, Evacuation Time
  • Hamed Kamelnia *, Farhad Karimani Pages 137-148
    Discussing the characteristics required in the design of high-rise buildings in Iran has always been a controversial issue. Design of tall buildings in Iran began in 1950s. The first high-rise building was built in Bag-e-Sepahsalar Street in Tehran. During these years, in Mashhad (the second largest city of Iran) a four- story building –Char Tabaghe– was built that was the tallest building in Mashahd back then.Mashhad, as the second largest city in Iran and one of the most popular cities in the developing Islamic world in recent years has grown vertically. At the last decades of Pahlavi dynasty, the tallest building was a sixteen floors building (Zist e Khavar) that was designed by SOM (it was completed around 1990 after Islamic Revolution). After a hiatus (because of imposed war between Iran & Iraq) in 1980s another kind of high-rise building was built in Mashhad city. In the last two decades, the high-rise building design has taken a different form from the past. In some regions (especially region 9 of Mashhad) high-rise buildings are on the rise. With an AHP model analysis, district 9 of Mashhad is one of the best regions for high-rise building design. The issue of supply and demand was considered in the analysis of the needs assessment. Thus, it must be determined how the current situation affects the cases. Therefore, similar projects, which were constructed or being constructed in District 9, were studied. According to the municipality statistics, 7 high-rise buildings were built or are under construction in this region during 2010 to 2012. Despite the growth, there is(are) no design guidelines to build high-rise so that in future it would lead to an unsuitable condition in urban design of the city. Lack of attention to user s’ needs of these kind of residential buildings creates some problems. This research considers user s’ needs of physical conditions of a high-rise building in Mashhad. In this research, 150 users or those who want to be inhabitants of these kinds of dwellings were asked some questions about physical-special needs of high- rise residential buildings.Assessing requirements of users shows that in this kind, the users suppose some amenities like: market and shopping mall, green gardens and green spaces, gym, pool sport center and kindergarten. Also, other facilities such as bakery, travel agency, and fruit shop, library, leisure spaces are noted by the audiences. Research shows more than 85% of users prefer 3 or 4 bedrooms, more than a half prefer to live in a duplex apartment. Also, 90% of the users emphasise on importance of green terraces and yards in apartments. Most of them prefer to live in the eighteenth floor and above. Among different typologies, duplex apartment is more appropriate. Green spaces and green yards are very important in a high-rise residential apartment. Separation of pedestrian way from parking is another important note by the users.Analyzes show that most users living in a tower building are 47-year-old individuals. In other words, the target society or users of such buildings are in the range of 45 to 50years old. Most (35%) of participants prefer to live in higher stories. Results show that as the age of the head of the household increases, the inclination to live in higher stories increases too. (Although the abundance of this age group is not that great). The second most preferred levels are the 1st to 6th floor (with 24%). With regards to the type of the desired apartment, the results show that more than half the participants prefer duplexes (57% of the participants).On the other hand, individuals who desire triplexes on higher stories, are in the age range of 45 to 53. There is a significant relation and a dependence between the user’s age, the selected floor, and the type of unit. The majority of the participants consider the area under study (district 9 of Mashhad) a suitable place for living, and they prefer to live on the 18th story or above. Duplex apartments were desired more than other types. Having a balcony and a green area is important to 90% of the participants. Separating motorist and pedestrian ways, having a supermarket on the premises, and having a garden or an open space were the subjects of most interest. More requests of the users is for 150 m2 to 250m2 apartment units. Studies show there is a correlation between the age of user, floor number and typology of apartments. Increasing the age, the user chooses upper floors. Also, as the age of household head goes up, tendency to reside in higher level increases.
    Keywords: High Rise Design, User, Residential Architecture, Mashhad
  • Sayed Mahdi Maddahi, Eleheh Esfandiani Moghaddam *, Leila Abbasi, Mona Bemani Naeini Pages 149-161
    Most of architecture and culture theorists emphasize on the effect of spatial form on the human lifestyle and behavior because spatial form, shape ,and organization of houses in a neighborhood could protect (support) or disturb the residents’ life. The literature of environmental studies shows that accountability in each environment is related to its designing aspects so that it affects users’ life quality and satisfaction. According to the researchers, human being and his needs are the main factors of designing space and relationship between them, which could be suitable for the better environment in case of correct implementation. Space creators shall appropriately perceive the human behavior in different areas because it strengthens the linkage between human and environment. Today, houses are designed based on western patterns regardless of climate and regional problems, mental and emotional needs of people, the result of which is the turning of the house to the dormitory and lack of mental and environmental comfort in space. One of the effective spatial organs on the residents’ lifestyle includes residential semi-open spaces. Ruining semi-open spaces has created some changes in human behaviors which are not desired by residents. Residential semi-open spaces not only supply the light of interior spaces and natural conditioning; but also offer an opportunity for more relationship with outdoor space and a place for representing behaviors resulted from lifestyle. In the present study, the perception of physical-spatial features in past and present residential semi-open spaces is investigated, indicating that in traditional houses, there are various semi-open spaces such as the patio, balustrade, and fence with a significant role in lifestyle and behaviors systems. Therefore, the aim of the current study is the comparison of the effect of such features on the desirability of traditional and modern housing.The research is theoretical-applied and its method is based on a descriptive and analytical method. The mixed method based on three strategies of qualitative method, interpretive-historical method and quantitative method was used. The qualitative studies were used to investigate the current conditions. Since the qualitative study is to figure out the content and nature and cannot be done through difficult and precise quantitative methods, to increase the reliability and validity in this study, all methods of triangulation were used. Different methods of collecting field data such as observation, interview and questionnaire as well as several observers and interviewers were also used, in this regard.To collect data, questionnaire and to simulate, Ucl depth map were used. All remained houses of study eras (Qajar, Pahlavi and modern) were primarily observed and investigated for sampling and theoretical saturation. The result of that has been categorizing based on typology technique into one side construction, two sides construction (two masses in front of each other), three sides construction and four sides construction in Qajar era, multi-yard and summer houses of Pahlavi era and northern and southern in modern houses. At least one sample of spatial organization view of each sample was analyzed for theoretical saturation. In this study, the models of native houses in Mashhad in Qajar and Pahlavi eras were compared and through obtained data from questionnaire and Ucl depth map software, by logical and deductive reasoning method, the depth, linkage, and relationship of semi-open spaces and finally, the life quality of modern housing were investigated.The results of the study indicate that spatial value of semi-open spaces is reduced over time and the spatial value of other spaces will be added. The organizational and spatial configuration of modern houses is not compatible with native lifestyle. Analyzing space is a theory and tool for analysis in architecture and urbanization. In traditional houses of Mashhad, semi-open spaces play a pivotal role in the emergence of lifestyle and behavioral systems of residents. The architects and urban planners shall try to maintain the identity and cultural sustainability of society by creating the solutions for maintaining the native lifestyles and behavioral systems of it so that behaviors play a significant role in designing residential spaces.
    Keywords: Semi-open Spaces, Mashhad, Lifestyle, Behavioral System, Native Houses
  • Ramin Madani *, Alireza Einifar, Bruce Judd, Mohammad Jalili Pages 163-176
    The emergence and expansion of planned residential developments with hard and controllable boundaries called gated communities and the social consequences of living in such communities have attracted the attention of researchers for decades. These communities are increasingly spreading in developing countries such as Iran. Despite the many studies conducted around the world on the social consequences of living in such developments, few empirical studies have examined such issues in Iran. Gated communities driven by the need for the creation of self-contained, planned, and private communities have become part of the Iranian urban housing development. The origin of gated compounds in Iran dates back to Sassanid cities which used walls and gates to control access and separate privileged social classes from the rest of the population. However, it seems that new gated communities first appeared during the early 1960s with the enforcement of the third and fourth Reconstruction Plans of the country. During this period, as housing proved to be a major issue, housing provision by the private sector burgeoned. The target profile was an emerging social class formed owing to the economic and political changes of the early 1960s. With the formation of the new social class and the entry of the private sector in housing market, gated communities became a marketing opportunity and a means of attracting particular markets for private housing developers. In the housing literature, there exist many disagreements on how sense of community is perceived mainly as an indicator of the quality of life of gated communities’ residents. The literature shows that gated communities can both increase and decrease the sense of community. Considering the important functions of the sense of community in residential areas, this study aims to examine the factors affecting the development of the sense of community in gated communities. It mainly tries to answer the question: “How is sense of community perceived among the residents of gated communities of Hamedan and what are the factors that affect it the most?” In this survey, the data were collected from 360 residents above 20 years of age selected through cluster sampling in three gated communities in Hamedan. The scale used for measuring sense of community was the 12-item questionnaire developed by McMillan and Chavis. This questionnaire which enjoys high internal reliability with a Cronbach alpha of 0.80 was developed to measure the sense of community of the residents of the neighborhoods of the European and American cities. However, for the purposes of this research, the items of the scale were revised based on the social relationships and the neighborhood dynamics of the Iranian context. Due to the revision of item 11, the internal reliability was calculated again (Cronbach alpha=0.78). The results showed that the variables related to local social ties including trust and social control, security, length of residence, use of public space and the existence of mixed uses had a meaningful relationship with sense of community. Therefore, it can be claimed that strong local social ties improve mutual trust and facilitate social control as well. In this way, sense of security increases, which leads to an increased number of residents willing to go to public places and enjoy their community; the fact that triggers social interactions, and consequently, sense of community. An increased sense of community in residential areas stimulates residents to stage the reconstruction and modernization of their city. Sense of community paves the way for participatory democracy, contributes to the implementation of various social and economic programs, and eventually, improves the quality of life.In this research, the level of the perceived sense of community was not high. Hence, the results support those disagreeing perspectives in the literature that focus on the social costs of gated communities. Accordingly, gated communities can hamper social interaction and might add to the problems of creating social networks which provide an opportunity for social and economic activities – an issue related to city resilience. Due to the fact that gated communities did not appear overnight, they will not disappear in the short run and certainly will be the major landscape of cities for decades. Therefore, there is the need to look for a way to fully use the benefits of gated communities and minimize their potential harm. There is no single strategy for creating a strong sense of community. Instead, a set of interrelated guidelines and recommendations can be developed in areas such as population, transportation, land use, environmental quality, housing design and urban design which can help promote the sense of community among the residents of gated communities.
    Keywords: Gated Community, Strict Boundary, Sense of Community, Public space, Hamedan
  • Ali Mosallanejad, Khosro Movahed *, Hadi Keshmiri Pages 177-188
    Today, addressing the citizens’ vitality in urban spaces, especially in the city pass ways and its relation with architectural components is important. Understanding the role of these elements in promoting the vitality of citizens in urban pass ways is an important step towards strengthening the social presence of the people.   Promoting the vitality of citizens, while creating and strengthening social interactions with other citizens, brings the use of this valuable opportunity to plan leisure activities and increase the vitality of citizens in urban spaces. The role of architectural elements in enhancing the face-to-face visits in streets and promoting their vitality due to the presence of these passages is very important. This research tries to understand the effective relationship between architecture physical elements and citizens’ vitality according to the importance of elements and architecture components and their role in upgrading the quality of urban spaces, specially urban streets. The aim of this research is to recognize the architectural physical elements in urban streets and their effects on citizens’ vitality. In this paper, identifying the effective factors on the promotion of vitality, illustrates the correlation between these components and the underlying factors of the urban architectural elements in an analytical model. In this research, in order to evaluate the effect of architectural elements on citizens’ vitality in urban pass ways, the dimensions and aspects of various elements of architecture in urban space are classified. Then the opinions of the thinkers about the vivid imagery of urban spaces are included in this ranking. By analyzing these votes, the vitality of these ideas is clarified and categorized. Thereafter, the library method has been used to study the components of the architectural elements that cause vitality in urban streets. Then, in order to understand the views of people such as business people, residents and pedestrians, a questionnaire with 43 items related to vitality components was used. The respondents included 125 women and 275 men. In other words, 31.5% of the respondents were women and 68.5% were male. 61% of the respondents were young people aged between 19 to 34, 15% of people aged between 10 to 18, and 3.5% of those aged between 55 and over. Regarding the degree of the respondents, 40% had a diploma and a high school diploma, 38.5% had a bachelor’s degree, and 17% had a master’s degree or a doctorate. It should be noted that 23.5% of the respondents, 21% were students, 16% were employees, 4.8% were housewives and 27.5% were freelancers. 18% of the respondents were residents of this street, 34% were street attendees and 44% of were the passersby. Of the 43 questions, 34 questions were evaluated using the Likert spectrum. The method used in this research is a survey and due to the uncertainty of the exact number of the statistical population, a non-probabilistic sampling method has been used in this research. The results of this research indicate that the socio-psychological factors with the rate of 0.749 compared to the physical-cosmic factors of 0.547, environmental factors of 0.312, and amenities and services of 0.514 on Afif Abad Street in Shiraz, have the greatest impact on the promotion of citizens’ vitality. According to the questions, assumptions and trends of the research, it was determined that the physical elements of the architecture, including the presence of suitable chairs and furniture, creating a pause and retreat space in front of the shops, color variations in the street body and buildings, as well as the design and proper location of water and green spaces are effective in promoting the vitality of citizens. Therefore, it is necessary that urban managers and designers design and correctly locate these elements in urban pass ways since they can have a significant effect on increasing the vitality, presence and vitality of the people in these urban public spaces. Also, according to the results of the study, it was found that the type of materials and colors of the facades of buildings, the availability of suitable parking for visitors, the visual coordination with the adjacent buildings, the presence of green spaces, sports and recreation centers , as well as the existence of service use in the evening and at night are the key points that should be considered by urban architects and planners in order to promote citizens’ vitality in urban passes. This emphasizes that the city managers should pay attention to the issue of cleanliness and health in the space. According to the results of the research, paying attention to this alone will have a very significant effect on increasing the vitality of citizens in these public spaces of the city.
    Keywords: Architecture Physical Element, Vitality, Afifabad Street
  • Seyed Jalil Mousavi *, Sonbol Hatami, Gholamreza Talischi Pages 189-199
    The phenomenological approach, which is based on the existence of mankind, studies the presence of mankind in the universe (Dasein) and its relationship with the surrounding world. It also investigates the existing boundaries –as important components of spatial structures– between mankind and the surrounding environment as well as those between different phenomena. By creating enclosure, boundaries change “space” into “place” and they affect the character and landscape of place by developing spatial order. Creation of place and features such as the inside, the outside, boundary, enclosure, realm and path, have led to formation of different structures and subsequently formation of meaningful places. Boundary is a necessary structure and condition for formation of place. This paper will explore the qualities of the relationship between the inside and the outside in general and the notion of boundary in particular. From Heidegger’s point of view, space turns into place by means of the presence of an “object”. The existence of a place creates an inside which in turn gains meaning in contrast to the outer environment. Without this presence, space is just a meaningless and a logical spectrum. However, manifestation of a presence or an object immediately turns space into a place. In this sense, a place is part of the expanse of space, which has gained meaning by a specific presence, be it the shade of a tree in a plain or a path which is distinguishable from its surrounding environment due to its different texture. Every person begins to perceive and understand the surrounding environment from their early days of life and gradually develops the manner of this perception and understanding. For humans, the five senses are the means of understanding the surrounding environment and thus the boundary between mankind and the environment, which divides and connects the two at the same time. The phenomenological approach seeks to understand different phenomena and their relationship as well as the relationship between mankind and the world which encompasses these phenomena. It leads humans to revisit their perceptions and feelings in order to gain a qualitative understanding of the world.Conducted with a phenomenological approach and based on first-hand field observations with an existential focus, this research seeks to develop a framework for gaining deep and proper understanding of the spatial nature and qualitative features of place. Therefore, the aim is to investigate the role of boundaries in different places (natural and built) and the role of people’s understanding of the structure of these boundaries in their interventions and efforts for improving the quality of built places. Approaching the subject from the viewpoint of understanding the surrounding world and deriving from phenomenological studies, the author attempts to analyze her place of living as a phenomenon, explain it based on her learnings of this approach and distinguish and identify the existing boundaries in this place. For this purpose, first, the literature of place phenomenology, place structure and understanding of place will be reviewed; then, the structure of the author’s habitat (located in Malayer City, Hamadan Province) –a plain that has facilitated formation of vineyards around the city– will be described and explored based on mentioned approach and phenomenological criteria. Then, the relationship between people and natural/built places and the boundaries in these places will be analyzed. Finally, a possible solution for improving the relationship between the three phenomena of mankind, natural place and built place (in this case dried fruits packaging workshops in the region under study) will be proposed. When environmental interventions are accompanied by proper perception and understanding of the surroundings, place becomes a source of peace and security and it can be much more successful in attracting more individuals. People would feel at home and relaxed and the final outcome would be a place formed from its spatial bedrock that can satisfactorily meet the visual, environmental and psychological needs of its visitors. A person’s proper understanding of the structure of the surrounding environment and its boundaries alongside the accurate perception of various sensory elements such as odors, sounds, etc. can help them grasp and recognize the sense of “being at a place” with clarity. The author’s phenomenological attempt for better understanding the area of study and the needs of its residents has led to formation of ideas and suggestions which can help improve the condition of raisin processing factories and workshops in the area in a manner that the employees can easily work and enjoy the surrounding natural environment and landscapes. Implementations of these suggestions can undoubtedly improve the condition of the workforce and the procedure of work in these manufacturing units. Not only will they be able to avoid defacing the natural landscape, but also they can help improve the environment by means of carefully planned interventions and proper use of environmental potentials for the betterment of the mutual relationship between mankind and natural/built places.
    Keywords: Boundary, Phenomenon of Place, Sense of Place, Natural Place, Mankind Place
  • Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad *, Sanaz Masoudi Tonekaboni Pages 201-208
    High level of energy consumption for heating and cooling in building during different seasons is one of the most important issues that effect the architectural design process. According to formal released statistics by proper channels, in 2014, 28 to 32 percent of the total energy consumed in houses. On the other hand about 25 percent of the carbon dioxide generated in this year, is the result of using fossil fuels in the commercial and residential sectors respectively. Literature review of the paper show that widespread use of electricity as a source of inner light emphasizes on the significance of daylight in building. On the other hand based on architectural design principles, the use of daylight in architecture has always been one of the concerns in architectural design based on psychological prerequisites. Therefore, due to the high level of energy consumption in the building sector in Islamic Republic of Iran, it is important to focus on available potentials in passive energy gain such as better architectural design. The actions in order to improve the quality of building from the standpoint of heat exchange control and how to use sunlight, results in significant saving in the total energy consumption. Literature review shows that light transform into heat because the long wavelength, or infrared, portion of the solar radiation resonates well with molecules in the material, thereby setting them into motion. Gained heat from solar radiation transforms into heat as well as imposes considerable amount of energy for summer cooling. On the other hand, Regular shading devices do not allow direct sunlight to pass the window glazing therefore these kinds of devices may result in increase in winter thermal load as well as increase in energy consumption. Self-shading in architecture design means, using techniques to create shadow on the surfaces of buildings that introduced during period specified and calculate by the designer.This paper is to contribute a procedure for improvement of building form regarding a better self-shading in order to produce a better energy efficient architecture. The paper investigates different strategies for optimization the use of sunlight during the cold and hot seasons. In other words, the main goal of this research is to study different aspects of sunlight and shading, especially thermal aspects of sunlight in building design. The paper estimates the impacts of applying self-shading as an energy efficient approach to improve the energy performance of building. Regarding the research objectives, the most important questions of the research are: 1) How self-shading affects energy consumption in building? 2) What types of buildings regarding to common buildings’ configuration of Tehran show a better performance in energy consumption? Methodology of the paper is based on quasi-experimental research strategies in empirical attitudes. Descriptive- analytic research method adopted as inference mechanism, commercially available simulation software adopted as research tool. The most influential tactic in this research is to analyses the role of self-shading in different types of buildings’ configuration regarding to level of energy consumption. Analysis and comparison of solar energy absorption by means of simulated models programmed to estimate optimum characteristics of building configuration. The adopted research methodology proposes usage of the concept of the Solar Collection Envelope (SCE) to analyze efficiency of different kinds of buildings’ configurations. Sustarc as a model for the design of the urban fabric with solar rights considerations adopted to analyze different types of building configurations. Using the SCE nomogram, the designer may determine the orientation and building profile, guarantees that it is self-shaded during a required period and permits insolation in winter. Therefore, the performance based SCE can be used for conceiving new solutions for the building form regarding to daylightophil architecture. To understand the role of self-shading in energy efficient architecture with particular reference to buildings configuration; contemporary buildings of Tehran adopted as case study of the research. In order to investigate the effect of self-shading in reducing the energy consumption of buildings, different building types should be analyzed and simulated to find optimum building types. Based on analysis in contemporary Iranian architecture and typical building form, sixteen common building forms selected by purpose from among Tehran Buildings. The results of simulation and modeling show that the application of self-shading method and shadows at the surrounding buildings by controlling the heat transfer to the indoor has a significant impact on energy efficiency in order to materialize a highperformance architecture. The results emphasized on the importance self-shading in reducing the energy consumption of building especially in cold and hot seasons. The simulation and modeling process shows that self-shading may be adopted as an influential tool to improve the energy performance of building, especially in Tehran as case study of the research. The results pave the way to understand impacts of self-shading on energy efficiency, by comparing the amount of radiant energy in various forms.
    Keywords: Self-shading, Energy Saving, Building Form, Daylightophil Architecture, Highperformance Architecture
  • Mohammad Taghi Nazarpour *, Ahmad Heidari, Marziyeh Salimi Pages 209-223
    Today, universities play a key role in the development and excellence of the society, meaning that many societies are taking steps to elevate the quality and quantity of higher education institutions. An important issue for the development of these centers is the importance of amenities and, above all, the provision of accommodation for students (dormitories). Therefore, it seems that evaluating residents’ satisfaction in dormitory spaces with regard to spatial configuration can be useful in improving the quality of life for students. Therefore, this research explains a method for determining the effect of spatial configuration of student dormitories on students’ spatial preferences and their satisfaction. Assessment of student satisfaction in dormitory spaces can be useful in improving the quality of students’ life environment. Hence, many studies have been done to assess satisfaction. One of the most effective indicators of satisfaction is the physical environment in which the spatial configuration is a main component of the physical environment. The syntax of space can be divided into three concepts: convex space, field of view, and axial line. These concepts are linear when it comes to research on motion, and when the subject of research is social interactions. Convex spaces are visible areas when the subject of the study is complex patterns of behavior. On the other hand, satisfaction from the built environment, especially when the length of stay is prolonged, is very important. Student dormitories are also a place where students stay for a long time, considering the conditions of the course. Therefore, their satisfaction with the temporary environment of their life is important. For this reason, many researchers have researched the students’ satisfaction with the dormitory space, which will be discussed further. The purpose of this article is to explain a method for determining the effect of spatial configuration of student dormitories on students’ space preferences and their satisfaction. In this study, two blocks of dormitory, which differ in terms of spatial configurations, were selected. Then, these two blocks were simulated in the space syntax software, based on the shape of the spatial arrangement and its distinction from the configuration point of view. In the next step, a series of spatial layout indicators that could be effective on students’ spatial desirability were evaluated. Subsequently, to find the effect of the spatial configuration of the dormitory on the spatial desirability and satisfaction of the students, two blocks were analyzed by the space syntax through field research and questionnaire (so that the questions directly influenced the effects of the syntax of space on the students’ spatial desirability Measure). Finally, the similarity and dissimilarity of the results show the research hypothesis that the spatial configuration of student dormitories is adapted to the students’ spatial preferences. To achieve this, in the first stage, two types of dormitory blocks (Shahid Beheshti Girls’ Dormitory) that were different from the spatial configuration (Block 5, Linear Shape and Block 6, Apartment) were first selected. Then, two blocks in terms of spatial configuration were evaluated by UCL Depth map space software for specifications, depth, field of view and compaction of the field of view. In the next step and the second stage, according to the characteristics, a questionnaire (Block 5, Linear, 160 questionnaires and 6 blocks, residential, 65 questionnaires) was prepared for the dormitory and then evaluated furtherly. At the end, in order to see the compatibility, the results of the two stages were compared and showed that there is a compatibility between the spatial configuration of the student dormitories and the students’ spatial preferences and their satisfaction. According to the above points, the proposed methodology has been confirmed in some way to understand the spatial configuration and spatial preferences of students in the dormitory, and its compatibility has been proved with the main purpose of this research. The results of this study showed that three factors of depth, access (physical and visual) and spatial hierarchy influenced the spatial configuration of dormitories. The results reveal that living in dormitories is more desirable for students than linear dormitories. In the next stage, this study suggests that the relationship between the personal and personality characteristics of students in their process of understanding the spatial layout of student dormitories in the form of satisfaction concepts can be considered as an independent research in the continuation of this paper.
    Keywords: Space Configuration, Student Dormitory, Space Preferences, Satisfaction
  • Nooshin Nazarieh, Nima Valibeig, Shahriar Nasekhian * Pages 225-236
    Residents of the hot and dry climate, despite having long summers, have achieved a solution that makes drinking cold water throughout the year possible, as well as using ice to keep food intact. The solution was icehouse which makes ice in the low temperature of the desert winter night. Dimensions, size, direction, and setting of icehouses directly affect their final form. There are various forms of icehouses in different cities. This difference is due to the form, shape, and geometry of elements and their components. Offering remedial solutions require a sound and comprehensive recognition of the building. Unfortunately, nowadays icehouses have become a lost element in urban spaces due to lack of comprehensive research and proper presentation. This research redefines the part of the technology related to  Iranian past life and also provides a situation for reusing the technology. Surveying the typology of the icehouse and concerning the influence of geometry on  their construction in Kerman area would be an effective step in the conservation and restoration of this forgotten element in our traditional architecture and urban spaces. This paper aims to reread the geometrical features of icehouse elements (plan and elevation) and to analyze their impact on the final form of icehouses in Kerman. Researchers have previously increasingly researched the recognition and also the way of the ice making in ice houses before. In this paper, for the first time, the position of geometry in the elements of icehouses and their final form is discussed. The present research uses the analytical- descriptive method and data are collected using desk and survey research. Having scrutinized the icehouses of Kerman province and their elevation, plan, and section, the comparative uses of their geometric properties were analysed. Then the influencing factors were identified. The results showed the angle of sunshine, and wind direction are the factors that affect the geometry of the plan and direction of shading wall. In order to prevent sunlight during sunrise and sunset time, the adjunct  wall have been made to restrict the sunlight on the east and west of icemaking ponds by implementing a U-shaped wall that offers shades. Also, the architects used to connect the adjunct walls to act as a buttress, for greater stability of the main shady walls. The position of the dome in the plan also causes disconnection and continuity in the form of shady walls. In taller walls, the wall is divided into two parts with a dome in the center so that these two sides act as a buttress for the wall. The wall shapes an L form in contact with the dome and the dome prevents the walls to fall like a buttress. The shadow wall was designed in a vertical line in the direction of the prevailing wind in the cold season, in order to restrain the cold air. The location of the dome was also influenced by the shady wall in the general plan of the icehouse. As in some cities, the dome is located in the north of the shady wall, like the icehouses of Kerman, and in some cities such as Yazd and Kashan, the dome is in the south of the shady wall, which is due to the difference in the angle of the solar radiation. In the icehouses where the dome is located in the north, the entrances are in the east and west of the dome, and in the icehouses where the dome is located in the south of the shady wall, the entrances are located in the north and south. The advantage of locating the entrances in the east and west is the preventing the hot air to penetrate in the dome and locating these entrances in the shadow. Also, the dimension of the dome has a direct effect on the type of staircases inside the hole store. Thus, in the icehouses with a big opening dome, because of sufficient space, the staircase is circular, and in the small openings due to lack of space, there is a straight staircase. This research for the first time considers the typology of icehouses in Kerman based on geometry and analyzes the effect of this factor on each component of an icehouse in this area. In order to achieve the authentic form of these icehouses and also a principled restoration, a precise recognition of the geometry and also their forms are required. Today, with the expansion of the cities and setting of the icehouse in the downtown areas and due to the non-standard restorations, the main form of icehouses has changed which can be prevented by recognizing their forms in each region. A proper criterion for the classification of icehouses can be reached with recognizing the characteristics of icehouses of each region and also an attempt for recognition of latent meanings of these elements of traditional architecture to be utilized as a model in urban design. Studies in this research can be performed on icehouses of other cities in Iran, such as Kashan, Nain, Yazd.
    Keywords: Kerman’s Icehouses, Geometry in Architecture, Different Elements of Icehouses, Traditional Icehouses
  • Hosna Varmaghani *, Hossein Soltanzadeh, Seyed Ataollah Tahaee Pages 237-249
    The entrance of any house is a way for relationship between exterior and interior spaces and expressing the cultural characteristics of the residents and their beliefs in privacy and veil. The entrance of each building is the first place to encounter and familiarize with the house. This is also the identity of the building and plays an important role for representing the cultural characteristics of its inhabitants as a connector element of public realm to private space. This body is composed of components responsive to environmental, cultural, social and economic factors. The input space as a separator space is also a communicative one. One of its most important goals is to control the movement and to extend its path from outside to inside space. It also specifies the limits and methods of their social communication. It seems that Qajar houses of Gilan and Mazandaran, and consequently their entrances, due to the similarity of climate, are very similar. This comparative study reveals some differences in the shape and spatial organization, the degree of privacy, and the method of control of public and private domains. It is due to several factors such as differences in culture, geography, society and way of livelihoods. Although Qajar houses in Gilan and Mazandaran are very similar, they are not the same. This heterogeneity, which can be studied in both general form and spaces of the house, can be due to cultural, environmental, economic and social differences in the two studied areas. This paper focuses on cultural differences firstly by prioritizing culture in shaping the entrance, and then it shows the influences of the culture on the entrance of the houses.The hypothesis of this study is that the entrance features in Qajar houses in the cities of Gilan and Mazandaran are distinct due to different ways of life in these regions. To assess this claim, we will first consider into cultural differences. Then, we will select 12 cases of Qajar houses in old fabrics of Gilan and Mazandaran provinces, to examine the impact of lifestyle and culture on the structure of entrances. The samples were matched in two provinces equally. This means that houses belonging to the social classes are compared with each other in order to control the impact of the social class variable on the results of the research. The questions of this paper are as follows: 1) is the formation of the entrance of Qajar houses related to cultural characteristics in Gilan and Mazandaran? 2) Given the relationship between culture and architecture, do cultural differences affect the shape and organization of the inputs in the two regions? 3) Which features in the inputs are exploring cultural differences? In this research, cultural differences are first studied in Gilan and Mazandaran. In this regard, the four cultural layers are extracted from the Rappaport theories and analyzed in Gilan and Mazandaran communities of Qajar era. The first layer, which unites the architecture of houses, is lifestyle that has been associated with livelihoods in the studied area. It determines the extent and manner of social and kinship communication. The nature of the meetings and social relationships is the second layer of culture in the present study. The third layer is the customs that appear as a result of repeating behaviors and lifestyles. It is influenced from the fourth layer, means indigenous and religious beliefs. These four factors have led to the formation of relatively different social identities in Gilan and Mazandaran.In this paper, by the method of comparative research and case study, we will compare the entrances of houses. The results show that in Mazandaran houses, the controlled entrances with hierarchy in privacy are reflection of introverted culture. But, the lifestyle of people in Gilan reduces separation between public and private spaces. The results of the study of the abovementioned factors and the comparison of the construction typologies show the different input characteristics and analyze how the culture reflects on the form and the space of entrance. The results of presented analysis show that the lifestyle, customs, beliefs, and social interaction influence the culture structure. And cultural differences in the structures of societies make significant changes in the shape of entrances of the houses.In summary, the results of the research show that the social link between women and men in the form of agriculture work and livelihoods leads to a difference in lifestyle and housing and justifies the extraversion of Gilan houses. This also defines the shape of the entries and eliminates the privacy layers of them. But the fanaticism of most Mazandaran families on religion and veil has affected the shape of the house and has made the entrances more confined. The shape of the entrance is influenced of the house shape.
    Keywords: culture, House Shape, entrance, Gilan, Mazandaran
  • Ali Asghar Abroon *, Fariba Gharai, Maryam Tabatabaeian Pages 251-263
    For the first time in human history, more than half of the world’s population live in urban areas and this is projected to increase to two-thirds by 2030. This increased urbanity of the world’s population has substantial public health implications since Mental Health (MH) has a relevant burden on the health of populations.Urban studies and research show that urban Built Environment (BE) is one of the potential determinants of health. World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes on considering the effects of environment on human and Mental Health (MH). “Ensuring that citizens realize their potential, coping with the normal stresses of life, working productively and fruitfully, and making a contribution to their community and a successful city”, is the main definition of mental health. It is evident that there has been a growing interest in understanding the effects of specific neighborhood qualities on the mental health of citizens. Neglecting these aspects affects the mental health of residents, leading to various psychological problems. Stress, aggression, depression, boredom, and physical symptoms are some of the consequences.This study attempts to explore the neighborhood environmental factors that impact the mental health of the neighborhood residents by assuming that the environmental quality of urban residential areas affects the mental health of citizens. It also investigates the extent of these factors affecting mental health significantly. The hypothesis was investigated through a literature review and survey study by means of questionnaire and observations, derived from the literature review and theoretical framework. We examined cross-sectional associations of neighborhood environmental qualities with mental health of residents in 380 participants in two neighborhoods, investigating socio-economic and demographic characteristics.By doing literature review, and presenting theoretical framework, this study examines the relationships between variables. This study using correlation analysis, evaluates the strength of a relationship between environmental quality of the neighborhoods and the mental health outcomes of residents in two research groups located in two different neighborhoods. Via exploratory factor analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Multiple Regression, a conceptual model is presented showing the relationship between different aspects of environmental quality of urban residential areas and the mental health levels of residents.As an applied research and mixed-methods research designed by analytical and descriptive approach; firstly, summative content analysis based on the key words - taken from literature review; and then, a survey study via questionnaire and observations has been done. Data Analysis has been conducted by means of SPSS statistical software for both descriptive and inferential statistics. Dependent and independent variables are mental health of the residents and environmental quality of the neighborhoods, respectively. To assess mental health of residents the General Health Questionnaire standardized scale (GHQ) has been used (α=0.88). Researchers’ made questionnaire, derived from literature review, summative content analysis, and exploratory factor analysis, reliable with alpha coefficient (0.87) has been conducted to evaluate environmental quality of the neighborhood into three subscales: formal, functional and perceptual. And also, validity of the questionnaire was established by a panel of experts familiar with the issue. Finally, the overall alpha coefficient was 0.88.The measurement of survey sample size according to Morgan table and Cochran formula of the entire 6000 populations of two participated neighborhoods, with the 95% confidence level, was measured 361. To precise the measurements, the number of participants was increased to 380 numbers. Simple random sampling was done for 190 residents into two neighborhoods. The survey study was conducted for one month in Sabzevar in two neighborhoods, Enghelab and Bahar, being different in their environmental features and qualities, but identical in socio-economic and demographic characteristics. While Enghelab neighborhood suffers from different aspects of low environmental qualities, Bahar neighborhood enjoys more public open spaces, social activities and active public life, mixed land-use, better physical maintenance, safety and security, better quality of the pavements, and better accessibility to parks and neighborhood facilities. Also, the existence of mosque, recreational centers, historical buildings, trees, shrubs and flowers, shops, local bakeries, and sociability and walkability in Bahar neighborhood are considered some of the opposite substantial discrepancies.Finally, the results have approved the hypothesis, and shown that more neighborhood environmental quality was associated with higher levels of mental health in neighborhood residents, significantly. Furthermore, using exploratory factor analysis and according to the results of multiple regression analysis, an analytical-descriptive model has been presented depicting the relationship between three subscale aspects of the neighborhood environmental qualities that are perceptual, functional, and physical aspects affecting the mental health status of neighborhood residents. It is concluded that firstly, the perceptual aspects (place attachment, and social activities, community relationships and active social life, control on your privacy and relationships, and historical buildings and monuments), secondly, the functional aspects (accessibility, walkability, having good neighborhood services and facilities, noise, crowd, insecurity), and eventually, physical aspects (maintenance, public open space, green space, natural places and natural lights) are the main aspects of the environmental neighborhoods that influence mental health of neighborhood residents, respectively.
    Keywords: Urban Design, Environmental Psychology, Neighborhood Environmental Quality, Mental Health of Neighborhood Residents, Sabzevar
  • Shima Eslampour *, Hasan Sajadzadeh Pages 265-277
    Today, the physical development of cities, the traffic volume, environmental pollution and general health of the citizens are the consequences of car-based approach in contemporary cities. With the entry of vehicles into different areas of the city, we see the subsequent interaction of cavalry and infantry due to the lack of sidewalks and walking spaces which impacts citizens’ health. Also, in the past few years, the significant reduction of walking activities has been considered as a safety hazard in medical science. Therefore, recent research on health that focused on physical activity and nutrition, as the most important factor affecting general health, have shown that walking is a valuable physical activity that can lead to general health of the community. However, in contemporary urban planning, pedestrian traffic and the normal rights of pedestrians, urban planners and planners are ignored and pedestrian roads are considered as a part of the vehicular movement rather than urban spaces. In fact, in the urban planning tradition, planning for vehicles has always been the planning priority. On the other hand, topics such as healthy city, walkable city, and sustainable city, which have been debated in modern urban planning in recent decades, have made urban managers to a have a new look to transportation system and prioritization of pedestrian-orinted design in urban spaces.In this paper, after defining and reviewing the history urban streets design approaches and different viewpoints of theorists such as Lynch, Jacobs, Appleyard and others, the history of the emergence of the pedestrian-orinted streets in Europe and Iran will be discussed. Then, the successful examples of pavements in the world and Iran are examined. According to experts such as Halperin, Gehl and Jacobs. The measures of pedestrian-orinted capability are defined in urban streets. The benchmarking indicators in this study have been based on field studies and studies of pedestrian design, which are detailed in the research theoretical fundamentals. Then some criteria are defined based on these indices. Finally, a conceptual model of the study is presented. According to this model, factors influencing the pedestrian-orinted capability in urban streets are categorized into two human and physical factors. The built environment is the most important factor in motivating people to embark on urban streets. Even those who enjoy taking a walk will walk further if there good places are available for walk. On the other hand, the design of the physical environment can encourage those who have a negative attitude toward walking. Therefore, the most important factors influencing the possibility of pedestrian-orinted functionality in pedestrian spaces and physical environments can be considered as the keypoints for prioritization of pedestrian-oriented design to encourage walking directions. The following can be mentioned as the most important physical factors: structural, aesthetic, functional and environmental factors. Among the human factors, one can mention collective memories, sense of place, security and social interactions.Although the pedestrian-orinted design is not a new topic, it is an interesting aspects of this research to consider the urban structure of the city of Hamedan with its six streets as pedestrian-orinted streets. Although all six streets are constructed in a certain period of time and are similar in terms of organization, all six streets can not be completely pedestrian-orinted simultaneously. Accordingly, this research will provide an appropriate strategy for urban planners to take the necessary measures in order to prioritize the development of the six streets by adopting appropriate measures in a long-term process.This article aims to define the streets and sidewalks and their formation histories, and uses archival research methods. A survey is prepared by a questionnaire with 37 questions from 382 pedestrians in six streets that start from Imam Square in Hamedan to assess and measure the spatial quality promotion of streets and to find the environmental variables influencing the level of activities. The results of the study show that the physical factors of main structural factors, functional factors, aesthetic factors, environmental factors and human factors consisting of safety, social interaction, sense of place and collective memory are the influential factors in prioritizing the pedestrian-oriented capability of city streets. According to results, the physical parameters should be prioritized on of Bu-Ali, Shariati, Takhti, Baba Taher, Ecbatan and Shohada Street respectively, and human indicators on Bu-Ali, Shariati, Baba Taher, Ecbatan, Shohada and Takhti Street should be prioritized.
    Keywords: Urban Streets, Pedestrian-oriented Capability, Physical factors, Human factors, Hamedan
  • Fatemeh Biniaz, Toktam Hanaee * Pages 279-292
    Urban space perception is the first step in communicating with the environment, and this knowledge creates the mental image and, as a result, a person’s cognitive map of the space. This is significantly impacted by the gender, age, and familiarity of a person with the environment. Therefore, women and men have different cognitive maps of the environment that are affected by their different perceptions. Perception involves the process of obtaining information from the environment, and has a purposeful and systematic structure to answer our responses to the environment. Cognitive maps are formed in relation to individual and environmental characteristics, so that each person receives information from the environment, encodes, stores and restores them in a different way. Desirable urban spaces should have the ability to be perceptible and memorable.The function of other mental maps is to induce and express clear meanings because people in the city create different meaning and sense urban phenomena by distinction between different sensory effects. The city is a complex arena of perception and memory, but the meaning of the urban space is limited to individual and cultural memories. Nasar believes that there are three types of environmental perception theory for urban design. The first is the theory of the level of compatibility, which suggests that people adapt themselves to the prevailing levels of dominance. The second theory is ecological approach to perception, which considers the environment to be a meaningful structure and stimulus. The active observer will identify the environment structures and provide a basis for their search. Here, the concept of environmental capability plays an important role. We perceive the nature and levels of collections and objects first by examining their appropriateness. The third theory is probabilistic functionality that believes that human assessment is shaped in an environment with probabilities that depend on people’s perceptions of physical clues, which is also dependent on probabilities that are always accompanied by the physical characteristics of the environment.The purpose of this paper is to identify the similarities of cognitive perception in relation with gender. In general, the qualitative-analytical methods have been used frequently. In order to collect theoretical foundations, the methodology of observation and field observation has been used to assess the status quo and the questionnaire tool and cognitive map technique have been used to collect the research data. The target group of the study consists of 15 to 64 year-old men and women, and the sample size is 132 random samples with Cochran formula. To analyze the data and deduce the findings of the research, the statistical-qualitative method was used to analyze the questionnaires and the Cognitive Technique of mapping was used to deduce perceptual similarities.The findings of the research show that the conceptual framework of men and women from space is formed based on signs, paths, nodes, and the edges and that the ranges do not play an effective role in the mental image of individuals. Also, different age intervals are two by two are similar to each other in perceptions, but in the age of 15-28, the perceptions of the edges are distinct from others. It should be noted that the perception of qualities such as confinement, differentiation and diversity are similar between the two genders. In contrast, the perception of the environment at an all-time interval age is different. Also, 88% of men and 86% of women have plotted their cognitive patterns in a sequential pattern. Spatial geometry with different age ranges indicates that 22 percent of people aged between 15 to 64 perceive and draw the environment based on spatial patterns.The physical age of the sign element, along with being fit with daily needs, has a significant impact on creating a mental image for adults, especially women aged 15 to 28. The distinction of the sign in terms of physical and elevation aspects, is more important in marking for the men of the same age. The gender factor has not only influenced perceptual similarity about confinement, and in some cases such as sign distinction, node differentiation, edge resolution, orientation, and, to a degree, variation of the range in different age intervals has created a perceptual difference. The sign element plays a significant role in the perceptual similarities between men and women of different ages, and the dating of time and physical distinction are among the factors influencing the marking of the element of sign in the image of the element of sign in the adult mental image. Also, considering the sequences in the cognitive maps, we can say that the spatial geometry of the environment in the adult mind is based on the element of the node and the path together with the placement of the indicator elements.
    Keywords: Environmental Preferences, Gender, Adult Age Group, Cognitive Map
  • Abbas Zekri, Samaneh Jamalzadeh * Pages 293-300
    Undoubtedly, an increase in the population of the elderly is one of the most important economic, social and health challenges of the 21st century. The reduced quality of life in nursing houses, which is often neglected, is a significant challenge that should be addressed by the authorities. When living in nursing house is an obligation for the elderly, they often feel rejected, detached, and abandoned for being useless and unworthy. Hence, it is normal that they react negatively. These people often feel insignificant, apathetic and disliked. Regarding the human interaction with the space, increasing the sense of belonging to the place in the nursing houses is an important issue. Being distant from home and family and losing the family support and reduced health, can reduce the quality of life in elderly nursing houses. This research aims at studying the effect of a sense of belonging to place on improving the quality of life for elderly nursing house residents. This research is a descriptive-correlational study that scrutinizes the correlating factors shaping the sense of belonging to place and quality of life for residents of nursing houses in Shiraz. The data was collected through a Likert scale questionnaire. The statistical population of the study includes all elderly men and women living in nursing houses of Shiraz, including 350 people living in 5 year-old nursing houses. The sample size was estimated 184 units according to Cochran formula. However, a more accurate study of the statistical population showed that some intervening factors such as Alzheimer, mental disability, deafness, and illiteracy necessitates the presence of the researcher in the statistical population to identify the conscious elderly. Ultimately, 41 people residing in 5 nursing houses of Shiraz were identified to be able to participate in research. Having interviewed the nursing houses, the researches prepared the questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed based on the five-point Likert scale with 17 questions, including physical, cognitive, and social elements that could affect the sense of belonging to the place. As a result, the factors that shape the sense of belonging to the place including the perceptual-cognitive factors, social factors and environmental-physical factors were examined in three hypotheses. Data analysis was performed using non-parametric Chi-square test. The Chi-square statistic for the first hypothesis investigating the cognitive-behavioral factors in improving the quality of life for residents of nursing houses, is 7.7%, which is 95% statistically meaningful. Therefore, the first research hypothesis, which reminds past experiences and brings identity to people, can be considered acceptable. The second research hypothesis investigated the social factors in improving the quality of life in nursing houses. Having a Chi-square statistic of 268/15, the second research hypothesis was considered statistically significant at 100% level.The third hypothesis that investigated the environmental-physical factors in improving the quality of life for the residents of nursing houses, showed that a sense of place is found in places that are noticeably distinctive and personalized by tangible concepts such as material, shape, texture and color. The environmental-physical factors with a Chi-square of 683/7 indicates that these factors are confirmed by the elderly.The findings show that the attitudes and mentality of the elderly can be changed when the design is based on the effective factors that shape the sense of place. The benefits of such approach delivers tranquility and a sense of security and revives the destroyed feelings. The elderly and the society will, therefore, show a different attitude when perceiving these places. Therefore, this study tries to associate the individual’s life of the elderly with his/her current place of residence (nursing house) in order to recognize the relation and the effect of architecture on the individual’s mentality. Creating a relaxed atmosphere free of stress and mental distresses caused by personal affiliations encourages the elderly to live longer and brings vitality to their life and revives their forgotten position in the society. Therefore, it can be concluded that space and architecture play the fundamental role in this area. The sense of place leads to connection to the context and the individuals shape a combination of roles, function, and characteristics based on their experiences. This role is regarded unique to them, and therefore the place becomes important and meaningful to them. In this situation, the quality of place is ameliorated. Therefore, by increasing the sense of belonging to the place in the nursing houses, it is possible to adapt the elderly to these places and help them improve their quality of life. This requires the design to be adapted according to the needs and demands of the elderly and paying attention to their past experiences.The sense of belonging to the place, which is an important factor in shaping the communication bases for users and the environment, will ultimately lead to the creation of quality in the environments. Physical features (such as form, color, size, shape, scale and texture) and perceptive-cognitive factors as well as social activities also play important roles in achieving a sense of belonging to the place in the elderly nursing residences.
    Keywords: Location, Sense of belonging, Elderly
  • Maliheh Memariyan *, Bahador Zamani Pages 301-317
    Population growth and its impact on urbanization have led to drastic transformation in traditional context. Urban centers as economic and social magnets are subject to change through new constructions frequently. Such rapid changes has made the structure of cities and its physical organizations unresponsively illegible leading to the imageability weakness. Lack of city center legibility and imageability results in ambiguity of these centers and problematic wayfinding towards significant elements. Understanding the urban environment is a mental process that takes place through the relationship between man and his surroundings. The image of the city is meaningful in the interaction of a network of people and places. According to the definitions of legibility and imageability, the user, in legible and imagieable environments, are easily able to categorize important and unimportant places, familiar and unfamiliar affairs, and more easily the main structure and sub structures of the city. Indeed, the qualities of variety, identity, as well as the clarity of relations between the elements can help people to perceive urban environment with clear image linking new and existing elements to each other. This paper aims to identify and assess the perceptual components to improve legibility and imageability and to provide a framework for legibility and imageability quality indicators in three visual-perceptual, spatial-physical and functional layers based on theoretical frameworks. Then, applying a descriptive-analytical method, the legibility and imageability of Qom city center as a case study would be assessed. For data collection, methods of observation, interviews, and cognitive mapping were used. For analysis, space syntax technique, SPSS technique, mental Map Assessment techniques were used.The results of the investigation of cognitive maps show that a number of mental maps do not include the desired complexity and high information. This showed that at micro level the sub structure in the minds of people had average legibility and legibly effective elements are needed according to the trained observer viewpoint. In reviewing the overall structure, half of the cognitive maps have a pattern and structure leading to a correct orientation. Also, the majority of people have identified the position of the signs, nodes and paths correctly, so it can be concluded that identification at the large scale is in adequate condition.Comparing the cognitive maps and space syntax analytical maps, the relationship between the integration value of paths in the cognitive maps has been evaluated and the results of the survey indicate low correlation between these two indicators and no clear relationship between them. A number of paths with the highest degree of integration have a relatively low percentage of emergence in cognitive maps. Therefore, in order to integrate the structural paths of the old fabric of the city that are highly integrated, they must be cognitively emphasized integrating the main structural elements of the past city and the current space organization of the city to improve the legibility and imageability qualities.The most effective indicator for increasing legibility is the concept of intelligibility, defined by the statistical relationship between general integration and connectivity. In order to calculate the level of intelligibility, it is necessary to correlate between the two local integration indices and general integration (synergy).In correlation diagram, when the points are distributed in a linear and compact pattern with a certain density, it can be concluded that the range has a strong degree of correlation and therefore offer more intelligibility. On the other hand, if the collection of points is not dense and does not form a linear dispersion pattern, it can be described as an illegible region in general scale. According to the correlation diagram (statistical correlation between the two indices of local integration and general integration, it is observed that the range has a comparative legibility, but some of scattered points in the diagram indicate a lack of intelligibility in those points. When the slope of this diagram is closer to 45 degrees, the area is found more legible. In the studies, the slope of diagram in the correlation between local integration and general integratio n is close to 60 degrees. Therefore, the area in terms of the part and the whole relationship has good legibility and shows that the connections in the structure are correlated with the integration at general level. However, the correlation diagram between two connectivity and general integration indicators show that according to the slope of the diagram, the distribution of intersections and their distance from main structure in whole complex and in fact the depth of the intersections of the main structure have not been impressive in improving the legibility.
    Keywords: Legibility, Imageability, Mental image, Cognitive maps, Way Finding, Qom City
  • Maryam Daneshvar *, Ali Ghaffari, Hamid Majedi Pages 319-328
    The relations between planning practice and planning theory have been accentuated in recent years, so that planning theory is being assumed as a part of the community today. However, a reliable theory about the nature of planning system in the full sense of the word is still missing. Therefore, regarding the necessity of having a particular national framework, we would need a generic and practical conseptual framework or terminology to explain the planning theory. This article presents an institutional approach to the strategic planning to overcome the separation of planning theory and practice. For this reason, qualitive methodology and espechially content analysis technique has been used. The analytical framework represents how strategic planning theory is used in institutional evolution. Based on qualitative analysis, great attention was paid to the literature on strategic planning and practical experience. Here, the Strategic planning is identified as institutional technology and explained, as such, in its overall capacity to be renewed over time. The territorial focus of strategic planning aims to help actors, in government and in civil society, to work together. This concept explains the planning practice within wider processes of institutionalization, triggered by a social convention. In other word, the notion of institution is adopted in order to understand planning systems as specific social constructs; thus, encompassing the shaping of respective planning cultures. The institutionalist perspective is only the latest of a series of images of planning, which have varied to reflect changes in planning and how it is perceived. The institutionalist perspective shifts the focus from considering planning as an individual or interpersonal activity, to viewing planning as an aspect of governance. This view implies a broader vision of planning and relevant contexts rather than a limited public planning focusing on the state. The writing on new institutionalism in planning dates back to early and mid-1990s. Ernest Alexander, may well be one of the earliest writers among planners on the subject. Alexander’s early foray was accompanied by Patsy Healey, which linked planning theory and institutions. Patsy Healey, a known contributor to the new institutionalism literature situates herself in the broad political economy justification of planning as a form of government intervention that aims to amend the wrongs of unfettered freedom.The planning environment has changed from focusing on government to focusing on governance; the goal of transformation has replaced that of intervention. Healey’s project in this essay is to explain the transformative process and to place the new institutionalism in the context of the transformative goals of planning. One of the main theoretical foundations of institutionalism involves her collaborative approach in the form of a space strategy generation. This approach discusses the planning in relation with changes related to the political, social, cultural features. In other words, the planning theory does not develop in a social, economic and political vacuum, but is formulated by individuals in social situations with the aim of clarifying the enviroment and recommending appropriate procedures and processes. In order to understand the relationship between planning and institutionalization, an analytical framework has been used. At first, the variety of practices generated from the social experience of planning and control activities in an institutional context is considered as a continuous source of evolutionary process. Moreover, successful experiences in particularly affected places and best practices can rise to selective processes of policy transfer. Further selection occurs through a competitive and iterative discourse concerning the overall assessment of territorial governance outcomes within the institutional context. A reduction of discoursces may occur when ‘hegemonic concepts’ are shared or accepted through political acknowledgment in the relevant institutional context, till possible agreement on substantial and / or procedural changes in the planning system structure. Institutional codification is necessary to let the selected changes be commonly adopted in the concerned institutional context, producing widespread application and new network effects. A sort of descending phase in the cycle continues from here, as systematic application of established tools becomes indeed the new operational framework for practices. Strategic planning tools are generally recognized as ‘plans’, although these may be of very different nature, ranging from regulative zoning maps to strategic programs, visions or guidelines. They include, however, further means for governance which are not technically identifiable as plans, such as control devices, monitoring and evaluation procedures and various forms of economic incentive, allowing altogether a wide range of opportunities for practices. Moreover, new problems of spatial organization may emerge over time, inducing the exploration of new solutions from spatial planning, and determining a possible breakthrough for the initiation of a new cycle.
    Keywords: Theory of Planning, Planning in Practice, Strategic Planning, Institutionalism
  • Pooyan Shahabian, Sepideh Taban Tarashkar *, Maryam Tavasoli Pages 329-342
    The history of the urban density problem dates back to the ancient cities. In recent decades, the rapid growth and horizontal expansion of the cities of most countries in the world, both developed and developing, has encountered serious problems. Therefore, attention to the concept of space is important in statistical studies. If this factor is ignored in the numerical and statistical information of the research, the results will be error-prone. The whole city is built in space. 3D space is a great way to improve our quality of life. Today, urban density policies in the urban spatial structure are mainly influenced by the financial benefits of floor area ratio and so the spatial dimension is ignored. The analysis of floor area ratio as a determinant and effective factor in urban planning and the recognition of factors that encourage or inhibit it, is a useful way to solve many of the problems caused by floor area ratio in new cities. In most cases, there is a different relationship between the dependent and independent variables because of their dependence on location. Previous research is more limited to providing maps of floor area ratio that is very general and limited to analyzing the linear relationship between independent and dependent variables, while the maps derived from the proposed model of this study are based on considering the spatial aspects of data that is more accurate and more closely related to reality, and therefore is more reliable. Therefore, the need to pay more attention to the understanding and analysis of urban phenomena affected by the space factor in planning urban design is essential. Therefore, it is important to study the factors affecting floor area ratio and how to apply this effect. In studies of the recognition of these relationships, numerical and statistical information was often used. Among the statistical methods, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) is more precise and real to explore the relationship between dependent and independent variables by considering the location. In this field of study, with emphasis on the use of Geographically Weighted Regression software, was presented by Fotheringham, Brunsdon and Charlton of UK University of Science professors. Geographically Weighted Regression method has various uses, including the detection and analysis of variables on a local scale, and has been used in areas such as urban and regional planning, geology, geography, Geometrics and etc. Most studies outside Iran have focused on the relationship between environmental and physical components, and in particular land-use changes, and it can be said that the role of socioeconomic dimensions in this research group is less colorful.So in this research tries to analyze the relationship between socio-economic factors with floor area ratio as dependent variable with GWR and to explain it more precise than classical methods. The methodology of this study is quantitative. After explaining the studied approach (Geographically Weighted Regression), the concept of floor area ratio and the factors that influence it, the amount of Floor Area Ratio with use of GWR’s method in Takhti neighborhood (Zone 12 of Tehran) with some socio-economic variables such as population density, level of education, land prices, area of urban blocks, number of floors and social security in the neighborhood have been predicted. The result of this study can emphasize the efficiency and accuracy of GWR, while representing the difference between the effectiveness of each of the studied independent variables ( such as land prices, population density, the gross ratio of educated and uneducated people, the area of the urban block, Number of floors, Social Security), on floor area ratio in different geographic coordinates. The influence of these factors on floor area ratio with regard to the location is variable and can change; also it leads to a more accurate perception of urban phenomenon which are influenced by location in urban planning and urban design. Finally, suggestions are made:• Prioritizing urban planning activities based on the use of later-dimensional research that has less error, and therefore leads to more accurate analyzes and results.• Provision of floor area ratio criteria in order to promote social security on the eastern edge of Takhti Street according to the resulting map.• Increasing the number of independent variables in order to increase the accuracy and efficiency of the model.• The necessity of economical estimation of the location of proposed projects or land use change in the main axis of Takhti neighborhood in accordance with the output map of geographically weighted regression.
    Keywords: Space, Floor Area Ratio, Geographically Weighted Regression, Social, economic factors, Takhti Neighborhood
  • Seyed Sajad Abdullahpur, Naser Barakpur * Pages 343-359
    Zoning, which is considered as an approach to guide urban development, was brought up in the early twentieth century. Although the rules resulting from zoning have had positive consequences, there have a number of drawbacks such as urban sprawl, urban fabric disposal, inner city travel increase etc. In the meantime, appropriate forms for development and connection between public and private spaces have been disregarded due to consumedly concerning land use. The form-based code is an approach which was presented for solving this issue. The present study is regarded as applied research due to its external purpose, and as descriptive research due to its internal purpose. The transact approach has been applied in order to organize the case study, and data collection has been done through interviews, questionnaires and participatory meetings. According to the research purpose, which is to codify rules for urban development of the case study, namely district two of the city of Babolsar, the district was at first divided into T-zones on the basis of the defined criteria. Then, the Rules and Regulations were developed by analyzing large-scale and small-scale elements of the case study, and also by investigating the application of visioning findings by the rural-to-urban transect approach. Based on the results of the analyses, three zones (T3, T4 and T5) were defined in district two of Babolsar; The Rules and Regulating plan, which is a detailed equivalent to the Illustrative one, has been presented according to these T-zones. The results of the present study indicate the fundamental differences between traditional zoning methods and form-based code, most notably are as follows. Attention to future developments according to requirements; which explains that the emphasis of the form-based code method is to determine the important and influential generalities in the form and shape of the environment by using these rules. Accordingly, suggestions will be made in the form codes of the proposed foundation for future developments and the characteristics of these developments. For example, due to existing features, shortcomings and potential ones, the type of possible development is identified in the upcoming plans (traditional development, business center development, transport-centric development). Zoning mode; which emphasizes on the zoning of the city based on existing and proposed accesses in the zoning of Babolsar city, as discovered in its detailed plan. Accordingly, the city is divided into 3 districts and these areas into 11 neighborhoods. In the proposed zoning of this area, based on the form-based codes, factors such as population density, construction, residential, open space, usage, etc. are considered. In fact, emphasis has been placed on the zoning formation based on the extent and severity of the urban areas, so that the proposed laws and regulations for the zones are more coherent and coordinated and the possibility of realization is provided. Preparing the terms; which include the common zoning rules that are in fact the output of comprehensive and detailed plan, while the rules for zoning the form of its foundation in the form of a project are sat and developed. It defines the criteria according to the cognition performed in the three phases of the region. In this plan, there is no need to take a long time such as what happens in preparing a comprehensive plan, and detailed plan. The average time for the process of preparing, approving and communicating both comprehensive and detailed plans of the city was about 4 years, because studies of both plans are based on the status quo, and normally the presentation of a project with more than one year of existence is inadequate. Group participation; which includes attention to participation in the formulation of rules and regulations in form-based codes. While in the standard terms and conditions emphasizing that the writing of the rules and regulations should only be done by the experts, the use of stakeholders and stakeholders is reduced. Coordination with future plans, that explains that in fact, the foundation codes are guides for future development in the form of projects and plans. Utilizing and emphasizing the prospect sector in formulating the terms and conditions of form-based codes act as a guide to future development within the scope. The perspective of this approach will determine the general framework and future development framework, and next projects and plans will be based on the participation of different groups in the vision of the region. Differences in development control practices; which controls building regulations from the height of the building, the occupancy level of the building, along with the density of residential units per unit area. Whereas, in conventional zoning, emphasis is more on occupancy and construction density. Flexibility; which ultimately explains that increased flexibility in terms and conditions considering the prediction of zoning flotation rules for some buildings that these terms are less relevant in conventional zoning.
    Keywords: Zoning, Form-based Codes, Rural-to-Urban Transect, District Two of Babolsar
  • Abolfazl Karbalaei Hossini Ghiyasvand *, Jamaleddin Soheili Pages 361-373
    Urban space is an objective, derived from the integration of social relations, in the physical context, in a semantic setting and in the direction of the collective human needs. In fact, the urban space is created not for being looked at, but for being there, which brings us to its depths and creates an experience in which all the people moving there can share. Cultural activities, due to the presence of informal spaces and programs, together with other functions, provide a good basis for establishing social interactions. As a result, paying attention to the social dimension of space in the design of cultural buildings and finding a link between spatial qualities and social concepts, including sociability, is very important in the success of these spaces. Sociability is one of the concepts used in the field of environmental psychology, which is referred to spaces that are multipurpose and provide many of the daily and user-friendly activities. The aim of this paper is to investigate the spatial arrangement and spatial relationships existing in contemporary cultural complexes of the country and its relationship with quality and social concepts such as sociability in these complexes. In this paper, the research method was combined in a case study analysis. Thus descriptive-analytic methods and logical reasoning and ultimately correlation were used. Also, on descriptions of these stages and processes of research, observing instruments, library and documentary studies and simulation in descriptive samples (Dezful and Niavaran Cultural Center) were used. In the process of simulation, the space syntax software is used to examine the indices such as communication, interconnection, and depth, in order to achieve a comprehensive and accurate analysis. Using the results of the spaces graphs and studying the parameters of interconnection, communication and depth, as well as recording the observations and analyzing the components of the community in the focal points of the case studies, the factors influencing the success of these spaces in the formation of social interactions were extracted. The results of research indicate that proper arrangement of space in cultural complexes can affect the sociability of these spaces. Studies have shown that the sociability of cultural spaces is related to the appropriate spatial arrangement and related activities. In fact, the quality and quantity of sociability increases with the coordination and compatibility between the space framework and the user’s behaviors. Analysis of the findings revealed that:Integrations Indicator: Observations have shown that sociability in these spaces is cross-sectional and occurs at a specific time. In fact, if we want to divide the space into two active and semi-active regions, the courtyard is located in the active space and Theaters and galleries are located in semi-active spaces. Of the other spaces that are more interconnected than other spaces, is ground floor corridor of Dezful Cultural Center, which is considered as a sociable spaces due to its communicative role between the library, markets and restaurant. One of the physical factors of sociability enhancement in these courtyards is the presence of natural elements in the environment, the symbolically movement of water inside the building in Niavaran Cultural Center and using water pond and vegetation and fixed sculptures in Niavaran Cultural Center, improve the quality of physical space for the formation of social interactions. Connectivity Indicator: Communication is defined as the number of points that a point is directly related to. According to this definition, the courtyards in these two complexes have a higher numerical indicator than the rest of the spaces due to the centrality and division role they have, which this centrality cause the interaction of users and the creation of social interactions and, consequently, sociability in these spaces. Most of the other spaces in these two complexes have a roughly equal association indicators. The lowest communication indicator is related to Art workshops in Dezful Cultural Center, which seems it is due to the creation of a more private space than other spaces for conducting educational classes.Depth indicator: The yard as the main element of these complexes is placed after the entry at the next depth level and has the lowest depth. This leads to a greater involvement of this space with the surrounding urban environment and provides the basis for community-based connectivity between the urban space and the complexes. On the other hand, the serving and welfare areas and recreational and other functions are immediately followed up to the depth of space. These spaces, along with the main functions and activities of the space, are added to the variety of activities in the complex and increase the attendance of different people, and this affects the space sociability in the case of being properly controlled.
    Keywords: Cultural Spaces, Social Reunion, Space Syntax, Deep Space, Integration Space
  • Kourosh Momeni *, Koorosh Attarian, Mohammad Didehban, Negin Haj Mosa Brojerdi, Behzad Vasigh Pages 375-390
    The importance of urbanization in the Sassanid period is enormous, and urbanization has been very important in this period. Unfortunately, archeological research on the architecture and urbanization of this period is still in its preliminary level, and despite the archeological activities that took place in Iran, historical sources are the most important documents used in the recognition of the Sassaniad architecture and urbanization. In the few studies that have been done, a number of cities in this period have been neglected. The research methodology in this study is comparative in which case studies are evaluated in Sassanid context and urbanization style. Initially, using library studies such as the study of books and articles, the history of architecture and urbanization of Jundishapur and other cities of that period were collected. Then, using maps and aerial surveys, the urban patterns of the samples are examined and analyzed based on the Sassanid urbanism. In researches carried out in the city of Jondishapur, the history of the city of Jondishapur and the study of the university and its hospital have been addressed. The Sassanid city, like the Persian city of the Achaemenid state, is based on religious beliefs influenced by a worldview. The city usually ends in a fence wall that has four gates, which itself reminiscent of the direction of the four elements of the ancient world conception. This part of the city was later called Sharistan. Eastern sources, consider about the conquest of the city of Antakiyeh by the Iranian kingdoms. But only two Shahs, Shapur I and Khosrow I, after the conquest of this city in case of the fascination and characteristics of that city, would have created a city pattern near their capital. The city of Jondishapur is one of the most important centers of the reign of the Sassanid dynasty and there are many valid documents to prove this. The problem in some references is to investigate the possibility of existence of this city before the Sassanid period. One of the most important issues in the city’s location is paying attention to factors such as abundant water, fertile soil, suitable climate, and lack of flood and seismicity. On the other hand, the issue of adjacency of this area to the cities of Elamite is also noticeable. In historical studies, Jundi shapur city describes with Seven Streets (Eastern East) and eleven Crossed Streets (Northern South). The width of the longitudinal streets was wider and was about 10 to 12 meters long. All of the city’s pavements were paved or brick floored. The city has various districts and each section has public facilities. The whole city has a sanitary water system from the Dez River. Gundi Shapur urban sewage had developed and was unique in its kind.Urbanism and its main structure have undergone many changes during each period with regard to the climatic, social and economic conditions. As mentioned in the article, the governing structure of urban planning in traditional Iranian cities can be divided into eight general categories. These structures not only relate to the conditions of the construction site, but also to a large extent of other factors; even those with other countries, have been very influential in shaping them. The Sassanid style of urbanization was initially along the Parthians’ urbanization. But a new style emerged and called the Roman hypodamus style (fifth century architecture). This is called “grid” style. Looking at same aged cities similar to the ancient cities of Jondishapur (cities of Ivan Karkheh, Neyshabur, Bishapur and the city of Antioch) and the study of urbanization and urban structure, it is concluded that during this time period (The kingdom of Shapur I and Shapur II) the “Hypodomous” chess shaped urbanization method has been used. The grid shaped city form considerd for the two quite the opposite targets: One is to ensure central control and expression of legendary perfection, and the other to realize a society in which individuals equal rights. Jundishapur City is a compilation of the architecture of ancient civilizations. This is a special style that has been implemented since the 5th century BC in the cities of Rome and Greece and it is the rectangle form of urban planning with wide and direct streets, regular crossroads and parallel alleys, which also have one and sometimes two or three floors buildings across. At last, it can be said that the form and structure of city is a clear aspect of Sassanid urban planning which had political, social and economic consequences in the community. Studying city development and using the thoughts and decisions of people living in cities are important issues. It can help the authors to recognize other cities of this period, especially those cities with little archaeological evidence.
    Keywords: Jundi Shapur, Sassanid Urban Planning, University of Jundi Shapour, Shaar Sassanid, Hypodamus Urban Planning