فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/01/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • M. Taati, Gh.A. Ghanbarian*, R. Safaeian, S.F. Afzali Pages 69-77
    Aims
    In the present work, carbon sequestration in different organs of 3 dominant of (A. , H. , and S. ) soil carbon sequestration of the corresponding habitats were examined.
    Materials and Methods
    The aboveground and belowground organs of 3 species were randomly sampled and oven dried. Three soil samples were taken from 0-0.15 and 0.15-0.3 m soil depths (SD). From these, soil organic carbon (SOC), soil texture (sand, silt, and clay), bulk density (BD), moisture content (MC), electrical conductivity (EC), and soil acidity (pH) were measured.
    Findings
    All of the tested had more carbon sequestration in the aboveground rather than organs. The highest value of carbon sequestration was observed in S. , which was about 18% and 90% more than the reported values of H. A. , respectively. Soil with S. greater content of organic carbon (1.5%) compared with H. 0.64%) and A. 0.63%), respectively. The results confirmed that soil top layer (0-0.15m) of patch area had more capability to sequester carbon (1.81%) in S. with the other species.
    Conclusion
    All the tested plants had higher carbon sequestration in the aboveground organs compared with the parts. The leaves had presented the lowest value compared with shoots and roots. The soil organic carbon of the species habitat varied from 0.63 (A. ) 1.5% (H. ). Moreover, with increasing the soil depth, carbon sequestration of the underlying soil layers decreased.
    Keywords: Saltland, Halophyte plants, Carbon sequestration, Soil organic carbon, Halocnemum strobilaceum, Seidlitzia rosmarinus, Aeluropus littoralis
  • F. Sepahvand, K. Abrari Vajari*, J. Soosani Pages 79-85
    Aims
    Roots of diverse diameters and various physiological and physical roles compose the root systems of forest trees and its distribution influence the quantities and distributions of plant obtainable water and nutrient.
    Materials and Methods
    Fine roots of Acer trees (n=40) were sampled randomly at soil depths of 0-15 and 15-30 cm in and positions under of trees. The fine roots were washed (d≤ 2 mm) and dried at 70°C and weighed. Furthermore, diameter at breast height (cm), total height (m), crown (m) for target trees and slope, altitude, and exposition of each sample point were measured in research site.
    Findings
    The results showed that soil depth has been influenced on fine root biomass; so, the highest amount was observed in depth of 15-30 cm rather than 0-15cm. The difference between elevations was not significant with regard to fine root biomass. The value of biomass in west aspect was greater than east one. The slope had no effect on the fine root biomass of trees in the site, as well Pearson correlation coefficient indicated that with of trees, fine root biomass was increased. There was a positive correlation (p<0.05) between the biomass of fine roots and BD (-3), sand (%) and a negative, but statistically insignificant correlation with P (p<0.05).
    Conclusion
    We found that depth of , exposition, crown of trees, as well as bulk density and sand (%) appeared to be a contributing fine root biomass values in Acer trees.
    Keywords: Montpellier maple, Soil, Tree root
  • S. Javan, A. Gholamalizadeh Ahangar*, A.H. Hassani, J. Soltani Pages 87-95
    Aims
    Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are powerful tools that are commonly used today in prediction deposit-related sciences. The research aimed at predicting various five links of heavy metals using the properties of deposit.
    Materials and Methods
    180 samples of surface sediments were taken from the Chahnimeh reservoir and they were transferred to under standard conditions. Total Zinc concentration, deposit properties and Zinc five bonds with deposit were measured. Efficiency of the ANN and Perceptron (MLP) model to estimate the Zn following the measurement of parameters in the laboratory.
    Findings
    Five links were predicted with the aid of ANNs and MLP model. Deposit properties and total concentrations of heavy metals were considered as input and each of bonds were considered as output.
    Conclusion
    Ultimately, the ANN showed good performance in the predicting the determination of coefficients or R2 0.98 to 1) and root mean square error or RMSE (0.7 to 0.01).
    Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Heavy Metals, Sediment Pollution, Chahnimeh
  • H. Tavakoli Neko*, A. Shirvani, M.H. Assareh, M.R. Morshedloo Pages 97-103
    Aims
    Euphrates poplar (Populus euphratica Oliv.) a woody species, which is naturally distributed in desert areas of some parts Asia and Africa. This research was conducted to evaluate the physiological response to salinity stress in 12 in Iran.
    Materials and Methods
    This study was conducted to evaluate the physiological response to different levels of salinity (75, 150, 225, and 300 NaCl) control and to assess the response physiologic traits such as RWC, EL, MDA, Proline, GB, TSS, plant pigments, SOD, CAT, and GPX.
    Findings
    The analysis of variance showed that there was a significant difference between treatments all traits. Comparing of that Hamidieh was the highest group and Mahneshan and were in the lowest group. Comparing of treatments showed that 75 was the highest group in terms of performance. The 75 was the highest group in terms of SOD in contrast, 300 and control were in the lowest group.
    Conclusion
    The result represents that Populus euphratica is a moderate , which could be suggested to reclamation of saline lands with high water table. This uses multiple mechanisms to overcome salinity stress and there is not a clear path to overcome salinity in this species. Cluster analysis divided the examined into five groups based on total traits. The grouping was not based on geographical distance, rather it was based on the conditions of the original habitat especially soil salinity.
    Keywords: Antioxidant enzyme, Populus euphratica, Resistance mechanism
  • E. Motaharfard, A. Mahdavi*, Y. Iranmanesh, A.A. Jafarzadeh Pages 105-114
    Aims
    Different types of land use have different effects on carbon stored in their pools and Co2 . We compared carbon storage in different pools (tree, litter, and soil) across main land uses Mishkhas watershed in the of Ilam province, Iran.
    Materials and Methods
    Oak forest (Quercus brantii Lindl.; Lu-F) and orchard (Juglans regia L; Lu-O) in 4 different ages were determined for estimation of carbon stocks in tree biomass, the litter, and 20 cm depth of soils in two land uses.
    Findings
    The results showed that total carbon stocks in Lu-O ecosystem (68.75 Mg ha-1) than Lu-F (41.22 Mg ha-1). In general, soil at the two land uses was as estimated about 91% and (37.61 Mg ha-1) 82% (57.01Mg ha-1) total carbon stocks in Lu-F and Lu-O, respectively. The above ground biomass of trees was as and contained a lower contribution of total carbon stocks (roughly 6% and 15% in forest and orchard ecosystems). The least carbon , about 2% of the total carbon stocks in Lu-F and Lu-O occurred in litter due to the grazing intensity.
    Conclusion
    As a conclusion, our findings confirm that land use type can significantly effect on carbon stocks in different pools. Therefore, management strategies are needed to enhance the forest carbon sequestration in Mishkhas watershed of Ilam province.
    Keywords: Tree biomass, Litter carbon, Soil organic carbon stock, Oak forests, Juglans regia
  • M. Kianisadr*, K. Melhosseini Darani, H. Golkarian Pages 115-123
    Aims
    Zoning is applied to achieve a scientific and appropriate management based on criteria to make possible the proper use of the resources.
    Materials and Methods
    Zoning of the areas in order to study potential, as an approach based on multi-criteria evaluation (MCE), prevents personalized high-handed management and leads to identify appropriate recreational spots according to their natural capacities. area, located in Lorestan province, has been recognized as a protected area since 1966. This study has introduced a quantitative, weighted, and native model and Delphi method this area by using Delphi questionnaire and hierarchical analysis in order to determine its potential. The layers of gradient, direction, land type, water, fault, residential areas, land coverage, and were by applying the weights resulted from AHP.
    Findings
    The final output is a map, in which zero has the lowest value and 5 is considered the highest value (0-100% efficiency). Only 2 hectares of this area gained a score of 5, and there was not any zero point in the region. The largest area has the score of 2 (40% efficiency), which includes more than 55% of the total area.
    Conclusion
    We are succeeded to determine the potential of Oshtorankouh, using the AHP, Delphi method, and weighting by GIS software. Combining different methods and quantifying effective criteria by using different maps the impact of personal opinions on management decisions and provide appropriate results in accordance the potential of the area.
    Keywords: Prioritization, Multi-criteria Evaluation, Geographical Information System, Oshtorankouh
  • H. Yousefi*, A. Mohammadi, Y. Noorollahi Pages 125-132
    Aims
    In the new sight of the world, water is considered a good. Hence, commodity exchanges are important matters among nations. In this regard, local and international trade of virtual water as agricultural crops is an important subject in water resources management. Instruments and
    Methods
    In this study, the virtual water of two main exported products (watermelon and melon) in Iran during 2003-2013. Some indicators, which are used in the water resources management, such as water use intensity and water dependency, were analyzed.
    Findings
    By present assessment, during this period, 218.07 MCM of water in the form of virtual water was transferred from the country to outside. By efficiency calculation, it was obtained that irrigated watermelon production had the highest efficiency.
    Conclusion
    The results showed that producing these products in Iran was completely hinged on the internal water resources. Additionally, in watermelon is evaluated 12 times more than melon and these results warn us to have a more precise plan for the allocation of the lands for different kind of agricultural activities.
    Keywords: Virtual water trade, Watermelon virtual water, Water use efficiency, Water scarcity