فهرست مطالب

Environmental Health Engineering and Management Journal - Volume:6 Issue:1, 2019
  • Volume:6 Issue:1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/01/26
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Desmond Eseoghene Ighravwe*, Damilola Elizabeth Babatunde Pages 1-10
    Background
    Landfill activities have environmental and economic values to a community. While the former deals with the control of landfill gas (LFG) emission into the atmosphere, the latter deals with the conversion of LFG to clean energy and subsequently, wealth creation. To fully harness these benefits, LFG plants must be well sited in a community, and this can be achieved when proper techno-economic analysis has been carried out. This will not only justify the LFG plants investment cost, but it will also guarantee their sustainability.
    Methods
    This study presented a framework that ranks and selects LFG project for a community. First, numerical expressions were used to evaluate the techno-economic and environmental requirements of the project sites, then, the importance of these requirements was determined using Criteria Importance Through Inter-criteria Correlation (CRITIC) method. The sites were ranked using grey relational analysis (GRA) and Weighted Aggregated Sum-Product Assessment (WASPAS) method. An illustrative example of the proposed framework was presented using real-world dataset from different communities in Nigeria. Finally, four LFG project sites were ranked using four environmental criteria, five technical criteria, and eight economic criteria.
    Results
    The results of WASPAS were verified by comparing them with the results of Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and axiomatic design (AD) methods. It was observed that the results of both methods were the same for the different LFG sites.
    Conclusion
    According to the results, it is obvious that this study will be useful to policy-makers and investors in LFG business, while the former could seek for plants’ sustainability, the latter interest will be on the payback period of their investment.
    Keywords: Nigeria, Waste disposal facilities, Atmospheres, Environment, Investments
  • Amir Hossein Baghaie*, Mohammad Fereydoni Pages 11-16
    Background
    Vegetables are one of the most important components of daily food. Thus, this research was done to evaluate the potential risk of heavy metals on human health due to the consumption of vegetables distributed in the fruits and vegetables central market of Arak, Iran.
    Methods
    In this study, a total 45 samples from edible parts of parsley, mint, chard, fenugreek, cress, basil, coriander, lettuce, and cabbage distributed in the fruits and vegetables central market of Arak were randomly collected and the concentration of heavy metals including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) in these crop plants was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The non-carcinogenic risk of heavy metals intake through the consumption of the studied vegetables was evaluated for male and female using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) method.
    Results
    The highest and lowest Pb daily intake and Pb risk index was related to the consumption of cabbage and basil, respectively. And the highest daily intake of Cd and As was related to lettuce consumption, while the lowest daily intake of these metals was related to the consumption of coriander. Among the studied heavy metals, As had the highest hazard quotient (HQ) for non-carcinogenic diseases. The highest HQ belonged to As through lettuce consumption and the lowest one belonged to As through coriander consumption (58 g/day). The HQ for female was higher than that for male.
    Conclusion
    According to the results, the total hazard quotient (THQ) of non-carcinogenic diseases from the total studied vegetables was above the standard level. On the other hand, the HQ for female was higher than that for male.
    Keywords: Human, Vegetables, Risk Factor, Arsenic, Lead
  • Javad Kharkan, Mohammad Hossein Sayadi*, Mohammad Reza Rezaei Pages 17-25
    Background
    Human activities related to workshops in the cities contribute to the release of heavy metals into the environment, which pose serious risks to the environment and to human health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concentration of lead (Pb), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn) in the pine trees and soil in various land uses of Birjand city, Iran.
    Methods
    The sampling stations were randomly selected from different land uses including parks, streets, carwashes, car repair shops, and car smooth shops in Birjand city. The pine trees (skin and leaves) and soil samples were collected from 15 stations located at different and uses in 2017. To determine the concentration of heavy metals, atomic absorption spectrometer (Contr AA 700) was used.
    Results
    It was revealed that the mean concentration of Pb, Fe and Mn in residential soil was 1.79, 419.39, and 30.76 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, the Pb, Fe, and Mn concentration in pine skin and leaves was 0.63 – 0.18, 23.05–9.84, and 10.05–3.13 mg/kg, respectively. The geo-accumulation index (Igeo) mean of the study areas demonstrated a descending trend for Fe (16.31 mg/kg)
    Conclusion
    According to the results, the soils of car repair and smooth shops as well as carwashes in Birjand are becoming polluted by Pb, Fe, and Mn. Although, it does not threaten the city ecosystem, but with passage of time, these measures will be accumulated due to the soil alkalinity and will reach critical levels.
    Keywords: Lead, Iron, Manganese, Soil, Cities
  • Amirreza Talaiekhozani*, Farhad Banisharif, Maryam Bazrafshan, Zeinab Eskandari, Abbas Heydari Chaleshtari, Ghasem Moghadam, Ali Mohammad Amani Pages 27-39
    Background
    Wastewater contaminated with dyes such as Reactive Blue 203 can produce a lot of health problems if it is released into the environment without a suitable treatment. Although there are several studies on dye removal from wastewater, removal of Reactive Blue 203 has not been investigated by hybrid methods. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the removal of Reactive Blue 203 from aqueous solution, using combined processes of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, Fe(VI) oxidation process, and UV radiation.
    Methods
    The removal of dye from aqueous solution using ZnO nanoparticles, Fe(VI) oxidation process, and UV radiation was individually evaluated. Then, the results of combined methods were compared. Hydraulic retention time (HRT), pH, and temperature were the most important factors which were investigated in this study.
    Results
    ZnO nanoparticles, Fe(VI) oxidation process, and UV radiation were able to remove 97%, 71%, and 47% of the dye in the optimal conditions, respectively. Also, the removal of dye using combination of Fe(VI) oxidation process/UV radiation, ZnO nanoparticles/Fe(VI) oxidation process, and ZnO nanoparticles/UV radiation under optimum conditions was 100%. It seems that the combined methods were significantly more effective than the methods alone for removal of dye from water.
    Conclusion
    UV radiation alone is a simple and efficient method for removal of Reactive Blue 203 from water. Removal of Reactive Blue 203 using Fe(VI) oxidation process can be completed in a fraction of second, therefore, it can be categorized as a rapid reaction.
    Keywords: Wastewater, Ultraviolet rays, Zinc oxide, Adsorption
  • Alireza Nasiri, Fatemeh Tamaddon*, Mohammad Hossein Mosslemin, Majid Amiri Gharaghani, Ali Asadipour Pages 41-51
    Background
    Antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin (CIP) are even more important in bacterial resistance, even at low concentrations. The aim of this research was to synthesize CuFe2O4@methylcellulose (MC) as a new nano-photocatalyst for degradation of CIP from aqueous solution.
    Methods
    The nano-photocatalyst (CuFe2O4@MC) was characterized by FESEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Powder XRD and EDS analysis confirmed the formation of pure-phase spinel ferrites. After CuFe2O4@MC characterization, the effective parameters in removal efficiency of CIP such as reaction time, initial antibiotic concentration, pH, photocatalyst loading, and degradation kinetic were investigated and conditions were optimized. Then, CIP degradation experiments were conducted on the real sample in the optimal conditions. The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was determined under optimum conditions.
    Results
    The structural characterization of the magnetic nanobiocomposite showed that it is in nanoscale, ferromagnetic property, and thermal stability. The optimal conditions were obtained at pH = 7, irradiation time (90 minutes), photocatalyst loading (0.2 g), and initial concentration of CIP (3 mg/L). The removal efficiency of CIP in the optimal conditions was obtained as 80.74% and 72.87% from the synthetic and real samples, respectively. The removal of COD was obtained as 68.26% in this process. The evaluation of kinetic linear models showed that the photocatalytic degradation process was fitted by pseudo-first order kinetic model and Langmuir-Hinshelwood. CuFe2O4@MC photocatalyst had a good stability and reusability for the fourth runs.
    Conclusion
    The photocatalytic degradation of CIP from aqueous media with CuFe2O4@MC photocatalyst has a high efficiency, which can be used in the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewaters.
    Keywords: Spinel, Ciprofloxacin, Methylcellulose, Wastewater
  • Bahman Masoomi, Neamatollah Jaafarzadeh*, Tayebeh Tabatabaie, Esmaeil Kouhgardi, Sahand Jorfi Pages 53-61
    Background
    Ozone can be used as a single technology or in combination with other processes to improve the coagulation- flocculation or biodegradability in order to remove pollutants in natural water treatment.
    Methods
    In this study, the effects of pre-ozonation with coagulant substances on the quality parameters of drinking water were investigated using humic acid, kaolin, clay, and green algae in a pilot scale. This study was conducted under laboratory conditions (at both acidic and alkaline pH in different dosages of ozone and coagulant at ozone contact time with simulated water sample (5-20 minutes) in different scenarios).
    Results
    The highest removal efficiency of parameters in the state of pre-ozonation alone and preozonation with a coagulant was observed at contact time of 20 minutes, ozone dosage of 5 g/h, coagulant dosage of 25 mg/L, at alkaline pH along with a decrease in temperature. So that, the average removal rate of turbidity, total organic carbon (TOC), color, and chlorophyll a in contact time of 20 minutes was 76.9%, 52.8%, 66.6%, and 85%, respectively. However, compared to ozonation under similar conditions, the reduction in turbidity, TOC, color, and chlorophyll a was 36.13%, 24.4%, 32.13%, and 79.6%, respectively. Also, it was revealed that pre-ozonation with coagulant could effectively improve the removal of parameters.
    Conclusion
    However, since pre-ozonation can be effectively used to improve the coagulation efficacy in the drinking water treatment, the pre-ozonation combined with coagulation is proposed as an alternative to conventional coagulation to improve the process of drinking water treatment plant.
    Keywords: Pilot projects, Drinking water, Water quality, Ozone, Flocculation, Kaolin, Clay, Green algae
  • Sareh Rajabi Agereh*, Farshad Kiani, Kazem Khavazi, Hassan Rouhipour, Farhad Khormali Pages 63-71
    Background
    Dust storms occur when unchecked, strong, or turbulent winds combine with exposed loose and dried soil surfaces. Sand and dust storms have a significant impact on society, economy, and environment at local, regional, and global levels. The environmental and health hazards of such storms cannot be permanently reduced, however, by taking appropriate measures, its impact can be reduced. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of microbial precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as a biocompatible agent on soil stabilization and control of dust storms using urease-producing bacteria (UPB) as a biological improvement technique, which were isolated, identified, sprayed on the soil surface.
    Methods
    For this purpose, the erosion of bio-cemented soil samples was investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel under the condition of wind velocity of 0 to 98 km.h-1 in two soil types with sandy and silty texture in a completely randomized design with three replicates.
    Results
    The investigation of the threshold wind velocity of soil particles showed that soil particles began to move at velocity of 8 and 10 km.h-1 in silty and sandy soils, respectively, but in all biological samples (MICP), particles did not move until the wind speed reached 97 km.h-1. It was also revealed that the weight loss of all MICP-treated samples at different wind velocities was significantly reduced compared to the control group. Differences in the amount of soil loss among bio-cemented samples and control treatments were even superior at higher velocities, so that at velocities more than 57 km.h-1, soil losses increased significantly in the control group, while in soils treated with bacteria, soil loss was very low (about 2.5 kg.m-2.h-1). Comparison of the bacteria used in this study also showed that Bacillus infantis and Paenibacillus sp3 had high efficiency in controlling dust storms.
    Conclusion
    The formation of abrasion-resistant surface layers on soil samples treated by bio-cementation showed that cementation by biological methods could be an effective way to stabilize surface particles and control sand and dust storms.
    Keywords: Urease, Dust storms, Bio cement, Soil loss flux
  • Asli Baysal*, Hasan Saygin, Gul Sirin Ustabasi Pages 73-80
    Background
    The enormous properties of metal oxide nanoparticles make it possible to use these nanoparticles in a wide range of products. As their usage and application continue to expand, environmental health concerns have been raised. In order to understand the behavior and effect of metal oxide nanoparticles in the environment, comprehensive and comparable physicochemical and toxicological data on the environmental matrix are required. However, the behavior and effect of nanoparticles in the real environmental matrix, e.g. sea water, are still unknown.
    Methods
    In this study, the effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on the bacteria (gram positive-Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus/gram-negative Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in sea water were investigated. Furthermore, to better understand the behavior of the toxicity, surface chemistry, sedimentation, dissolution, particle size, and zeta potential of the nanoparticles dispersed in the sea water matrices were investigated using Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), ultraviolet–visible (UV-VIS) spectrophotometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS), respectively.
    Results
    The environmental matrix had a significant influence on physicochemical behavior of the tested nanoparticles. Besides, the inhibition of tested bacteria was observed against ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles in the presence of sea water, while there was no inhibition in the controlled condition.
    Conclusion
    The results demonstrate that surface chemistry with exposure to the sea water can have a significant role on the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles and their toxicity.
    Keywords: Nanoparticle toxicity, Titanium dioxide, Zinc oxide, Sea water, Physicochemical properties, Matrix effect