فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 61 (بهار 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/01/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • مازیار کنعانی، هومان اسعدی* صفحات 5-14
    فقدان نظام منسجم، مدون و معین ریتمیک-متریک برای ساز تمبک در همنوازی با سازهای ملودیک موسیقی کلاسیک حال حاضر ایران، موجب سردرگمی نوازندگان، آشفتگی اجراها و عدم دستیابی به نتایج دلخواه در همنوازی ها وغیره می شود. مانند شاخه های دیگر علوم می توان از تجارب موفق که به هر شکل پدید آمده است به نتایجی برای رفع این مشکلات دست پیدا کرد. هدف کلی این مقاله ایجاد منبعی برای کمک به تدوین روش های علمی تر اجرا و آهنگسازی برای تمبک، توسط نوازندگان این ساز و آهنگسازان است. شیوه ی تحقیق در مقاله ی حاضر، توصیفی و تحلیلی می باشد. اطلاعات و داده های اولیه ی پژوهش از طریق آوانگاری و شنود آثار صوتی موجود، توسط نگارنده به دست آمده است. جامعه ی آماری در این تحقیق تمامی آثار صوتی از همنوازی ها- شامل سازهای ملودیک و تمبک در موسیقی کلاسیک ایران می باشد. نمونه گیری به صورت غیرتصادفی و انتخابی است. داده های تولیدشده ی مقاله شامل زمان و شکل ورود تمبک در ابتدای قطعه، میزان نماها، فیگورهای ریتمیک اجرایی تمبک و سایر سازها، تکنیک های مورد استفاده ی تمبک، اساس بداهه یا غیربداهه بودن،کمی و کیفی بودن ریتم اجرایی سازها، حضور و نقش تقسمات استقراضی، نسبت خط ریتم تمبک با ملودی، بخش پایانی و تمپو می باشد. نگارنده پس از بررسی موارد فوق و یافتن نتایجی کلی، با نگاهی بر تمام یافته ها، نتایج دقیق تر و جامع تری را نیز ارائه کرده است.
    کلیدواژگان: تمبک، همنوازی، موسیقی کلاسیک ایران، ساز کوبه ای، ریتم
  • محمدباقر قهرمانی*، میترا علوی طلب، بهروز محمودی بختیاری، نغمه ثمینی صفحات 15-24
    چکیده نمایشنامه مرگ یزدگرد شامل نظام های گفتمانی است که در تحلیل های اولیه قابل شناسایی نیستند. اما با تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی می توان به سویه های اجتماعی و ایدئولوژیکی از متن دست یافت که در روش های دیگر قابل دریافت نیستند. در مقاله حاضر سعی بر این است که با تحلیل نمایشنامه در ساحت تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی، سویه ها و گفتمان های متعارض و متضاد حاضر در آن بررسی شوند. در مقاله حاضر تلاش نویسندگان بر این بوده است که با روش نورمن فرکلاف در تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی، نظم گفتمانی یا ترکیب بندی گفتمان های مختلف با قلمرو مشترک در این نمایشنامه را تحلیل کنند. این روش که بنیان تئوریک خود را با نظریه فوکو آغاز می کند مبتنی بر اصل رابطه مستقیم بین ایدئولوژی و قدرت با زبان است. اما نورمن فرکلاف توانست با بسط نظریه میشل فوکو صورت بندی رابطه علمی و عملی بین زبان و مناسبات قدرت و ایدئولوژی را ممکن سازد. حاصل آن که وجود دو گفتمان متعارض باستان گرایی و ضد باستان گرایی و نیز گفتمان های اصالت روایت تاریخی و گفتمان نقض روایت تاریخی که در فرم و محتوای نمایشنامه وجود دارد، نظم گفتمانی این نمایشنامه را تشکیل می دهد که با دیدگاه تحلیلی فوق به موضوع اصلی تغییر نظام سیاسی هم در نمایشنامه و هم در زمان نگارش متن اشاره دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی، فرکلاف، نظم گفتمانی، نمایشنامه مرگ یزدگرد
  • ایلناز رهبر* صفحات 25-36
    آیکونوگرافی موسیقی حوزه ای نسبتا نوپا در پژوهش های موسیقی جهان و همچنین ایران محسوب می شود. در ارتباط با هنر غربی و بررسی تصاویر موسیقایی، مشکلات چندانی وجود ندارد اگرچه در آن حوزه نیز می بایستی روش های مربوطه کاملا رعایت شود. اما در ارتباط با هنر نقاشی ایران و بررسی موسیقی در میان تصاویر به دلیل عدم واقع گرایی انسان شرقی، مشکلات بیشتری متوجه این حوزه پژوهشی است. عدم وجود راهکار و روش های صحیح و همچنین خطاهای موجود در پژوهش هایی با این موضوع، نگارنده را واداشت تا راهکارهای مطالعاتی ای برای این حوزه پیشنهاد کند تا برای سایر پژوهشگران راهگشا باشد و از خطاهای احتمالی در تفسیر جلوگیری شود. بنابراین هدف از نگارش این مقاله پس از بررسی نقد تصویر، پیشنهاد راهکار و روشی بهتر برای استفاده از تفسیرهای موسیقایی از تصاویر و نقاشی های ایرانی است. از آنجا که این مقاله در درجه اول به هدف کمک به پژوهشگران موسیقی نوشته شده، کوشش شده است تا نکات اصلی ای که برای تفسیر موسیقایی در ارتباط با نقاشی های ایرانی وجود دارد، بیان شود. بعد از اشاره به نکات اصلی در این حوزه، در انتها 18 مرحله به عنوان مراحل پیشنهادی برای پژوهشگران ارایه شده است. روش تحقیق در پژوهش حاضر از نظر هدف کاربردی و از نظر ماهیت و روش توصیفی-تحلیلی، تاریخی و تطبیقی است.
    کلیدواژگان: آیکونوگرافی، موسیقی، آیکونوگرافی موسیقی، موسیقی در تصاویر، تاریخ موسیقی ایران
  • محمدرضا حسنایی*، نوید مسعودنیا صفحات 37-48
    شخصیت های مسکات در طی چند دهه اخیر توانسته اند حضور خود را در عرصه تبلیغات تلویزیونی محصولات تجاری به معرض نمایش بگذارند. نقش مسکات در شناخت محصولات تجاری، سبب ارتباط آنان با مقوله برندسازی شد. از آنجا که بخش قابل توجهی از محصولات تجاری را، تولیدات خوراکی تشکیل می دهند، این پژوهش برآنست تا اثرگذاری شخصیت مسکات در انیمیشن های تبلیغاتی محصولات غذایی با هدف بازنمود هویت برند این محصولات را به عنوان مسئله اصلی خود مورد مداقه قرار دهد. در همین راستا، نویسندگان، با تکیه بر آرای محققینی چون، پیاژه، ولز، اولینز، گارستون، ندریچ و... به دنبال تشریح مسائل ذیل می باشند: • تعیین شاخصه های مسکات موثر بر ارتباط بین مصرف کننده و محصولات غذایی. • ارتباط بین مسکات با «اعتماد و باور به محصول تجاری». • مسکات بعنوان رویکردی نوین در تبلیغات (انیمیشنی) جهت ماندگاری محصولات تجاری در اذهان. بر اساس یافته های مقاله ، بواسطه کاراکتر مسکات، اعتماد لازم بین مصرف کننده و محصولات غذایی رقم می خورد. مسکات ها، قادرند بستر مناسبی را جهت اشاعه ی محصولات غذایی ایجاد نمایند. همچنین حضور کاراکترهای مسکات در تبلیغات بر شاخصه های روانشناسی مخاطب تاثیر بسزایی می گذارد. روش تحقیق در این پژوهش توصیفی- تحلیلی و روش جمع آوری اطلاعات کتابخانه ای است. همچنین از نمونه های شاخص مسکات برای بازیابی ویژگی های نامبرده استفاده شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: شخصیت مسکات، انیمیشن تجاری، مواد غذایی، برند
  • سید حسین میثمی* صفحات 49-58
    موضوع این مقاله بررسی نمونه شدهای سه گانه ی مطرح شده در آثار عبدالقادر مراغی و فرزندش عبدالعزیر است. شد معانی مختلفی داشته که در آثار شخصیت های مذکور به معنای کوک سازهای زهی از جمله عود بوده است. این کوک ها برآیند نغمات اصلی تعدادی از ادوار نغمگی، یا کوکی برای اداوار ایقاعی بوده اند. هدف از شکل گیری این گونه ها اتوس یا تاثیرگذاری بر مخاطبان از جمله گریه، خواب، خندادن و غیره بوده است. در این تحقیق انگیزه ی شکل گیری شدود، ساختار و تداوم آنها مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. هدف از این تحقیق بررسی شدودی است که در شکل گیری شدود چهارگانه ی صفوی نقش داشته، تا کنون مورد بررسی جدی قرار نگرفته است. روش تحقیق این مقاله توصیفی - تحلیلی است. درک زمانه از تاثرپذیری نظام ادواری دوران بازتابی از افکار قومی دوران بوده است. در این تاثیرگذاری رفتار اجرایی مجریان و مخاطبان، شرایط زمانی و مکانی شرط ضروری بوده است. شدود مذکور منحصر به تعداد برشمرده نبوده، حکایت از سیستم بازی در این زمینه داشته، از موسیقی آوازی و سازی بهره برده شده است. از منظر تخصصی این شدود با فاصله های غیر همسان کوک ها می شده اند. گاه ساختار عملی ادوار نغمگی با ساختار نظری آنها هم خوانی نداشته است. این شدود در دوران صفوی تغییرات کمی و کیفی داشته اند.
    کلیدواژگان: شد، اصطخاب (کوک)، تاثیر مدها، تیموری، صفوی
  • مریم دورودیان*، محمدرضا بمانیان، مجتبی انصاری صفحات 59-68
    بازخوانی به عنوان برابر نهاده ای برای دراماتورژی، یکی از ابعاد فرایندی جامع برای به روزرسانی سنت هاست. نمایش به عنوان هنری اجتماعی در گفتگو با جامعه است، بنابراین هم شکل دهنده ایده ها در جامعه و هم بازتاب دهنده ویژگی های جامعه است. با وجود آنکه جنبه های نمایشی ادبیات و فرهنگ ایرانی هنوز پتانسیل های بسیاری برای به روزرسانی دارد، منابع و مدارک اندکی برای بازخوانی نمایش ایرانی وجود دارد. اما نگارگری ایرانی حاوی اطلاعات ارزشمندی از صور خیال هنرمند ایرانی و بازتاب دهنده اطلاعات بسیاری از جمله معماری، نمایش و جامعه است. این مقاله که پژوهشی بین رشته ای در معماری، نمایش و نگارگری است، با روش تاریخی-تحلیلی به کمک رویکرد بازتاب در جامعه شناسی هنر، در تلاش برای بازخوانی مکان نمایش ایرانی در نگارگری ایرانی است. نتایج گویای آن است که نگارگران در انتخاب موضوع و شیوه بیانی متاثر از بسیاری نکات مهم نمایشی از جمله نحو مکان های مکث و تامل در شهر و منظرفرهنگی برای برپایی انواع نمایش، خرده نمایش و خلق مکان های همگرای اجتماعی بوده اند. بنابراین می توان بازتابی از انواع نمایش ها و عناصر نمایشی از جمله انواع صحنه های میدانی، قابی و تخت گاهی را در آنها مشاهده کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: نمایش ایرانی، فضای نمایش، مکان نمایش، نگارگری، رویکرد بازتاب، معماری و دراماتورژی
  • فائزه دائمی، احمد کامیابی مسک* صفحات 69-78
    از نظر لوسین گلدمن، فرد نویسنده عناصر خلاقیتش را از زمانه خویش و جامعه ای که در آن زندگی می کند، می گیرد. در جامعه افرادی استثنایی حضور دارند که علاوه بر توانایی ذاتی هنری ، آگاهی شان هم نسبت به جهان بینی طبقه اجتماعی خودشان به حداکثر میزان ممکن است. اگر این افراد به توانایی بیان بدیع مسائل طبقاتی دست پیدا کنند، می توانند آثاری بیافرینند که بیانگر جهان بینی طبقه اجتماعی خودشان باشد. آنچه باعث برجستگی نوابغ می شود، توانایی آنها در بیان ارزش های جهان شمول جامعه انسانی است. بهرام بیضایی نیز هنرمندی ست که نگاهی جامعه شناسانه و پرسشگر دارد. او هم، عناصر تعیین کننده کارش را از جامعه ای که در آن زندگی می کند، می گیرد و با استفاده از ذوق هنری ای که دارد، آثاری ماندگار خلق می کند. در این راه، دانش او از میهنش، به غنای آثارش افزوده است. در این مقاله، نمایشنامه چهار صندوق، نوشته بهرام بیضایی با هدف دست یابی به شناختی بهتر از جامعه و گروه های اجتماعی دوران نگارش نمایشنامه و با استفاده از رویکرد جامعه شناسی هنر و نظریه ساختار گرایی تکوینی لوسین گلدمن که شامل دو مرحله دریافت و تبیین است، مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. تحلیل این نمایشنامه، نشان داد که چگونه ساختار اجتماعی جامعه ایران نیز می تواند تاثیر خود را بر اثر هنری بگذارد.
    کلیدواژگان: بیضایی، لوسین گلدمن، جامعه شناسی، چهار صندوق، ساختارگرایی تکوینی
  • اکرم جمشیدی*، شهاب اسفندیاری صفحات 79-86
    لورا مالوی به عنوان منتقد روش سینمای کلاسیک هالیوود در بازنمایی تصویر زن، لحظه توقف زمان در فیلم و ثابت شدن تصویر سینمایی را بسیار مهم می داند. او در کتاب مرگ 24 بار در ثانیه: سکون و تصویر متحرک به تحلیل حضور همزمان و متناقض سکون و حرکت در سینما می پردازد. سینمای عباس کیارستمی مطالعه موردی مالوی در این زمینه است و از آن به عنوان سینمای عدم قطعیت یاد می کند. در این پژوهش به این مساله پرداخته شده است که مالوی چگونه سینمای کیارستمی را به عنوان سینمای تاخیر و سکون معرفی می کند، در حالی که استفاده از نماهایی از اتومبیل در حال حرکت ویژگی سبک شناختی سینمای کیارستمی است. روش تحقیق در این پژوهش روش کیفی است و رویکرد اصلی نیز تحلیل روان کاوانه بر مبنای نظریات ژاک لاکان است. نقد روانکاوانه لاکانی تحلیل روش های متجلی شدن امیال ناخودآگاه شخصیت یا نویسنده نیست بلکه تحلیل خود متن و رابطه متن باخواننده است. در تحلیل تقابل سکون و حرکت در آثار کیارستمی ، مفاهیم تکرار و بازگشت و تاثیر آنها بر خاطره تماشاگر و همچنین نگاه خیره دوربین بررسی شده اند. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد که نگاه دوربین کیارستمی در داخل اتومبیل حس اقامت گزیدن در حرکت و در نتیجه حضور چندوجهی در فضا و زمان را به بیننده منتقل می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: لورا مالوی، عباس کیارستمی، سکون، حرکت، نگاه خیره، لاکان
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  • Mazyar Kanaani, Hooman Asadi Pages 5-14
    "TOMBAK'' is the most important percussive instrument in classical music of IRAN. This instrument is also known as: tonbak, tompak, donbak and dombak. About physical structure of this instrument it worth mentioning that two types of material are common for body: wood and metal, which the wooden type of Tombak is customary in classical music and the metal type is more usual to use in folk musics. The upper part of Tombak is covered up with animals skin such as cow and camel. In playing Tombak both hands playing same role and they are complementary of each other. Although its common to use cutaneous part of instrument as the main source of getting sounds, the wooden part is also use for getting different timbre of sounds. Including influential cultures on new generations of playing Tombak (from the rhythmic aspects) are the rhythmic system of Indian, Arabian and Turkish classical music. The main problem facing Tombak players which causes failure to achieve desired result, is lack of coherent system in Rhythmic-Metric structures which according to the non-metric structure of this music, Is not unexpected. Based on experiences and their perceptions -in compare with other instruments- Tombak players usually play the role of a companion. The wide range of technical changes in Tombak has increased the importance of its quality in companion than before. The procedure of this changes from the Qajar period up to now can be analyzed in notation and also its (Tombak) repertory which are mentioned in samples. In order to achieve good and measurable result as in other branches of science, we can use successful experiences in this field (which emerged in every way) and after reviewing them come up with result to solve these problems. The researches in this paper is descriptive. The original information and research data are obtained by the author through audio transcription and auditory audio from available works. The statistical society in this research include all the audio works companioned by Tombak in classical music of Iran. Sampling is non-random and selective. In selecting pieces the author also used his personal experiences. A list of all those who have had significant on the style of playing Tombak and accompaniment, was provide and their works have been reviewed. Artists who have been examined, explained as fallow whom are separated by their style of playing: Hossein Tehrani, Mohammad Esmaeili – Naser Farhang Far, Jamshid Mohebi –Amir naser Eftetah, Bahman Rajabi – Jamshid Shemirani – Arzhang Kamkar – Pezhman Haddadi – Navid afghah. The final results of the article are include what’s for the rhythm and Tombak in the Tombak’s accompaniment with other Iranian instruments, in field of timing and form (shape) of the Tombak entrance at the beginning of the pieces, the figures, the rhythmic figure of tombak executive and other instruments, the techniques used by tombak, the bases of improvisation or not, the quantitative and qualitative of rhythm, the presence and role of borrowing divisions, Tombak rhythm line ratio with melody will happen in the final section and tempo.
    Keywords: Tombak, Accompaniment, Percussion, Iranian Classical Music, Rhythm
  • Mohamadbagher Ghahramani *, Mitra Alavitalab, Behrooz Mahmoodi Bakhtyari, Naghmeh Samini Pages 15-24
    Abstract Some critics believe that for analyzing a text we should rely only on the text and there is no need to go far from it to the social condition and historical events. But Michel Foucault is the agent of those who consider the text as a result of social powers. Critical discourse analysis is a method by which we can conceive social and ideological aspect of texts of all types that never can be understand in other ways. The “Discursive order” or the “orders of discourse” is a critical term presented by Norman Fairclough means the contiguity of different discourses even opposed or paradoxical. Discursive order embodies different discourses in similar fields. The theory of critical discourse analysis (CDA) is based on Michel Foucault, the French philosopher. He believed that there is a relationship between the power and ideology with language and it can be found even in advertisements, essays, clinical recipe and artistic texts like poems, stories and literature as a whole. Fairclough expanded this idea and established a practical and systematic framework based on linguistic by which we can understand the juncture between power and ideological analogy with the language. In this essay we have chosen an Iranian play named “the death of Yazdgerd” written by Bahram Beizaee for analyzing in this method. This play is about “Yazdgerd”, the king of Sasani dynasty who escapes because of Arab’s assaulting and refuges to a mill and is killed by the miller. This is the historical narration about Yazdgerd, but we see many different possibilities about the end of Yazdgerd in the play. The miller, his wife and his daughter plays different stories about the king which we cannot distinguish which one is true. The idea about the splendid history of the Iranian kings and also the opposite opinion of this which is about the injustice of those kings configures two discourses: the discourse of royalty and majesty of the past history of kings and the discourse of opposing with the past and welcoming to the changes. The play is written in 1967 which is simultaneous with the Islamic revolution in Iran. We try to compare the most dominant discourses of the play with the political and social situation of the time in which the play has been written and focus about the “change” which is seen both in the play and in 1967 and falling down of the kings in the both period. The reason of this similarity in two different historical periods is the huge gap between people and the kings. So we first explains Fairclough’s theory in CDA and his frameworks, then we choose the most important questions of this framework about the play and try to answer them relying some facts in the play. To find the most dominant discourses in the text which is called order of discourses and interpreting the relationships between those discourses and the main discourses in the society which are determined by the ideology and power, is our next attempt.
    Keywords: critical discourse analysis, Fairclough, order of discourses, Death of yazdgerd
  • Ilnaz Rahbar * Pages 25-36
    Music iconography is a novel research field in musicology and ethnomusicology in the world as well as in our country, Iran. Actually some important information about music history can be mainly derived from paintings and iconographical sources which they cannot be found in written sources. There is not such problem in studying western paintings in music iconography; however research rules in this field must be taken into consideration as well. Meanwhile in studying Persian paintings and music representations in pictures, this research field is faced with more problems due to lack of realism concept in eastern art. The reason for motivating the author to write this manuscript is the occurrence of interpretation deficiencies and explanation as well as lack of methodology for Iranian researchers in this issue. As a result, this article may be useful for Persian music iconography researchers and will help them for better explanation in this field. As the aim of this essay is to help researchers in musicology and ethnomusicology, an effort has been made to explain key points of musical interpretations pertinent to the Persian paintings. In this study, iconography, music iconography, literature reviews of music iconography, the role of art history in music iconography, awareness of art styles, the pictures reliability, the representation of common musical instruments in each era, introducing of international music iconography research centers, databases and conferences, and at the end, proposal steps for studying a picture containing musical elements in Iranian art have been documented. The striking point in surveying music iconography is that the purpose of paintings at the first step is not introducing musical information while music researchers can interpret for musical goals. Thus, knowing about the art styles in this field and the creation era of the art works is one of the most important points which should be taken into account in interpretation. The result indicates that although there is no realistic point of view in Persian paintings, musical instruments especially in the Timurid and half Safavid period are illustrating realistic; and therefore Persian paintings regarding to musical instrument are generally reliable. In some pictures, there are left-handed players, however due to rules of visual compositions nothing can be concluded definitely whether they are left-handed or not. Based on “Transformation” in Erwin Panofsky’s iconological methodology, it should be stated that in spite of the single text in different periods as Shahnameh, the musical instruments in illustrations are inspired by the ongoing era. Therefore, for instance the Safavid and Qajarid Shahnameh manuscripts depict musical instruments of their own period. Musical treatises, historical books, travel accounts and the other written documents should be considered for comparative study and enhanced interpretation and analysis of musical pictures. After referring to key points of the music iconography in this article, 18 steps are suggested as proposal ones by the author that may be practical for researchers in this field as methodology. The effort is made to choose the most impressive pictures as case studies.This article is an applied research and has done by descriptive, analytical, historical and comparative research method.
    Keywords: Iconography, Music, Music iconography, Music in art, History of Iranian music
  • Mohammad Reza Hosnaee *, Navid Masudnia Pages 37-48
    Animation is an intrinsically imaginative medium. The human mind goes through a thought process of abstracting meaning from an animated diegetic aesthetic. One of the most important utilities of using animation in advertising is the ability to create environments and characters that could not be accessed or reproduced in real world and by a live action camera crew. These artificial environments can be used to stimulate imagination and desire, to create a fantastical world of possibility, which can then be realized by the purchase of a given product. The affinity between physical world and the model animation in which it is filmed means that it is to a certain extent confined by the physical laws of our world in order to remain recognizable and believable. Of course these laws can are being flouted, model characters can talk and discuss everyday matters like members of the general public, but the relationship between the animated models and the world they inhabit means that when physical law is flouted a sense of the uncanny or the fantastic is achieved. The research at hand is presenting an issue, rotating around the centrality "of the role of Mascots' characters of the advertisement animation films in the food industry branding". Through a passing glance at the history of the formation and stages of the existential bases of Mascot, the eminent and exceptional presence of these characters in the modern days advertisement world, will not be farfetched, in particular in the field of advertising animation in order to introduce the identity and the recognition of the brands of the commercial goods. The key role of Mascots in the deeper recognition and understanding of the identity of the commercial goods, has brought about the connection of these characters with the concept of "branding ", and thanks to the unique, imagination-oriented and attractive characteristics of the medium of animation, they have changed the policy of the advertisement of commercial goods to their own advantage. The collection of the materials for this research has been done through the descriptive-analytic method, which while presenting a description of the nature and a short history of the Mascots of advertising animation films, based on the theories of theoreticians such as Paul Wells and branding strategists such as Wally Olins (2005), Gillian Dyer (2005), Judith Garetson (2004), Ronald Nedrich (2004), Sabrina Neeley (2013), Greg Myers, David Showman(2013), Del vecchio (1997), Roeder(1981), Richard Mizresky (1995) and psychologists such as Piaget, deals with the analysis of the roles of the Mascots of advertising animations in the branding of food industry. Finally, the character of Mascots, in the form of a spokesperson, created a trust and a necessary belief between the consumer and the food products, which ranks among the key principles of the advertising of any commercial product; and has provided an appropriate background for a proper advertising narrative for the food products. This research first focuses on the definition of "advertising and advertising animation" and then addresses the theories and views related to the topic of the research.
    Keywords: Mascots, animations, character, food products, advertisements
  • Seyed Hossein Meisami * Pages 49-58
    The subject of this article is to study "Shadd" in the triple specimen presented in the works of Abdulqâdir Maraghi and his son Abdulaziz that is Ruh, Sabâ and Khâb in the late Timurid era and a brief description of its continuation under the title Quadruple Sudud in Safavid era. Shadd had different meanings and this term refers to the following structural distances: the Advâr (twelve main modes), interval of perfect forth (Zul-erba) and tuning (Estekhâb/Kuk: tune). This term is mentioned in the works of Abdulqâdir and Abdulaziz in the third meaning of it. The basis for the description of Estekhâb was based on the most important instrument of the era that was Ud. These tunes have been the main Modes (Six Avâz, twelve Adwâr, and twenty four Shuba), or Advar of Iqâ (probably Movasel) on the genre of Tarjiât. The aim of the formation of these species is to influence the audience, including grief / cry, sleep, cheer / laugh, and so on. The structure of this paper is based on the three main themes: the motivation of formation of Sudud, the structure of triple Sudud and their continuity in the Safavid era. The purpose of this research is to study the sudud which have been affected in the formation of Safavid quadruple Sudud and finally the formation of Dastgâhi system, although Safavid quadruple Sudud and the structure of the Dastgâhi system have been studied in the recent decades, but this topic has not been seriously considered, so the importance of this review is inevitable. The sources of this research are often based on printed treatises and more emphasis on the manuscripts of the Timurid and Safavid periods, or related to the Safavid era. The method used in this research is descriptive - content analysis. One of the most important findings of this research is the following: the perception of the time from the influence of the era of Advar-e Nahmaghi and Advar-e iqayi as Abdulqâdir and Abdulaziz was a reflection of the ethnic thoughts of the era; a subject that can also be followed in the works of the "Systematist School". In this effect, the executive behavior of musicians, and the behavior of the audience, along with the temporal and spatial conditions have been necessary. The effect of the aforementioned subject is not limited to this number, indicating that this system is open in this process, for chordophones especially for Ud (base instrument). Scales have been used in different tonalities (of seventeen tonalities). The tunes of these Sudud were unregulated nontetracords or regular tetracords. Hossieni Shadd had five tones, among these five the first, third and fifth tones were in the middle part of tones and the second and fourth were in the bass tones of those thirty six tones. It can be inferred from the contents of the treatises of Safavid era, that at least there has been a nominal relationship, especially in relation to the Ruh, and probably the triple Sudud effect of the quadruple Sudud.
    Keywords: Shadd, Estekhâb (Tune), Effect of modes, Timurid, Safavid
  • Maryam Doroudian *, Mohammad Reza Bemanian, &Nbsp, Mojtaba &Nbsp, Ansari Pages 59-68
    Based on reflective approach in sociology of art, which presents the influence of art from environmental conditions and their reflections, we can use Persian paintings as an important reference to recognize Iranian performative spaces, because these paintings illustrate Iranian literature raised from culture. However, Iranian painters selected their subject with special thoughts and careful insight. Furthermore, there are few references and resources about the subjects and points in these paintings, maybe because of historical condition of Iran. In the other words, Iranian artists have been learnt in hard situations to conceal the meaning of their artwork using symbols and codes. Performance is one of the Iranian arts that have been limited at various times. Despite, literature and culture of Iran is full of dramatic moments. Anecdotes such as “Siavash passing on fire”, “Shirin and Farhad romance” and “the seven beauties (Haft Pykar)” are full of dramatic features and they are the most important subjects in paintings. The Iranian cultural landscape is rich in pondering places and communal spaces for different ceremonies and rituals. But in the documents there are less evidences about essence and state of performance spaces. While in many paintings, images of real locations of Iranian cultural landscapes which a theatrical event is taking place, have been depicted. Therefore, features of Iranian theater spaces could be recognize from these paintings. In this paper, the state of “cultural landscape” is used instead of architecture, urban or landscape. Because, cultural landscape represents a long and intimate relationship between man and nature; as well as it expresses the mentality and culture of the communities in built environments at the context of nature. Various characters related to the taste, smell, touch, motion, visual and hearing are cultural aspects. Performance as one of the cultural aspects is highly dependent on time and place so, it can be one of the function of the built environment or inversely be affected from environment. Selected painting in this study, have two points: first, their subjects are in agreement with drama and second, the painted places points to the real places that the performative occurrences have been played there. The main questions are: what place has been chosen for an occurrence in a performance, what have been the characteristics of performative space in this place, and how was the relationship between the audiences and actors? Our results in this study show that performative occurrences are one of cultural aspect of Iranian literature and society. As a consequence, the Iranian nature or city landscapes, as receptacles for life, provide bases for performative occurrences. These multifunctional and centripetal places have hierarchy space, perceptional boundary and different layers of view and perspective. Moreover, natural or artificial elements have been used for walls and stages, as well as, the light and accessories are in agreement with spatial and temporal conditions. Therefore, we aimed to study some aspects of Iranian performative space using methods such as historical research, content analysis and hermeneutics to investigate performative places and spaces in selective Persian paintings.
    Keywords: Iranian theater, Performative spaces, Performative place, Persian painting, Reflective approach, Architecture, Dramaturgy
  • Faezeh Daemi, Ahmad Kamyabimask * Pages 69-78
    Bahram Beyzaie is an Iranian playwright. He creates his committed literary works by taking his accurate regard at the world around him, using historical events and Iranian tradition. In this way his knowledge of the customs and language of each period of the history of his country, has added to the richness of his work. He is an artist who doesn’t believe in war, superstition, illiteracy, racism and blindly following anything or any procedure. In the opinion of Lucien Goldmann, The French sociologist, the author takes his creativity from his time and the society he lives in. On the other hand, the great cultural, religious, literary and artistic works are always a new expression of a worldview. Lucien Goldmann believes that what makes a genius very prominent in every civilization, is their ability to express the most important universal values in human society. Beyzaie is an artist with a sociological and questioner look. He defines the decisive elements of his work from the society in which he lives. He combines this decisive element with his prominent artistic taste creating some lasting Masterpieces, such az four boxes, one of his greatest pieces. Our purpose in the research is to look more deeply at four boxes and interpret its sociological roots. Of course, it should be noted that the writer's Intent cannot be always expressed with determination, not only by critics, commentators or analysts, but also by the author himself. Because an artwork can engage both conscious and unconscious part of artist’s mind. But the point here is that this subconscious part of the mind is always influenced by the exterior, side, and environment and the society of the author. Among the theatrical Beyzaie’s works, we chose Four Boxes for analysis and commentary with a sociological look based on the words of Lucien Goldmann. The name of Goldmann’s theory we are using in this paper is: Genetic Strcturalism. Genetic Strcturalism has two stages containing of comprehension and description. The necessity of this research is to help the audience to have a more accurate view of Beyzaies works. We have to emphasize that the world around any author and his intellectual system have a great impression on every aspect of the way he does his job. This effect of society could be multiplied when the writer of the play, such as Beyzaie, is the director himself and takes his plays to the scene. In this article, the interactive relationship between artist and society is examined by using the sociological theories of art (Genetic Strcturalism by Lucien goldmann). First of all, we glance over Beyzaies biography and his look at the history of his homeland. Then, we mention some Goldman’s sociological theories. Afterward, we sociologically analyze four boxes, one of the most famous plays that ever written by Beyzaie. Our method in this research is analytical and based on library and historical sources. In the nutshell, in this paper we present a sociological view to four boxes based on Lucien Goldmann’s theory: Genetic Structuralism.
    Keywords: Beyzaie, Lucien Goldman, sociology, Genetic Structuralism, Four boxes
  • Akram Jamshidi *, Shahab Esfandiary Pages 79-86
    Laura Mulvey is a prominent figure in film theory from 1970s. Her work is particularly remarkable, though controversial, in regard to feminine appearance on the screen.Stasis is central to Laura Mulvey’s film theory. In her essay Visual pleasure and Narrative Cinema (1975), she criticized the role of patriarchy in Hollywood cinema. Mulvey suggested the theory of Patriarchal gaze based on Lacan’s Gaze Theory. She states that the presence of woman is an indispensable element of spectacle, yet her visual presence tends to work against the development of a story line, to freeze the flow of action in moments of erotic contemplation. In Death 24X a second: Stillness and the Moving Image (2006), she points out that now she is more interested in the way that those moments of spectacle were also moments of narrative halt, hinting at the stillness of the single celluloid frame. In fact with the advent of the digital cinema, the photographic base of cinema come to the fore. Mulvey tries to reformulate the idea of spectatorship through the perspective of time. She indicates that the everyday reality that video and digital media have opened up new ways of seeing old movies reveals up the significance of the dichotomy of stillness and movement. In fact, the use of new technologies results in the possibility of returning to and repeating a specific film fragment. Return and repetition necessarily involve interrupting the flow of film, delaying its progress, and, in the process, discovering the cinema’s complex relation to time. Mulvey is the first person to link Abbas Kiarostami’s Cinema to the Lacanian concept of the Real. She explains that Kiarostami’s unrepresented tragic earthquake is the same as the manner of the Real which is invisible, but has a significant presence. She argues that the tragic earthquake which destroyed the village is left intentionally unseen, unrepresented by Kiarostami in the following two films. The lack of any kind of re-enactment creates a situation where the actuality of the invisible yet traumatic is unquestionable- exactly in the same manner as Lacan describes the order of the always hidden Real that is behind or beneath any phenomenal appearance accessible to direct experience. In addition, representation of the gaze is considered the result of the style of a filmmaker who is best known as a self-reflexive filmmaker. This article discusses the Cinema of Abbas Kiarostami through a Psychoanalytic perspective based on the contradiction of stillness and movement in Mulvey’s film theory. The main issue to discuss is that how Mulvey considers the cinema of Kiarostami as delaying and immobile while his use of car and consequently movement is a persisting feature of his cinematic oeuvre. The result is that Kiarostami‘s cars respond to a relational conceptualization of space in mobility and breaks away from the conventions of representation in which space is considered fixed which carries specific and symbolic meanings. However, the sense of mobility emerged from a wandering car ends up to stillness through repetition and return that affect the spectator’s memory.
    Keywords: Laura Mulvey, Abbas Kiarostami, Stillness, Movement, Gaze, Lacan