فهرست مطالب

Tanaffos Respiration Journal - Volume:17 Issue:4, 2019
  • Volume:17 Issue:4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/01/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Mohammad, Foad Noorbakhsh , Hanieh Shaterzadeh, Yazdi , Farzad Hayati , Saeed Samarghandian *, Tahereh Farkhondeh Pages 211-222

    Lung as vital organ is exposed to many injurious agents that can cause inflammation and oxidative stress, which are potential causes in the pathogenesis of lung diseases. Nigella sativa, usually introduced as black seed, has been considered for treatment of various diseases and is one the most widely investigated herbs. Thymoquinone (TQ) is the major component of the volatile oil of black seed (54%) which has been indicated to anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic properties. There is interesting to study on TQ effect as a therapeutic agent for various diseases in both in vivo and in vitro conditions. In this comprehensive review, we summarized the recent studies related to the effectiveness of TQ on lung disorders such as inflammatory lung diseases, lung fibrosis, asthma and lung cancer. It is concluded that TQ with anti-inflammatory, anti- oxidant, anti-asthmatic and anti- tumor activity can provide therapeutic effects against lung disorders. However, more investigation is needed to produce TQ as a pharmaceutical preparation for human studies.

    Keywords: Thymoquinone, Lung inflammation, Asthma, Lung fibrosis, Lung cancer
  • Mahya Pourostadi , Jalil Rashedi *, Behroz Mahdavi Poor , Hossein Samadi Kafil , Abdolhassan Kazemi , Ehsan Ahmadpour, Mohammad Asgharzadeh Pages 223-232
    Background

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health problem in developing countries and yet the numbers of people with the disease are abundant. Early detection of transmission sources and effective treatment of the cases is essential to control the disease which will be possible by application of molecular epidemiology approaches. Studies conducted based on Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) method in Muslim Middle East countries were evaluated to determine their role in TB control.

    Materials and Methods

    All studies from January 2005 to April 2016 were systematically reviewed in four electronic databases and finally 16 articles were found eligible to be included in this study. The mean clustering rate was determined as 44% and the recent transmission rate was 12.3 to 78.8% with average of 33%.

    Results

    The results showed that both reactivation and recent transmission were important in developing new cases of TB in Middle East countries; but, reactivation plays a more critical role.

    Conclusion

    Regarding to ongoing war and immigration in the region along with the increasing of drug-resistant TB, in the case of improper supervision in the future, the disease, especially drug- resistant TB, will be problematic.

    Keywords: Molecular epidemiology, MIRU-VNTR, tuberculosis, transmission, Middle East
  • Mahshid Aryanpur , Ahmad Khosravi , Mahmoud Yousefifard , Mostafa Hosseini *, Alireza Oraii , Gholamreza Heydari , Mehdi Kazempour, Dizaji , Hooman Sharifi , Zahra Hessami , Hamidreza Jamaati Pages 233-240
    Background

    The present study was designed to estimate the net transition probabilities in triple stages of cigarette consumption in Iranian men over 15 years old.

    Materials and Methods

    Data from the national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in 2011 were entered in the present study. Data of 3130 Iranian men between the ages of 15 and 69 years old were included. Individuals were divided to three groups of current smoker, past smoker and nonsmoker based on cigarette consumption. Afterwards, net transition probability of different stages of cigarette consumption over a year was assessed.

    Results

    Net transition probability from nonsmoker to smoker was at its highest level until 30 years of age at 19.1 per 1000 men and then net transition reduces to reach zero per 1000 men at the age of 45 years old. However, net transition probability from smoker to nonsmoker was at a very low level until 45 years of age but, it increases afterwards to reach a plateau at the age of 64 years old. Net transition probability from smoker to nonsmoker is estimated to be 23.1 per 1000 men at the age of 69 years old.

    Conclusion

    For the first time, the present study has estimated the transition probabilities in different stages of cigarette consumption in Iranian adults. Findings showed that risk of becoming a smoker in younger individuals is much higher than the risk in middle-aged and old population. However, tendency to quit smoking is increased after the age of 45 years old. Therefore, health policy makers should concentrate on younger age groups in their preventive strategies regarding control of tobacco consumption.

    Keywords: Smoking, Tobacco, Tobacco Use, Epidemiology, Prevalence
  • Hamid Naderloo , Zohre Vafadar , Alireza Eslaminejad , Abbas Ebadi * Pages 241-249
    Background

    Treatment non-adherence is a leading cause of rehospitalization among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Motivational interviewing is a client-centered participatory counseling strategy which enhances motivation for change. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of motivational interviewing on treatment adherence among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Materials and Methods

    This randomized controlled clinical trial was done on 54 hospitalized patients using a two-group repeated measures design. Patients in the intervention group (n=27) received motivational interviewing and lifestyle-related educations, while their counterparts in the comparison group (n=27) solely received lifestyle-related educations. Treatment adherence was measured before, one month, and two months after the intervention.

    Results

    At baseline, there was no significant difference between the groups regarding treatment adherence (P>0.05); however, one and two months after the intervention, between-group differences regarding treatment adherence were statistically significant (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    Motivational interviewing promotes treatment adherence among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Keywords: Treatment adherence, Motivational interviewing, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Serhat Erol *, Ceyda Anar , Onur Fevzi Erer , Can Biçmen , Zekiye Aydo?du Pages 250-256
    Background

    Sarcoidosis and Mediastinal Tuberculous Lymphadenitis (MTLA) are two granulomatous diseases. Differentiation between these two diseases is dependent on clinical presentation, microbiological investigation, and cytopathological examination. In endemic regions, differential diagnosis of MTLA and sarcoidosis might be difficult. Endobronchial ultrasound guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a new diagnostic procedure for the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. EBUS not only enables the sampling of Lymph Nodes (LN), but also visualization of sonographic features of them. We hypothesized that the sonographic features of LN may help to differentiate MTLA from sarcoidosis.

    Materials and Methods

    This is a retrospective analysis of patients with intrathoracic lymphadenopathy who underwent EBUS-TBNA and were finally diagnosed as sarcoidosis or MTLA. Size, shape, margin, echogenicity, and coagulation necrosis were compared between the groups.

    Results

    A total of 257 LNs (215 sarcoidosis, 42 MTLA) were examined in 101 patients. A heterogeneous echotexture of lymph nodes was significantly more common (P <0.0001) in MTLA (69%) than sarcoidosis (36.2%). Also, necrosis was statistically significantly higher in MTLA compared to sarcoidosis (P<0.0001). The vascular pattern was similar in both groups (P=0.9050). Nearly half of the patients had grade 1 vascular pattern in both groups. The odds for diagnosis of MTLA were significantly higher in the presence of heterogeneous echotexture (odds ratio [OR], 7,00) or necrosis sign (OR, 131,2).

    Conclusion

    Vascular patterns of two diseases were similar. Heterogeneous echotexture and necrosis sign in the LNs on EBUS are specific for MTLA. Combination of these findings with a positive tuberculin skin test, favors the diagnosis of MTLA over sarcoidosis.

    Keywords: Sarcoidosis, Mediastinal tuberculous lymphadenitis, Endobronchial ultrasonography
  • Reza Khani Jazani , Seyed Mohammad Seyedmehdi , Amir Kavousi , Somaye Tahernezhad Javazm * Pages 257-263
    Background

    Health care workers are at a high risk of exposure to infectious diseases spread by airborne transmission. N95 respirators are the most common respirators used in the health care system and negligence in using them may cause health problems. Hence, more emphasis should be on ergonomic aspects of this mask. This study aimed to develop a tool for ergonomic evaluation of these respirators.

    Materials and Methods

    After reviewing previous studies and employees' problems in the use of the N95 respirators, 50 questionnaires were designed and their validity was assessed. Then, the questionnaire was completed by 290 staff members of Masih Daneshvari Hospital and its internal consistency and reproducibility were investigated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient and test-retest method, respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess its consistency and internal consistency (construct validity).

    Results

    With the confirmation of the face and content validities, internal consistency (0.89) calculated by the Cronbach's alpha coefficient and reproducibility of the questionnaire (0.997; p<0.001) assessed by using the ICC Index, were approved. Following examining internal consistency and stability, the questionnaire convergent construct validity was also confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis.

    Conclusion

    The questionnaire contained 42 items and it is beneficial to use it in the health care system to evaluate the ergonomic problems of the respirators and to have optimal choice in this respect. Also, it can be used in the promotion of the staffs' behavior in wearing these respirators when necessary.

    Keywords: Ergonomic, N95 respirators, Questionnaire, Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Ali Asghar Hemmati , Amir Jalali *, Parastoo Keshavarz Pages 264-271
    Background

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the Chamomile hydroalcoholic extract on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rat.

    Materials and Methods

    Rats (N.Mari, 180-220 g) of either sex were given a single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (7.5 IU/Kg) or the vehicle (saline). Treatment groups were given the same dose of bleomycin and then received different doses of oral chamomile hydroalcoholic extract (400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg/day) for two weeks.

    Results

    Histological and pharmacological experiments of bleomycin-treated animals showed that bleomycin could cause marked pulmonary fibrosis within two weeks. In addition, administration of Chamomile hydroalcoholic extract reduced such damages in lung tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Best results were obtained with 1500 /kg/day of Chamomile hydroalcoholic extract.

    Conclusion

    From the results of current study, it can be concluded that Chamomile hydroalcoholic extract may be able to diminish the toxic effects of bleomycin on the lung tissues. Such effect of Chamomile can be attributed to the ingredients of this plant with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties.

    Keywords: Pulmonary fibrosis, Bleomycin, Chamomile hydroalcoholic extract
  • Angham Aminnasab , Samaneh Mohammadi , Maryam Zareinezhad , Tania Chatrrouz , Seyedeh bita Mirghafari, Soheila Rahmani * Pages 272-279
    Background

    Attending to psychological status in patients with breast cancer, because of expanded damage and mortality in these patients, is important. The present study investigated the effectiveness of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) on depression and Perceived Stress in Patients with breast cancer.

    Materials and Methods

    This research was a semi-experimental with pretest, post-test and follow-up (1 month), which was conducted from November to February, 2016. In this study, 30 patients with breast cancer who attended Imam Hossein Hospital in Tehran city were selected by convenience sampling method and randomly were assigned in 2 experimental (n=15) and control groups (n=15) and Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale and Center Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale were administrated as pretest. Experimental group received 8 sessions of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy SFBT and control group received no intervention. At the end, post-test was administrated on two groups and, repeated measure multi-variable method was used for data analysis by SPSS-21 software.

    Results

    The results of the present study indicated that there were significant differences between the experimental and control groups after administrating SFBT. Thus, the mean of depression and perceived stress of experimental group decreased (P<0.001).

    Conclusion

    The result of study that showed SFBT is effective in decreasing depression and perceived stress in patients with breast cancer. Therefore, in order to improve the positive psychological state in these patients psychological screening must be performed and if needed clinical trials and appropriate intervention be considered.

    Keywords: Breast cancer, Depression, Perceived stress, Solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT)
  • Miktat Arif Haberal , Erkan Akar , Ozlem Sengoren Dikis*, Mete Kaya Pages 280-284
    Background

    Hydatid cyst disease is caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus and it is an important health problem in the childhood period. In the present study, we aimed to report our experience in 25 surgically managed pediatric hydatid cyst cases under the light of the relevant literature.

    Materials and Methods

    We retrospectively analyzed 25 patients below 15 years of age who were treated for pulmonary hydatid cyst at our clinic between 2005 and 2016. The patients were analyzed for age, sex, signs and symptoms, diagnostic methods, cyst localization, diameter, number, treatment modalities, mortality, morbidity, and recurrences.

    Results

    Of the 25 patients included in this clinical study, 16 were male and their mean age was 10.5 (range 5-15) years. The most common presenting symptom was paroxysmal cough which affected 18 patients. The cysts were located in lungs in 23 patients and lungs and liver in 2 patients. Nineteen pulmonary cysts were solitary, and 21 (66%) were in the lower lobe. Thirteen (52%) patients had perforated cysts. Fourteen (56%) patients were operated with cystotomy and capitonnage, 9 (36%) with cystotomy, and 2 (8%) with enucleation. No case of recurrence was observed during an average 12 (range 8-18) months of follow-up.

    Conclusion

    Surgery is the primary treatment of pediatric pulmonary hydatid cyst disease. Cystotomy and capitonnage is the most commonly used parenchyma sparing technique.

    Keywords: Chest surgery, Childhood, Cystotomy, Capitonnage, Enucleation
  • Mayam Saraei, Habibbolah Masoudi, Omid Aminian, Nazanin Izadi * Pages 285-290
    Background

    Respirable dust exposure is associated with increased respiratory impairment. As there are various airborne contaminants in the foundry industry, our aim was to thoroughly examine the acute effects of ambient respiratory dust on the respiratory system.

    Materials and Methods

    A cross-shift study was conducted in a cast iron foundry in Iran. A total of 200 participants, including 110 workers from production department and 90 office workers were enrolled in this study. Workers were evaluated with regard to respiratory symptoms using the American Thoracic Society (ATS) questionnaire and examination of their lung function by spirometry.

    Results

    The mean exposure of all studied substances was higher than occupational exposure limits. The most common respiratory symptom in exposed workers was cough (24.5%). A statistically significant post shift reduction in FEV1 and FEF25-75 was seen in exposed group. After adjusting for age, working history, smoking and Body Mass Index (BMI), there was a significant decrease based on exposure in FEV1 and FVC.

    Conclusion

    Dust exposure was a significant predictor of lung function. Implementing the health promotion program, periodic medical surveillance and efficient use of respiratory protection equipment could help to protect foundry workers from respiratory impairment.

    Keywords: Foundry, Pulmonary function, Respiratory symptom
  • Alireza Bagheri *, Maryam Mansour Pages 291-294

    In this report, we describe a 48-year old non-smoker man who presented with dyspnea, light headedness, plethoric facies, neck swelling and swollen collateral veins on the front of the chest wall after extracting his molar tooth due to dental caries and tooth pain. Right internal jugular vein thrombosis was seen on the neck CT angiography. Lemierre's disease was suspected and systemic antibiotics in addition to anticoagulant were started. Two months later the patient presented with characteristic genital and oral aphthous ulcers. A final diagnosis of Behçet vasculitis was made and the patient received high dose of immunosuppressive therapy. Dental extraction in Behçet disease may cause the disease flare up and large vessel thrombosis.

    Keywords: Behçet disease, Lemierre's disease, Jugular vein thrombosis, Dental extraction
  • Shadi Shafaghi , Neda Behzadnia *, Babak Sharif, Kashani , Farah Naghashzadeh , Zargham Hossein Ahmadi Pages 295-298
    Background

    Thoracic Aortic Injury (TAI) due to penetrating or blunt chest trauma is a critical life-threatening aortic injury. Its diagnosis and treatment always is challenging. An 18-year-old male was admitted due to blunt chest trauma after a high-impact road traffic collision. According to presenting dyspnea, an emergency chest-x-ray revealed left hemothorax for which chest tube was inserted. Hemodynamic monitoring demonstrated uncontrolled hypertension with systolic blood pressure of 200-220 mmHg despite multiple anti-hypertensive drugs. Trans-Thoracic Echocardiography (TTE) revealed abnormal Doppler flow pattern in proximal descending thoracic aorta suggestive for probable coarctation of aorta. Chest CT scan revealed pseudoaneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta just below the isthmus. Due to uncontrolled hypertension, persistent hemothorax and probable aortic pseudoaneurysm presenting as aortic luminal narrowing, surgical resection of the aneurysm was planned. The postoperative course was uneventful and blood pressure normalized without any drugs. Patient is normotensive after 8 years follow up.

    Keywords: Hypertension, Transection of aorta, Traumatic aortic injury