فهرست مطالب

Endocrinology and Metabolism - Volume:17 Issue:2, 2019
  • Volume:17 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/02/17
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Zahra Bahadoran , Parvin Mirmiran , Azita Zadeh, Vakili , Farhad Hosseinpanah , Asghar Ghasemi * Page 1
    The “results section” of a scientific paper provides the results related to all measurements and outcomes that have been posted earlier in the materials and methods section. This section consists of text, figures, and tables presenting detailed data and facts without interpretation and discussion. Results may be presented in chronological order, general to specific order, most to least important order, or may be organized according to the topic/study groups or experiment/measured parameters. The primary content of this section includes the most relevant results that correspond to the central question stated in the introduction section, whether they support the hypothesis or not. Findings related to secondary outcomes and subgroup analyses may be reported in this section. All results should be presented in a clear, concise, and sensible manner. In this review, we discuss the function, content, and organization of the “results section,” as well as the principles and the most common tips for the writing of this section.
    Keywords: Result, Writing Scientific Papers, Medical Scientific Journals
  • Reza Afrisham *, Maliheh Paknejad , Omid Soliemanifar , Sahar Sadegh, Nejadi , Reza Meshkani , Damoon Ashtary, Larky Page 2
    Context
     Psychological stress can be considered a risk factor for the initiation and progression of many pathological conditions, including type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus and cancer.
    Objectives
    The aim of this review article was to evaluate the molecular and cellular mechanisms linking psychological stress to the onset and progression of diabetes and cancer.
    Evidence Acquisition: The current review was conducted to survey and analyze studies related to the effects of psychological stress on diabetes and cancer.
    Results
    Psychological stress may make individuals prone to the development of diabetes through the impairment of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function, sympathetic nerves system (SNS), lipid profile, cytokines balance, renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and insulin signaling pathway. Additionally, psychological stress can contribute to the development of cancer through the perturbation in the HPA axis, SNS function, and cytokines balance. Psychological stress is also capable of decreasing the levels of oxytocin and dopamine, leading to an increased risk of cancer in susceptible individuals.
    Conclusions
    It seems that psychological stress plays a significant role in the onset and progression of diabetes and cancer. The identification of the pathways triggered by psychological stress would open up a new avenue for the understanding of molecular mechanisms by which diabetes and cancer could be managed or even prevented.
    Keywords: Psychological Stress, Cancer, Diabetes, Insulin Resistance, Catecholamine, Inflammation
  • Soghra Rabizadeh , Manouchehr Nakhjavani , Alireza Esteghamati * Page 3
    Context
     Most recently developed anti-hyperglycemic drugs have offered cardiovascular and renal benefits. In this narrative review, we discuss the cardiovascular and renal benefits of novel antidiabetic drugs, sodium glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, in type 2 diabetes.
    Evidence Acquisition
     The literature published in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Cochrane library were reviewed up to January 2019. The keywords including SGLT2 inhibitor, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular effect, and renal effect were used in different combinations.
    Results
    Cardiovascular disease represents a large health burden in patients with diabetes. The prevention of cardiovascular events is a major concern in the treatment of patients with diabetes. Diabetes is also associated with an increased risk of adverse renal events and diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. SGLT2 inhibitors as new glucose-lowering agents act by inhibiting glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule of the kidney, which is independent of insulin secretion. We reviewed the cardiovascular effects of these drugs including effects on triple MACE (major adverse cardiovascular events), myocardial infarction, heart failure, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, and stroke, as well as renal effects including albuminuria, serum creatinine, the rate of renal replacement therapy, and renal function over time, along with the mechanisms of these effects.
    Conclusions
    Given the suboptimal glycemic and cardiovascular risk control in type 2 diabetes, novel therapies such as SGLT2 inhibitors seem to have an important clinical advantage to improve glycemic control and cardiovascular and renal outcomes.
    Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors, Cardiovascular Disease, Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Yue Mei , Ma Rongshuang , Zhang Ruizhi , Huang Hongyuan , Tan Qiyue , Zhao Shuhua * Page 4
    Background
    The effects of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) on the reproductive system of mammal females are unclear because no studies have been conducted on this topic.
    Methods
    In this study, 40 C57 female mice were used as experimental subjects and evenly divided into 8 groups, which were fed with mixed DMP (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg bw/day) and corn oil. After 20 days and 40 days of gavage, the mice were weighed and their individual ovary organ coefficients measured.
    Results
    Changes were discovered on progesterone, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in mouse serum, and on the apoptosis rate of ovarian granulosa cells.
    Conclusions
    Prolonged exposure to DMP led to decreased secretion of FSH hormones and increased secretion of E2 and LH hormones. Furthermore, DMP interfered with the pituitary-ovary axis and increased the apoptosis rate of ovarian granulosa cells. Therefore, prolonged exposure to DMP is likely to have negative effects on reproduction and development.
    Keywords: Dimethyl Phthalate, Sex Hormone, Apoptosis, Endocrine Disruptors
  • Neha Bindlish Jain , Asha Yadav *, Nilima Shankar , Rafat Ahmed Page 5
    Objectives
    The current study aimed at investigating the correlation of circulating levels of serum C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP3) with cardiac autonomic functions and metabolic parameters in obesity.
    Methods
    Thirty drug naïve subjects newly diagnosed with obesity and body mass index (BMI) 25 - 35 kg/m2 of both genders aged 19 - 40 years, with no associated comorbidity were recruited as cases. Same number of age, gender and socioeconomic status matched subjects with BMI 19 - 23 kg/m2 were taken as controls. Autonomic function test results including heart rate variability (HRV) were recorded in both groups. Serum metabolic parameters -CTRP3, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides were also determined and compared between the groups.
    Results
    Significantly lower circulating levels of CTRP3 (P ≤ 0.001) and adiponectin (P = 0.025), and significantly higher mean of BMI (P < 0.001), fasting blood glucose (P < 0.001), LDL-cholesterol (P < 0.05), serum triglycerides (P < 0.001), insulin (P = 0.003), HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) (P < 0.001), and leptin (P = 0.043) were observed in the group with obesity compared to the controls. CTRP3 levels inversely correlated with serum triglyceride (r = -0.09, P < 0.001), atherogenic index (r = -0.37, P = 0.04), leptin (r = -0.39, P = 0.02), and positively with adiponectin (r = 0.42, P = 0.02) in the group with obesity. Significant reduction in the results of parasympathetic autonomic function tests (pNN50, RMSSD, excitation: inhibition (E:I) ratio, 30:15 ratio, and Valsalva ratio) and an increase in sympathovagal balance (low frequency to high frequency (LF:HF) ratio) was also observed (P < 0.05). CTRP3 levels were also positively correlated with parasympathetic indices (pNN50: r = 0.17, P < 0.05); 30:15 ratio: (r = 0.62, P < 0.01), and inversely correlated with LF: HF ratio (r = -0.35, P < 0.01) in the group with obesity.
    Conclusions
    Higher circulating levels of CTRP3 promoted a favorable autonomic and metabolic profile in obesity. Hence, CTRP3 may be considered as a potential novel biomarker to facilitate the prognosis of obesity and its comorbidities.
    Keywords: CTRP3, Obesity, Autonomic Functions, Metabolic Parameters
  • Marzieh Bakhshayeshkaram , Jamshid Roozbeh , Seyed Taghi Heidari , Behnam Honarvar , Mohammad Hossein Dabbaghmanesh , Kamran B. Lankarani * Page 6
    Background
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can potentially be associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
    Objectives
    We aimed to determine the association of MetS and the number of metabolic syndrome components with the risk of CKD in the Iranian population in southern Iran.
    Methods
    A total of 819 subjects aged 18 - 88 years were enrolled using weight-based random cluster sampling. We constructed a logistic regression model to determine the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the association of MetS individual components and the number of these components with CKD.
    Results
    The prevalence rate of MetS was 25.9% (30.9% in women and 18.8% in men). CKD was present in 16.6% of the participants (men: 14% and women: 19.4%). The most prevalent component was abdominal obesity (63.6%), followed by low HDL cholesterol (36.7%), high triglyceride level (31.7%), hypertension (25.6%) and high fasting blood sugar (21.9%). Central obesity and low HDL level were observed to be more prevalent among women (P < 0.001). The presence of MetS was associated with CKD with an increased OR for CKD (OR: 3.07, 95% CI 2.09 - 4.50; P < 0.001). The adjusted ORs (95% CI) were 1.189 (0.554 - 2.555), 2.025 (0.990 - 4.141) and 4.769 (2.413 - 9.424) as the number of risk factors increased from 1 to ≥ 3. Individuals with hypertension and abdominal obesity had a higher OR of increased susceptibility to CKD in multivariate analysis.
    Conclusions
    Our study indicated a strong association between CKD and MetS in the Iranian population. It is also suggested that individuals with metabolic risk factors should be detected earlier; they should also undergo multidisciplinary interventions to hinder worsening of the individual components of MetS and development of CKD.
    Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome, Chronic Kidney Disease, Association
  • Shahrzad Mohseni , Maryam Aboeerad , Farshad Sharifi , Seyed Mohammad Tavangar *, Mohammadreza Mohajeri, Tehrani Page 7
    Background
    Acromegaly is a rare disorder resulting from benign growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas in 90% of the cases. In recent years, many researchers have studied the Ki-67 index level of pituitary tumors and its relationship with demographics, biochemical parameters, clinical behavior, and recurrence rate.
    Objectives
    This study aimed to evaluate the correlation of Ki-67 index level with clinicoradiological and endocrinological parameters in confirmed GH-secreting pituitary adenomas, as well as with the surgical response and medical treatment after surgery.
    Methods
    We collected the medical and pathologic records of 49 patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenoma who underwent surgeries from 2008 to 2017 in Shariati hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences.
    Results
    According to MRI reports, 94% of the tumors were macroadenomas. The MRI findings also revealed the median maximal adenoma diameter of 18.5 mm. About 40% of the patients achieved remission three months after the surgery. Younger patients had a significantly higher Ki-67 index level (P = 0.036). We did not observe any significant difference in the Ki-67 index level regarding gender, tumor type, maximal tumor diameter, tumor invasiveness, tumor secretory type, and remission. Interestingly, the Ki-67 index level was negatively correlated with the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level at the last follow-up (P = 0.02). In logistic regression analysis, patients with higher preoperative GH serum levels had a better outcome.
    Conclusions
    Our results indicated a negative correlation between age and Ki-67 index level. However, there was no association between the Ki-67 index level and some tumor behaviors, as well as short- and long-term remission.
    Keywords: Acromegaly, Growth Hormone, Ki-67, Surgery
  • Nima Montazeri, Najafabady , Mohammad Hossein Dabbaghmanesh *, Rajee Mohammadian Amiri , Mahdi Akbarzadeh Page 8
    Background
    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene variants are known as the main risk factor for low bone mass.
    Objectives
    In this study, the association of vitamin D receptor genetic variants, BsmI (rs1544410) and FokI (rs2228570), with bone mass in Iranian children and adolescents, was evaluated.
    Methods
    The study population comprised of children and adolescents aged between 9 to 18 years (FokI: 123 boys and 120 girls, BsmI: 108 boys and 110 girls). Vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, total cholesterol (TC), High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) reductions were assayed. Bone mineral density and body composition parameters were measured by the Hologic system DXA. BMD Z-score ≤ -2 was considered as low bone density for chronologic age. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism was done for genotyping of BsmI and FokI polymorphisms. The association between VDR variants and bone mineral density was investigated using logistic regression analysis.
    Results
    No significant differences in body composition and biochemical parameters were detected among the evaluated VDR genotypes. For VDR BsmI, the mean values for Z-score of the lumbar spine, neck, inter and total femur was greater in the bb genotype compared to BB and Bb genotypes. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between femoral neck Z-score and VDR BsmI genotypes in an additive genetic model (unadjusted model (P = 0.035; Bb vs. bb), model 1 (adjusted for age and sex, P = 0.021; Bb vs. bb), model 2 (adjusted for age, sex and BMI, P = 0.013; Bb vs. bb) and model 3 (adjusted for age, sex, BMI and puberty, P = 0.011; Bb vs. bb, P = 0.049; BB vs. bb)) and dominant genetic model ((unadjusted model, P = 0.033; BB+Bb vs. bb), model 1 (adjusted for age and sex, P = 0.023; BB+Bb vs. bb), model 2 (adjusted for age, sex and BMI, P = 0.012; BB+Bb vs. bb and model 3 (adjusted for age, sex, BMI and puberty, P = 0.012; BB+Bb vs. bb)).
    Conclusions
    This investigation indicated that VDR BsmI polymorphism may be associated with BMD Z-score of the femoral neck but not the lumbar spine, in Iranian children and adolescents.
    Keywords: Vitamin D Receptor, RFLP, Bone Mineral Density, Children
  • WITHDRAWN: Depressive Symptoms and Well-being of Individuals with Obesity; Race and Gender Differences
    Shervin Assari *, Amy E. Rothberg, Simon J. Evans , Heidi B. Iglay Reger , Charles F. Burant Page 9