فهرست مطالب

School Health - Volume:6 Issue:2, 2019
  • Volume:6 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/02/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Tolulope Bella, Awusah *, Cornelius Ani, Ademola Ajuwon, Olayinka Omigbodun Page 1
    Background
    School mental health programs have the potential to bridge the gap in mental health care for young people. There are limited data on the views of young people about these programs in developing countries.
    Objectives
    The study aimed to determine the views of school-going adolescents on addressing mental health issues in schools.
    Methods
    In this study, 379 students completed an open-ended semi-structured questionnaire on the suitability of addressing mental health concerns in schools. A subset of students who received a targeted school-based mental health intervention provided additional information on their experience. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis.
    Results
    The majority of the students indicated that school was not a suitable place for addressing mental health issues. Concerns cited included the deviation from the primary aims of the school system, lack of resources, and the potential for stigmatization. However, the subset of students who received a targeted mental health intervention found it helpful and wished the program could be made more widely available in schools.
    Conclusions
    This suggests that if well targeted and appropriately delivered, the school-based mental health interventions have the potential to reach Nigerian adolescents in need of mental health interventions, who would; otherwise, be without support.
    Keywords: Adolescents, School Mental Health, Low, Middle Income, Nigeria
  • Nasrin Ansari , Dariush Noroozi *, Khadijeh Ali Abadi , Ali Delavar Page 2
    Background
    Primary schools have the highest quota in children’s education. In all urban regions of Tehran, it is required to know whether the problems and capabilities in spatial inequality of development range have been distributed in the same way and whether all the schools care about the same issues, or whether some regions require a greater focus.
    Objectives
    This research aimed at surveying the relationship between different regions of Tehran based on the spatial pattern of inequality in urban development of capabilities, and social and emotional difficulties among students in the early years of primary school.
    Methods
    Based on the ex-post facto research design and its statistical population, 270 students (7 to 9 years old) from the early years of primary school in the academic year of 2017 - 2018, were included in this study. By multi-stage cluster sampling method, three regions were selected for sampling, based on the pattern of inequality in Tehran’s development centers. Then, one female and one male school were randomly selected from each region and the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) was distributed among the students. This measure is a brief behavioral screening questionnaire that assesses three to sixteen-year-old students. The data were analyzed by SPSS 23. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was run for data analysis at the significance level of P < 0.01.
    Results
    The findings showed that the residential area of students affects their social and emotional health. This effectiveness can account for 8% of students’ social and emotional status. Also, a significant difference was observed between relatively developed and undeveloped regions in students’ level of emotional ability (P < 0.01), yet the developed region did not show any difference with relatively developed and undeveloped regions. Complementary effect was obtained as 0.82, which was the sum of the effect of social and emotional health and shows student’s social and emotional development.
    Conclusions
    There was a significant difference between students’ residential area and children’s social skills and abilities. Children’s social and emotional abilities are more considerable than their social and emotional difficulties. Therefore, attention to training for families and children is strongly recommended.
    Keywords: Schools, Tehran, Inequality of Development, Social, Emotional
  • Najmeh Najafi , Khosro Movahed *, Zahra Barzegar , Siamak Samani Page 3
    Background
    The mental and physical comfort of students in the classroom is very important because it affects students’ learning. The structure of negative emotional states, including stress, anxiety, and depression is influenced by the building environment and its physical features.
    Objectives
    The present study aimed to survey the relationship between ventilation by window opening and female student’s stress, anxiety, and depression in high school classrooms.
    Methods
    The current study was conducted as a quasi-experimental method, using pre-test and post-test with the control group. Statistical population of this study was female students studying at Shiraz high schools during 2016 - 2017. A total of 384 students were selected randomly using Cochran’s formula for participation in the study. The students in 14 classrooms were divided into two groups of intervention and control. The pre-test was used for assessing stress, anxiety, and depression in DASS-21 questionnaires. The intervention group was then allowed to improve the air quality for 6 weeks by opening the window in the classroom. However, this discretion was not given to students in the control group. After 6 weeks of post-test, DASS 21 questionnaire was used.
    Results
    The mean stress score in the intervention group was 20.36 ± 4.326 at pre-test and 19.91 ± 5.162 at post-test and in the control group was 20.28 ± 5.348 at pre-test and 19.91 ± 5.162 at post-test. The mean anxiety score in the intervention group was 20.15 ± 4.705 at pre-test and 18.55 ± 4.673 at post-test and in the control group was 19.12 ± 5.272 at pre-test and 18.92 ± 5.0 at post-test. Also, the mean depression score in the intervention group was 18.29 ± 4.878 at pre-test and 18.53 ± 4.750 at post-test and in the control group was 17.83 ± 5.501 at pre-test and 17.28 ± 5.375 at post-test. Ventilation by window opening could significantly decrease the level of stress (P < 0.001) and anxiety (P < 0.001) but no significant difference was observed in depression (P = 0.067).
    Conclusions
    Ventilation by window opening in the classroom could reduce the stress and anxiety of female high school students in eight weeks, but did not affect the level of depression.
    Keywords: Window Opening, Ventilation, Air Quality, CO2 Concentration, Anxiety, Depression, High School, Classroom, Students
  • Morteza Taheri *, Khadijeh Irandoust Page 4
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of game-based balance training on body composition and psychomotor performance of obese students.
    Methods
    The study recruited a convenience sample of 23 volunteer students in the fifth and sixth grades. The students were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Anthropometric characteristics including weight, percent body fat, and muscle mass were measured at pretest and posttest via a body composition analyzer. The level of physical activity was measured by the international physical activity questionnaire-short form (IPAQ-SF). Psychomotor performance was measured using Vienna’s universal system.
    Results
    The results indicated that all parameters of psychomotor performance improved following the game-based balance training (P ≤ 0.05). Median cognitive reaction time (532 ms at pretest vs. 520 ms at posttest; P = 0.027) and median motor time (1.90 at pretest vs. 1.75 s at posttest; P = 0.001) improved significantly after the intervention. Movement accuracy including correct response (20.50 at pretest vs. 22.83 at posttest; P = 0.001) and correct rejection (30.37 at pretest vs. 32.2 at posttest; P = 0.001) also improved after the exercise protocol. However, no significant change was found in body composition variables (P ≥ 0.05).
    Conclusions
    Game-based balance training is highly recommended for improving the psychomotor performance of obese students. However, such an exercise was unable to make positive changes in the body composition of obese students.
    Keywords: Obesity, Body Composition, Psychomotor Performance
  • Fatemehzahra Ahmadi *, Ali Montazeri Page 5
    Background
    Teachers play a critical role as health promoters. However, relatively little knowledge is available to date about health literacy of pre-service teachers in Iran.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to determine the health literacy level of pre-service teachers from Farhangian University in Tehran, Iran.
    Methods
    A cross-sectional study was conducted on a representative random sample of pre-service teachers stratified by major and gender from May to June 2015. Health literacy was measured using the health literacy for adults (HELIA) questionnaire, with 33 items on the domains of access to health information, reading, understanding, appraisal, and behavioral intention. SPSS version 20 was employed to analyze data using statistics including mean, standard deviation, and frequency, t-test and ANOVA.
    Results
    In total, 704 pre-service teachers participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 20.88 ± 1.43 and 65.8% were female. The health literacy score was 66.30 ± 12.66. Inadequate health literacy was found in 7.3% of the participants, problematic health literacy in 43.3%, sufficient health literacy in 38.5%, and excellent health literacy in 10.9%. Health literacy was significantly associated with age, gender, and marital status.
    Conclusions
    As the high prevalence of limited health literacy in teachers is a barrier to enhancing the health literacy of students at schools, there is a need to design, implement, and evaluate different educational interventions to address health literacy among pre-service teachers.
    Keywords: Health Literacy, HELIA, Teacher Education, Pre-Service Teachers
  • Somaye Gholami , Masoud Rahmanian , Saeedeh Jam Ashkezari , Narjes Hazar , Seied Mohammad Reza Aghaee, Meybody , Nasim Namiranian * Page 6
    Background
    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in all age groups, especially in childhood, has become alarming. Identification, intervention, and prevention are important factors affecting it.
    Objectives
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association the body mass index (BMI) in children and transportation to school in greater areas of Yazd during 2014 - 2015.
    Methods
    This is an analytical cross-sectional study. It was conducted on 2000 primary school students between six to 13 years old who lived in the greater areas of Yazd. Data were collected using a validated questionnaire. Anthropometrics were collected using standardized instruments.
    Results
    In this study, 2000 students were enrolled and 1700 students’ information aged between six to 13 years were recruited completely. About 42% of the participants were male. The mean ± SD age of students was 9.55 (± 1.9) years old. The frequency of normal weight was 56%, overweight was 10.9%, and obesity was 20.6. Students who actively commuted to school had a lower BMI (P = 0.035).
    Conclusions
    The results of this study showed that the way students can travel could affect their BMI. The use of vehicle was higher in obese and overweight students.
    Keywords: Overweight, Obesity, Body Mass Index, Transportation
  • Danielle Fernandes *, Mohita Junnarkar Page 7
    Comprehensive sex education (CSE) aims to help youth gain a positive view of sexuality and appropriate knowledge to make healthy decisions about their sex lives. This report reviews CSE’s holistic approach towards biological, psychological and social development. Relevant articles were gathered from Google Scholar and PubMed search engines, after applying inclusion criteria and screening papers. CSE proved to reduce STDs, pregnancy, delay sex initiation and promote safe sex. The psychological outcomes included decreased depression and increased self-esteem. CSE promoted healthy relationships and reduced discrimination around sexual orientation. Therefore, CSE programs support holistic youth development. This report recommends further research to correct inaccurate assumptions and increase support for CSE programs.
    Keywords: Comprehensive Sex Education, Adolescent Development, Holistic Development, Sexual Health, Reproductive Health, Positive Youth Development
  • Maysam Rezapour , Narges Khanjani *, Moghadameh Mirzai , Mina Mohebbi Page 8
    Background
    Bullying among adolescences is known as a public health abnormality and studying the prevalence of bullying behaviors reported using different methods of data gathering can help researchers in surveillance and planning preventions.
    Objectives
    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of perpetration and victimization of bullying reported by self-report, peer-report, and principle-report.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2017 - 2018, a total of 1,540 students from 42 schools throughout Mazandaran province completed self- and peer-report questionnaires and 42 principals of 42 schools completed principal-report questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to compare the association between these methods and gender, school types, and grade levels.
    Results
    The prevalence of bullies and victims in self-, peer-, and principal-report groups were different (20.2% as victim and 7.8% as a bully for self-report, 9.4% as victim and 8.9% as a bully for peer-report, and 4.3% as victim and 3.1% as a bully for principal-report).
    Conclusions
    This study showed the discrepancy in the prevalence of perpetration and victimization of bullying reported in three measurement methods (self-, peer-, and principal-report) in Iranian schools and suggests the use of multiple assessment methods for bullying behaviors.
    Keywords: Bullying, Prevalence, Self-Report, School, Iran