- Volume:5 Issue:16, 2019
- تاریخ انتشار: 1397/12/10
- تعداد عناوین: 7
Assessment the Possible Association Between Neuromyelitis Optica and Cytomegalovirus as a Provocative FactorPages 1-6BackgroundNeuromyelitis Optica (NMO) is an autoimmune inflammation of the central nervous system in which autoantibodies are released against Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4), astrocytic water channels. The disease is characterized by transverse myelitis and optic neuritis. Viruses could be inflammatory agents in the brain. Due to such inflammatory reactions, autoantibodies would cross the blood brain barrier. Therefore, recognizing the responsible viral agent may help us prevent or treat NMO.ObjectivesTo investigate the probable association between Cytomegalovirus infection (CMV) and Neuromyelitis Optica.
Materials &MethodsThis descriptive study was performed on 25 patients with NMO, 30 patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) referring to an academic MS Clinic and 30 healthy individuals in Isfahan City, Iran in 2016. In order to detect DNA of CMV in the sera of the studied groups, real-time PCR technique was used with hydrolyzing probes such as TaqMan. Beacon Designer 7 was used to design a primer and probe. The Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis in SPSS 16.ResultsThree study groups had no significant difference in terms of age (P=0.33) and gender (P=0.599). All of the samples were negative for CMV DNA. There was no significant difference between three groups of study (P=0.33).ConclusionRegarding the negative real-time PCR results of all samples, and especially using higher specificity of primers and probes in detecting this virus, it can be inferred that no significant correlation exists between CMV infection and NMO disease.Keywords: Neuromyelitis Optica, Cytomegalovirus, Real-time polymerase chain reaction
Pages 7-15BackgroundOld age is associated with the physical and psychological problems that affect the Quality of Life (QoL).ObjectivesThis study aimed to investigate the effect of Laughter Therapy (LT) on the QoL of elderly people in nursing homes.Materials & MethodsThis was a quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test with the control and experimental group and one-month follow-up conducted in 2017. The statistical population consisted of 44 elderly people in the Mehr Aein nursing home in Astaneh-ye Ashrafiyeh City, Iran. Based on the inclusion criteria, 32 old people were selected and randomly assigned to experimental (n=16) and control (n=16) groups. The experimental group received an interventional program consisting of Madan Kataria Laughter Therapy, showing comic films, and reading comic books for one month, over 12 sessions of 100 minutes. After the end of laughter intervention, the elderly of both groups responded to the elderly quality of life questionnaire (LIPAD). The obtained data were analyzed using covariance analysis of repeated measures.ResultsThere was a significant difference between the two groups with regard to their QoL (P<0.01). That is, the adjusted mean of the experimental group in the QoL was significantly higher than the mean of the control group (P<0.01). Also, in the experimental group, the mean follow-up score was higher than the mean score of the pre-test, which indicates the stability of the intervention effects after one month (P<0.01).ConclusionLaughter Therapy intervention has a positive effect on improving the QoL of the elderly. Therefore, it is necessary that authorities consider this program at nursing home centers as a complementary method besides the existing treatments for reducing the mental health problems and improving the QoL of the elderly.Keywords: Laughter Therapy, Frail elderly, Quality of Life
The Role of Event Related Potentials in Pre-Comprehension Processing of Consumers to Marketing LogosPages 16-22BackgroundIn human behavior study, by peering directly into the brain and assessing distinct patterns, evoked neurons and neuron spike can be more understandable by taking advantages of accurate brain analysis.ObjectivesWe investigated the role of Event Related Potentials (ERPs) in pre-comprehension processing of consumers to marketing logos..
Materials &MethodsIn the framework of an experimental design, twenty-six right-handed volunteers (13 men, 13 women) participated in 2013 in the University of Tabriz. An individual task with a presentation of familiar vs. unfamiliar logos was designed. Stimuli were displayed on a monitor controlled by a PC using the Mitsar® stimulus presentation system PsyTask. Statistical analyses of ERPs data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA.ResultsOur results showed, when subjects were dealing with familiar logos, higher peak amplitude for the N1 component in right hemisphere of the brain can be observed. These variations on averages of early components of ERPs in occipital lobe can be referred to the pre-perceptual brain activities.ConclusionInvestigating early components of ERP can be utilized further as an effective factor in prediction of the consumers ‘preference particularly in neuromarketing field.Keywords: Evoked potentials, Comprehension, Neuro-marketing
Pages 23-27BackgroundThe number of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is increasing in Iran. Studies have shown that high sodium chloride (salt) and low potassium intake are associated with the development of MS. High physiological salt concentrations can lead to the induction of Interleukin-17 (IL-17) accompanied by the excessive generation of helper T-17 cells (Th-17). This cytokine plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. This is while potassium supplementation has a blocking effect on IL-17 production.ObjectivesBecause of the role of salt and potassium in Th 17 development, we hypothesized that sodium chloride (NaCl) would be higher and potassium (K) would be lower in MS patients than healthy controls. Therefore, we investigated the association between salt and potassium intake with MS in Isfahan City population, Iran.
Materials &MethodsA case-control study containing 23 patients and 23 healthy controls was performed in Isfahan City, Iran, 2016. NaCl and K levels were measured in 24-h urine. Using the Chi-square test, the patients’ laboratory values were compared with the healthy controls. The level of significance was set at P<0.05 in all analyses. All calculations were performed in SPSS, version 23.0.ResultsIn this study, urine Na levels were somewhat higher in cases than in controls (Interquartile Range [IQR]; 160[140-211] mEq/24 h vs. 128[83-166] mEq/24 h]) (P=0.027). These results show a significant relationship between urine-Na and MS. Urine k concentrations were lower in cases than controls [IQR; 47(27-70) mEq/24 h vs. 50(29-56) mEq/24 h] but we did not find a significant difference between two groups (P=0.807).ConclusionBased on this study, a high level of sodium intake may be associated with MS; however, we did not find a significant difference between patients and controls with regard to potassium level.Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, Sodium chloride, Potassium, Th 17 cells, Interleukin-17
Infected External Ventricular Drainage After Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm: Clipping Time ChallengePages 28-33BackgroundVentriculostomy-Related Infections (VRIs) are reported in 3%–29% of patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH), and is strongly associated with the placement of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) catheters. Considering the risk of placement of a metal clip in an infected environment, the timing of clipping in these patients is a challenging issue.ObjectivesTo treat the patients with a ruptured aneurysm that simultaneously had infection induced by External Ventricular Drainage (EVD).
Materials &MethodsThis study was carried out from January 2016 to December 2018 in an academic hospital in the north of Iran. A total of 42 consecutive patients with spontaneous SAH treated with EVD were enrolled in this study. The results of laboratory tests of CSF (proven or suspected ventriculitis) and timing from ictus to aneurysm surgical clipping, length of VRIs, and patients’ outcomes were reviewed. Analysis of the obtained data was performed by ANOVA, Fisher exact test and the Chi-square test in SPSS 20. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant.ResultsAmong non-infected patients, the best time of clipping is less than 3 days that resulted in the least complications (P=0.047). Among the infected patients, the rate of death in patients undergone surgery 4-14 days later was more than the patients undergone surgery after 2 weeks and the rate of severe complications was even more after 2 weeks.ConclusionIf there is simultaneous brain aneurysm and infection induced by EVD, aneurysm clipping is better to be done in less than 3 day that reduces the vasospasm too, otherwise the clipping is better to be done after treatment of the infection i.e. 2-3 weeks later.Keywords: Subarachnoid hemorrhage, Intracranial aneurysm, Drainage
Pages 34-40BackgroundTuberculosis is the second most common fatal infectious disease after Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the world. The spine is involved in 50% of osteoarticular tuberculosis cases. Tuberculous Spondylitis (TS) is the most dangerous form of osteoarticular tuberculosis, because of its ability to destroy the vertebral body with subsequent permanent kyphosis and neurological deficits such as paraplegia. The treatment goals of TS are to eradicate the infection and provide stability for the affected spine. There is little information in the literature about systemic non-surgical treatment under the condition of spinal cord compression in TS. We report two cases of TS which was improved with non-surgical treatment. We believe that the clinico-radiological signs of spinal cord compression in these cases are not an emergency indication for surgery.
Clinical Presentation and Intervention: Two women aged 34 and 26 years were hospitalized because of the upper motor neuron type weakness in both legs worsened gradually, descending numbness, without urinary or defecation problems. Magnetic resonance imaging depicted lesions on vertebral bodies supporting the diagnosis of TS. Both patients were received oral antituberculous therapy and their muscle force improved despite the kyphotic deformity in the first patient.ConclusionNeuro-radiological evidence of spinal cord compression is not an emergency indication of surgery in the management of TS and clinical improvement can be obtained by non-surgical treatment.Keywords: Tuberculosis, Spondylitis, Kyphosis, Management
Pages 41-47BackgroundThe common causes of 18p deletion syndrome are spontaneous errors in the chromosomal structure in the early stages of human embryonic development.
Clinical Presentation and Intervention: In this study, a 29-year-old girl was introduced with the features of deletion of chromosome 18. In addition, GTG banding karyotype revealed that this case had a deletion involving the short arm of chromosome 18. In comparison with the usual phenotype of 18p deletion, many phenotypical features of this case were similar to the other cases of 18p monosomy.ConclusionHowever, two new features; difficulty in speaking and persistent limb tremor, were found that had not been observed in previous studies on the 18p deletion. Speaking was without obvious pronunciation, and the patient’s physical movements were always unbalanced. These two features can be new signs for 18p deletion syndrome.Keywords: Chromosome deletion, Chromosome 18, Tremor, Karyotype