فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:6 Issue:1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/12/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Milad Ashrafizadeh, Zahra Ahmadi * Pages 1-5
    Introduction
    Today, smoking has become a common habit, and researchers have largely been concerned with the adverse health effects of smoking. Some approaches have been proposed to minimize these effects. Nicotine is an alkaloid, which is considered to be a detrimental agent in smokers. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of astaxanthin against the adverse effects of nicotine.
    Methods
    In this study, 42 BALB/c male mice were purchased from Mashhad University in Mashhad, Iran and randomly divided into six groups. Group one received one milliliter of normal saline daily, group two received nicotine (1.5 mg/kg), group three was administered with astaxanthin (25 mg/kg), group four also received astaxanthin (50 mg/kg), group five was administered with astaxanthin (25 mg/kg) and nicotine (1.5 mg/kg), and group 6 was administered with astaxanthin (50 mg/kg) and nicotine (1.5 mg/kg). After the experiments, the epididymis was collected, and the motility, viability, and count of the sperms were evaluated.
    Results
    Nicotine at the dose of 1.5 mg/kg decreased the count, viability, and motility of sperm. In contrast, astaxanthin at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg was observed to diminish the destructive effects of nicotine.
    Conclusion
    According to the results, astaxanthin is a potent antioxidant for the protection of the reproductive system against nicotine-induced toxicity.
    Keywords: Astaxanthin, Infertility, Nicotine, Spermogram
  • Farideh Akhlaghi *, Elaham Rezaie Askarye, Mona Najaf Najafi, Zohre Khoee Pages 6-11
    Introduction
    Second-trimester pregnancy termination with live fetuses is an important issue in obstetric practice since it is more challenging than first- and third-trimester pregnancy termination. The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of vaginal misoprostol moistened with normal saline and acetic acid in second-trimester pregnancy termination.
    Methods
    This clinical trial was conducted on 95 pregnant women with the gestational age of 14-26 weeks admitted for medical induced abortion. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The first group was administered with vaginal misoprostol moistened with acetic acid (n=47), and the second group received vaginal misoprostol moistened with normal saline (n=48). The abortion rate within the first 24 hours, induced abortion interval, length of hospital stay, and curettage and its complications were assessed in the study groups using statistical methods, and the P-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.
    Results
    Abortion within the first 24 hours occurred in 100% of the patients in the acetic acid group and 75% of the subjects in the normal saline group, and the difference was considered statistically significant (P<0.001). The mean time for fetal delivery was significantly lower in the acetic acid group (12.3±4.8) compared to the normal saline group (17.5±6.6) (P<0.001). In addition, the length of hospital stay was significantly lower in the acetic acid group compared to the normal saline group (P=0.008). The rate of abortion following the second dose of misoprostol was 46.8% in the acetic acid group and 20.8% in the normal saline group. However, no significant differences were observed in curettage and its complications between the groups.
    Conclusion
    According to the results, high vaginal acidity was associated with the increased effectiveness of misoprostol in second-trimester pregnancy termination.
    Keywords: Aacetic acid, Induction abortion, Misoprostol
  • Asal Yadollahi, Mostafa Dastani, Bita Zargaran, Amir Hossein Ghasemi, Hamid Reza Rahimi * Pages 12-19
    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a yellow, active substance of an herbal origin, which is mainly derived from turmeric of the ginger family. Extensive research has been focused on the therapeutic effects of this substance on diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases, and the hepatoprotective properties have attracted the attention of researchers. In addition, curcumin significantly improves oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation. It could also modulate various cell signals in cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and enzymes. Curcumin attenuates the blood glucose by increasing insulin levels. According to findings, consuming one gram of curcumin per day for one month could decrease total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Moreover, it contributes to the control of some of the main parameters associated with the metabolic syndrome, which is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Hepatic cholesterol metabolism is also regulated by curcumin, which has a similar function to lovastatin in the long run. Curcumin has been reported to prevent the enlargement of solid tumours. Several have confirmed the therapeutic role of curcumin in the management of the metabolic syndromes and cardiovascular diseases. The present study aimed to review the therapeutic effects of curcumin.
    Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases, Curcumin, Diabetes
  • Javad Ramezani, Hamid Hoseinikhah, Kayhan Mizani, Mohamadreza Akbari, Mahsa Moallemi, Maryam Argi, Aliasghar Moeinipour * Pages 20-23
    Controlled intraoperative cardioplegia is indispensable to pediatric cardiac surgery procedures. Several preservation techniques have been proposed for such purposes, with varying application by different surgeons. The custodiol cardioplegia is a recent approach that is considered to be a safe and effective cardiac protector. This narrative review was conducted via searching in four databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and ScienceDirect. The studies focused on the efficacy and safety of custodiol cardioplegia reviewed, especially in pediatric cardiac surgeries and relevant procedures. In total, 21 articles were eligible, and the findings highlighted the controversies regarding the use of various cardioplegic solutions and the variability of their application by surgeons. However, data were inadequate regarding the optimal cardioplegic solutions in this regard. Some of the studies performed on adults suggested that custodiol cardioplegia may be equivalent to conventional blood cardioplegia. Most of the reviewed articles showed a consensus on the safety and efficacy of custodiol cardioplegia in adult and pediatric cardiac surgeries. It is believed that custodiol procedures are not only easily delivered, but they are also convenient and less time-consuming and provide long-lasting motion and bloodless fields for the surgeon to perform the operation. Therefore, use of custodiol cardioplegia has been reported to be safe, effective, and cost-efficient compared to conventional cardioplegic solutions. However, different findings have also been denoted in some of the studies in this regard, implying the equal effectiveness of these techniques.
    Keywords: Cardioplegic solution, Custodiol, pediatric cardiac surgery
  • Massoud Hajia * Pages 24-28
    The prevalence of brucellosis has increased in recent years in some regions in Iran, particularly in the western, northeastern, and some central areas. Undoubtedly, the main causes of brucellosis are the lack of vaccination coverage in livestock and distribution of dairy products. In addition, attention must be paid to the diagnostic difficulties associated with slow growth specificity and use of inefficient methods, which lead to the delayed diagnosis of the disease. All the available diagnostic procedures are currently used for the diagnosis of brucellosis, including isolation on culture media, serological procedures, and molecular techniques. Among these methods, isolation on culture media has shown the minimum efficiency, especially in blood specimens, which are the most commonly requested specimens in disease diagnosis. The influential factors could be the use of unapproved commercial kits, applying outdated diagnostic procedures, and using unqualified specimens in hospitalized patients. The present study aimed to enhance the current status of the isolation method, especially in the endemic areas for brucellosis. Several parameters were assessed in this regard, including the role of laboratory conditions, sampling quality, type of culture media, and various isolation methods, in order to review the studies aiming to increase the efficiency of this method.
    Keywords: Brucella, Blood Specimens, Diagnosis
  • Arezoo Jahanbin, Mostafa Shahabi, Abdolrasoul Rangrazi, Parastoo Namdar, Farzaneh Lal Alizadeh * Pages 29-32
    With the exception of the third molar, maxillary canine impaction is considered to be the most common form of tooth impaction. The position of the permanent maxillary canine at the angle of the mouth is strategically important in preserving the harmony and symmetry of the dental arches. The incidence of maxillary canine impaction in the maxilla is more than twice higher compared to the mandible. Approximately one-thirds of the cases are labially located, and two-thirds are palatally located. Bilateral impaction has been reported in 8% of the patients with canine impaction. The treatment procedure is time-consuming and imposes a significant financial burden on the patient. Impacted maxillary canines could be erupted and guided to an appropriate location in the dental arch with early detection, timely interception, and proper surgical management in order to perform orthodontic treatment. Various surgical and orthodontic techniques could be used to guide impacted canines into the arch. Accurate selection of surgical and orthodontic techniques is essential to the successful alignment of impacted teeth. Management of impacted tooth often requires an interdisciplinary approach. In addition, proper cooperation of the orthodontist, oral surgeon, and periodontist seems crucial in this process. The present study aimed to review the clinical and practical aspects required for the management of maxillary canine impaction based on the location and age of the impaction.
    Keywords: canine, impacted, tooth, unerupted
  • Mandana Khodashahi *, Zahra Havashki, Kamran Khazaeni, Amir Hossein Jafarian Pages 33-36
    Torticollis or involuntarily twisted neck is considered to be a sign rather than a condition. Some of the main causes of torticollis are trauma, medication side-effects, infectious and inflammatory processes, and head and neck tumors.A 26-year-old female patient presented with acute acquired torticollis for four months, and the conditions had complicated due to constitutional symptoms, such as weight loss, sweating, and decreased appetite, eventually leading to trismus. Neck CT-scan showed bilateral lymph node enlargements, soft tissue stranding, right-sided asymmetry of the fossa of Rosenmüller (pharyngeal recess), and a heterogeneous enhancing mass on the nasopharynx roof with left extension and bilateral pressure on the Eustachian tube. The biopsy of the mass indicated the infiltration of atypical epithelial cells with marked nuclear atypia in small solid nests within the lymphoid tissue of the nasopharynx, which corresponded to nasopharyngeal carcinoma. However, the patient had no risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This study highlighted the importance of a complete work-up for the underlying tumors in the head and neck in the patients presenting with the only finding of torticollis.
    Keywords: Malignancy, nasopharyngeal neoplasm, Torticollis
  • Kobra Salimiyan Rizi, Hadi Farsiani *, Kiarash Ghazvini, Masoud Youssefi Pages 37-39
    Rothia dentocariosa (R. dentocariosa) is a gram-positive bacterium, which is a microorganism that normally resides in the mouth and respiratory tract. R. dentocariosa is known to involve in dental plaques and periodontal diseases. However, it is considered an organism with low pathogenicity and is associated with opportunistic infections. Originally thought not to be pathogenic in humans, R. dentocariosa was first described to cause infections in a 19-year-old female with periappendiceal abscess in 1975. The most prevalent human infections caused by R. dentocariosa include infective endocarditis, bacteremia, endophthalmitis, corneal ulcer, septic arthritis, pneumonia, and peritonitis associated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Three main factors have been reported to increase the risk of the cardiac and extra-cardiac infections caused by R. dentocariosa, including immunocompromised conditions, pre-existing cardiac disorders, and poor oral hygiene. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) may induce peritonitis presumably due to hematogenous spread from gingival or periodontal sources. This case study aimed to describe a former PD patient presenting with peritonitis. Oral hygiene is a basic principle in PD patients for the prevention of peritonitis. It is speculated that our patient might have had an occult oral source of R. dentocariosa.
    Keywords: Oral hygiene, Peritoneal dialysis, Rothia dentocariosa