فهرست مطالب

Applied Language Studies - Volume:10 Issue:2, 2019
  • Volume:10 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/02/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • The Effects of Bilingualism on Basic Color Terms in Persian
    Mojtaba Alizadeh Sahraie *, Mohammad Rasekh Mahand Pages 1-28
    This study is to determine how bilingualism could influence the list of Persian basic color terms and their order. Using a monolingual Persian and a bilingual Kurd sample students, and a color list task, it is assumed that bilingualism could change the ordering of the non-basic color terms in the second language, but not the basic ones. Another assumption is that, the old usual methods for obtaining mean position and saliency, based on Sutrop (2001) would not determine the BCTs in Persian. The data suggest that Persian has 6 BCTs; Qermez, Âbi, Sabz, Zard, Siyâh, and Sefid. The BCTs are retrieved by monolinguals much faster than bilinguals. Mean Position and frequency in school and university students had differences in number supporting the hypothesis that staying for more than two years in a bilingual environment and L2 use frequency are the two effective factors in BCTs order.
    Keywords: sequential bilinguals, basic color terms, Persian, list task, Kurds
  • Teacher’s Reflection and Its Components as Predictors of EFL Teacher’s Sense of Classroom Management
    Masoomeh Estaji, *, Roya Vafaeimehr Pages 29-46
    Through a descriptive Ex Post Facto research design, the relationship between teacher reflection and classroom management, the predictive power of teacher reflection components regarding classroom management, and classroom management strategies used by high and low reflective teachers were examined. To this end, 113 EFL teachers completed the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control (ABCC) Inventory (Martin et al., 1998b) and teacher reflection inventory (Akbari et al., 2010). The results of Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient showed that there was a significant positive relationship between teachers’ reflection and their sense of classroom management. Moreover, a multiple regression was run whose findings revealed that practical and critical components of reflection are the best predictors of teachers’ sense of classroom management. Twenty teachers were also interviewed and the thematic analysis of the interview showed that high reflective teachers used different kinds of management strategies, for their students’ social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties using proper pedagogical planning and techniques, to deal with the classroom problems in comparison with their low reflective counterparts.
    Keywords: Classroom Management, EFL Teachers, High Reflective Teachers, Low Reflective Teachers, Teacher Reflection
  • Nominalization in Academic Writing: A Cross-disciplinary Investigation of Physics and Applied Linguistics Empirical Research Articles
    Alireza Jalilifar *, Zhila Heidari Kaidan, Alexanne Don Pages 47-64
    The present study aimed to explore how nominalization is manifested in a sample of Physics and Applied Linguistics research articles (RAs), representing hard and soft sciences respectively. To this end, 60 RAs from discipline-related professional journals were randomly selected and analyzed in light of Halliday and Matthiessen’s (1999) taxonomy of nominalization. Comparing the normalized frequencies indicated that articles in Applied Linguistics differ significantly from their counterparts in Physics as they include more nominalized expressions. Moreover, the analysis brought out the findings that deployment of nominalization Type Two is significantly different from the other three types of nominalization in each discipline. Subsequently, the obtained expressions were put into their context of use in order to extract the most prevalent patterns of nominalization in the RAs. The investigation into the embedded patterns introduced 15 common patterns for Physics and Applied Linguistics RAs. Chi-square analyses suggested statistically significant differences in using only four patterns. Finally, implications accrue to the findings in reference to academic writing teachers and course designers.
    Keywords: Academic Writing, Nominalization, Research Articles, Systemic Functional Linguistics, Physics, Applied Linguistics
  • The Role of Corrective Feedback and Learning Styles on EFL Students’ Acquisition of Grammatical Structures
    Mohammad Khatib, Muhammad Nasser Vaezi *, Rasool Najjarbaghseyah Pages 65-82
    The role of oral corrective feedback has been investigated by SLA researchers from various perspectives. Focusing on Iranian EFL context, the present study aimed to explore the role of receiving corrective feedback in the learning of English grammatical structures. It also probed the association between the type of corrective feedback and EFL learners’ learning styles. This was an experimental study examining a sample of 128 intermediate-level EFL learners through pretest-posttest control group design. Data of the study was analysed through one-way ANOVA conducted on post-test scores. Results of the study indicated that there were statistically significant differences between experimental groups and control group in terms of receiving feedback. These findings implied the outperformance of the metalinguistic feedback group over recast group and also the superiority of providing EFL learners with feedback compared to no-feedback. The results obtained from two-way ANOVA revealed an effectively significant interaction between the type of oral corrective feedback and the learners’ learning styles. The study discussed how both types of corrective feedback and learning styles could manipulate L2 acquisition which might have some implications for EFL language teachers in the classroom.
    Keywords: Corrective Feedback, Recast, Metalinguistic Feedback, Learning Styles, Field-Dependency
  • Lexical Bundles in English Abstracts of Research Articles Written by Iranian Scholars: Examples from Humanities
    Hossein Rahimi Azad, Shahram I Modarres Khiaban * Pages 83-108
    This paper investigates a special type of recurrent expressions, lexical bundles, defined as a sequence of three or more words that co-occur frequently in a particular register (Biber et al., 1999). Considering the importance of this group of multi-word sequences in academic prose, this study explores the forms and syntactic structures of three- and four-word bundles in English abstracts written by Iranian scholars in three disciplines; business studies, history, and linguistics. Applying a frequency-based approach suggested by Biber et al. (1999), the data were drawn from a corpus consisting of 660 English abstracts of research articles published by various leading academic journals. As regards syntactic structure, the structural characteristics of the lexical bundles were first explored through careful analysis and then classified using a modified version of Biber et al.’s (1999) structural framework. The study also compares the forms, frequencies, and structures of the lexical bundles in the corpus to those found in Hyland’s (2004) research article corpus. This comparison shows that not only are there relatively large differences between the two corpora in the forms and frequencies of bundles employed, but also there are some discrepancies in terms of distribution of the different structural types and tokens.
    Keywords: Lexical Bundles, Formulaic Expressions, Recurrent Expressions, Corpus Linguistic, Academic Writing
  • The Contribution of Lexical, Grammatical, and Propositional Knowledge Preparation to L2 Listening Comprehension
    Mohammad Bagher Shabani, Ali Malmir *, Farzaneh Arjmand Pages 109-130

    Listening comprehension is a multifaceted L2 skill and its actual mastery has proved challenging for many EFL learners (Matthews, 2018). Pre-listening supports may help us change the dire situation in developing effective listening competence. Therefore, the current study tried to examine the effect of vocabulary preparation, grammar instruction and background knowledge activation as pre-listening tasks on the listening comprehension among 95 Iranian intermediate EFL learners in three experimental groups who were randomly selected from among 142 Iranian EFL learners after administration of a paper-based TOEFL. In group A, the teacher elaborated on the difficult grammatical structures of the listening comprehension (LC) test and the students did some exercises. Group B practiced the related difficult words using synonyms, antonyms, and sentence examples. In group C, some topical knowledge about the content of the LC test was given and discussed. After the treatment, a valid researcher-made LC test was given to all groups. This procedure was followed for four more listening texts and after each treatment, a valid researcher-made LC test based on the text was administered. Data analysis using one-way ANOVA and Scheffe test revealed that background knowledge activation and vocabulary preparation significantly improved learners’ listening performances; however, grammar preparation did not exert a significant influence on EFL listening comprehension. These results were confirmed by the experts’ attitudes in the subsequent qualitative phase of the study. These findings suggest that EFL teachers should use background knowledge activation and lexical preparation prior to the main listening tasks.

    Keywords: Background Knowledge Activation, Grammar Instruction, L2 Listening Comprehension, Schemata, Scripts, Vocabulary Preparation
  • Gender-Based investigation of the Syntactic Development of Iranian EFL Learners: A Focus on Processabilty Theory
    Vahdat Sedigheh *, Zohreh Shooshtari Gooniband, Bordbar Anahita Pages 131-150
    Pienemann (1998, 2015) put forward Processability Theory to enlighten why language learners follow definite developmental paths. The aim of the present study was to run a comparative investigation into the difficulty order of different grammatical structures for male and female Iranian EFL learners predicted by Processability Theory. 185 Iranian university students took part in this study. They received a Demographic Questionnaire and a Validated Researcher-Made Grammar Test designed based on the stages of Processability Theory. Item Response Theory (IRT) Rasch Modeling was used to analyze the collected data. Results pertained to the research questions revealed that the stages predicted by Processability Theory do not account for the Iranian male/female EFL learners. Another major finding emerged from the data was that the difficulty level of different grammatical structures presented by Pienneman in PT doesn’t match the difficulty order obtained in this study by male/female EFL respondents. All things considered, results of the study provided a reliable counterevidence for the assumptions of the theory.
    Keywords: Processability Theory, Syntactic Development, EFL Learners
  • Comparative Study of Degree of Bilingualism in Lexical Retrieval and Language Learning Strategies
    Zeinab Zandieh *, Jafarigohar Manoochehr, Hooshang Khoshsima, Hassan Soleimani Pages 151-174
    This study compares lexical retrieval amongst monolinguals and intermediate bilinguals and advanced bilinguals. It also investigates the possible effects of their language learning strategies on their respective lexical retrieval advantage. The study used a mixed methods design and the groups consisted of 20 Persian near-monolinguals, 20 Persian-English intermediate level bilinguals, and 20 Persian-English high-proficiency bilinguals. Auditory and visual lexical Memory Span Tasks were utilized to evaluate the lexical retrieval of all the language groups. The way that bilinguals used their L2 on a daily basis was examined using semi-structured interviews. It was suggested that the knowledge of two languages will not necessarily result in lexical retrieval advantages in bilinguals when compared to monolinguals. However, it was found that the specific language learning strategies used by the bilinguals could potentially influence their lexical retrieval advantages. Furthermore, when comparing lexical retrieval in different language proficiency groups, the method using which bilinguals manage their two languages as well as the environment they are located in should be taken into consideration.
    Keywords: Lexical Retrieval, Intermediate Bilinguals, Advanced Bilinguals, Language Learning Strategies, Degree of Bilingualism