فهرست مطالب

پژوهشهای جغرافیای انسانی - پیاپی 107 (بهار 1398)
  • پیاپی 107 (بهار 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/02/21
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
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  • سوگل فاضل*، مسعود تقوایی، امیر محمودزاده صفحات 1-21
    بر اساس نقشه پهنه بندی خطر زلزله در ایران، بخش زیادی از این کشور در محدوده خطر نسبتا متوسط روبه بالا قرار دارد. از سوی دیگر، دوره های غیرلرزه ای بعضی گسل ها در سده بیستم (حتی آرامشی هزارساله) نشان دهنده لرزه زا نبودن این گسل ها نیست. در این میان، قضاوت شهروندان از خطر باید بر این مبنا باشد که آن ها در منطقه ای زلزله خیز سکونت دارند. براین اساس ضروری است ارزیابی ریسک لرزه ای مناطق مختلف کشور با هدف کاهش خطرپذیری جوامع شهری در اولویت برنامه ریزی ها قرار بگیرد. در پژوهش کاربردی و توصیفی-تحلیلی حاضر، ضمن معرفی دیدگاه ها و مدل های مختلف مرتبط با مفهوم شناسی ریسک و آسیب پذیری، ریسک پذیری لرزه ای شهر نجف آباد بررسی شد. برای این منظور، از پارامترهای گوناگون کمی و کیفی براساس رویکرد تصمیم گیری چندمعیاره و روش تحلیل شبکه (ANP) و ارائه مدل کاربرد داشت. نتایج نشان می دهد حدود 60 درصد مساحت توسعه یافته شهر - که دربرگیرنده ساختمان های خشتی و آجر و آهن است - ریسک پذیری متوسط روبه بالایی دارد. با تطبیق نقشه تراکم جمعیت بر این پهنه، حدود یک چهارم جمعیت شهر (در بعضی قسمت ها با تراکمی بین 70 تا 100 نفر در هکتار) خطرپذیری بالایی دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: آسیب پذیری، ریسک، زمین لرزه، مخاطره، نجف آباد
  • مهتا تاری، میثم رضایی* صفحات 23-40
    از دیدگاه آمایشی، توسعه فعالیت های اقتصادی بدون توجه به توانمندی ها و میزان ظرفیت تولیدی منابع طبیعی موجود منطقه، مشکلات متعدد زیست محیطی، اجتماعی و اقتصادی را به وجود می آورد؛ از این رو در هر منطقه ای، به ویژه مناطق کوهستانی مانند ارومیه، شناخت و مدیریت صحیح پارامترها و منابع محیطی برای حفظ پایداری زمین و منابع امری مهم و اجتناب ناپذیر است. هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی و شناسایی میزان اثرگذاری عناصر ساختاری زمین بر تناسب کاربری هاست که با بهره گیری از سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی و روش MCE برای ارزیابی و مطالعه بیشتر زمین در شهرستان ارومیه انجام شده است. نتایج این پژوهش نشان می دهد عناصر توپوگرافی و لندفرم ها نقشی برجسته در غربال گری تناسب زمین برای توسعه فعالیت ها دارند. براساس نتایج این مطالعه، درمجموع تنها حدود 33 درصد کل مساحت شهرستان ارومیه برای توسعه فعالیت های مختلف در پهنه های بسیار متناسب و متناسب قرار دارد. در فرایند مطالعه، نتیجه هم پوشانی لایه شیب بر پهنه بندی پیشنهادی نشان می دهد پهنه های تناسب محدود، تناسب بسیار پایین و نامتناسبی با میانگین شیب های 18/20 درصد، 69/28 درصد و 42 درصد مشتمل بر 67 درصد مساحت شهرستان دارد، اما توانمندی لازم برای توسعه فعالیتها را ندارد و عملا محدودیت های شدید محیطی ناشی از توپوگرافی و لندفرمها، مانع اصلی توسعه فعالیت ها در این محدوده هاست. براساس این نتایج می توان به خوبی دریافت که در منطقه ارومیه، نیل به توسعه در هر فعالیتی مستلزم توجه و اولویت ملاحظات محیطی و مدیریت پایدار منابع طبیعی منطقه است.
    کلیدواژگان: حکمروایی خوب شهری، شهر فردوسیه، مدیریت شهری، مشارکت
  • نصرت مرادی، هدایتاللهنوری*، عباس امینی فسخودی، میرنجف موسوی صفحات 41-56
    از دیدگاه آمایشی، توسعه فعالیت های اقتصادی بدون توجه به توانمندی ها و میزان ظرفیت تولیدی منابع طبیعی موجود منطقه، مشکلات متعدد زیست محیطی، اجتماعی و اقتصادی را به وجود می آورد؛ از این رو در هر منطقه ای، به ویژه مناطق کوهستانی مانند ارومیه، شناخت و مدیریت صحیح پارامترها و منابع محیطی برای حفظ پایداری زمین و منابع امری مهم و اجتناب ناپذیر است. هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی و شناسایی میزان اثرگذاری عناصر ساختاری زمین بر تناسب کاربری هاست که با بهره گیری از سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی و روش MCE برای ارزیابی و مطالعه بیشتر زمین در شهرستان ارومیه انجام شده است. نتایج این پژوهش نشان می دهد عناصر توپوگرافی و لندفرم ها نقشی برجسته در غربال گری تناسب زمین برای توسعه فعالیت ها دارند. براساس نتایج این مطالعه، درمجموع تنها حدود 33 درصد کل مساحت شهرستان ارومیه برای توسعه فعالیت های مختلف در پهنه های بسیار متناسب و متناسب قرار دارد. در فرایند مطالعه، نتیجه هم پوشانی لایه شیب بر پهنه بندی پیشنهادی نشان می دهد پهنه های تناسب محدود، تناسب بسیار پایین و نامتناسبی با میانگین شیب های 18/20 درصد، 69/28 درصد و 42 درصد مشتمل بر 67 درصد مساحت شهرستان دارد، اما توانمندی لازم برای توسعه فعالیت ها را ندارد و عملا محدودیت های شدید محیطی ناشی از توپوگرافی و لندفرم ها، مانع اصلی توسعه فعالیت ها در این محدوده هاست. براساس این نتایج می توان به خوبی دریافت که در منطقه ارومیه، نیل به توسعه در هر فعالیتی مستلزم توجه و اولویت ملاحظات محیطی و مدیریت پایدار منابع طبیعی منطقه است.
    کلیدواژگان: توپوگرافی، روش MCE، سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی، شهرستان ارومیه، لندفرم
  • محمد سلیمانی، احمد زنگانه، طاهر پریزادی، یاسمن سلحشور* صفحات 57-77
    تحول در الگوی مراکز تجاری، سبب استقرار کاربری های منطقه ای و فرامنطقه ای در سطح محله های مسکونی شده و با پیامدهایی مثبت و منفی همراه بوده است. در پژوهش حاضر، بازارهای فراشهری مبل یافت آباد، کیف و کفش امین الملک و آلومینیوم قلعه مرغی واقع در منطقه 17 شهرداری تهران، به عنوان فضاهای تجاری با عملکرد فراشهری بررسی شده است تا تاثیرات آن ها بر تغییرات کالبدی محله های مسکونی مجاور خود، از جمله یافت آباد، امامزاده حسن، باغ خزانه و بلورسازی مشخص شود. پژوهش حاضر شناختی و ارزیابی-مقایسه ای است و از پژوهش های مقطعی-طولی محسوب می شود. داده های آن نیز از نوع کمی-کیفی (آمیخته) و شیوه گردآوری، اسنادی و پیمایشی (پرسشنامه محقق ساخته و مصاحبه و مشاهده) است. جامعه آماری مطالعه حاضر، بلوک های آماری سال های 1359، 1375 و 1390، قطعات کاربری اراضی و مسئولان شهری محله ها و منطقه مورد مطالعه است. داده ها به کمک آزمون t تک نمونه ای و آزمون فریدمن در نرم افزار SPSS تحلیل شد و نمایش فضایی داده ها با استفاده از نرم افزار GIS صورت گرفت. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد بازارهای فراشهری سبب تشدید فرسودگی بافت محله و بناهای آن و تبدیل واحدهای مسکونی محله ها به کاربری تجاری و انبار کالا شده است. به طورکلی استقرار بازارهای فراشهری در محله های مورد مطالعه، فضای این محله های مسکونی را آشفته کرده است.
    کلیدواژگان: آشفتگی فضایی، بناهای شهری، بازارهای فراشهری، تغییرات کالبدی، محله های مسکونی
  • اصغر عابدینی*، ناصر ثبات ثانی، مینا گلشنی صفحات 79-96
    مداخلات شهرسازانه در دوره اخیر دگرگونی های عمده ای در ساختار فضایی شهرهای ایران به وجود آورده است. در روند این توسعه کالبدی در بسیاری از ش96هرهای تاریخی، مشکلاتی مانند ناتوانی در سازگاری با تغییرات کالبدی و نبود پیوند مناسب با ساختار شبکه ای موجود، هسته های تاریخی را دچار مشکل کرده است. پژوهش توصیفی تحلیلی و کمی-مقایسه ای حاضر، با هدف بررسی تاثیر طرح های توسعه شهری بر ساختار فضایی محدوده تاریخی شهر ارومیه، به تحلیل ساختار شهر در 4 دوره (1312-1355-1373-1395) به روش چیدمان فضا پرداخته است. جمع آوری داده ها به صورت کتابخانه ای است که پس از پرداختن به مبانی نظری، شاخص هایی که بخش اصلی و تغییرناپذیر استخوان بندی شهر را تشکیل می دهد برای تحلیل ساختار فضای شهر معرفی می شود. پس از تحلیل پارامترها و نقشه ها، تغییرات ارزش هم پیوندی به عنوان مهم ترین مفهوم در این روش مدنظر قرار گرفته است. همچنین به منظور بررسی انسجام ساختار محدوده تاریخی، ارزیابی اهمیت راسته های تاریخی و عناصر اصلی آن و نحوه توزیع فعالیت ها تحلیل شده است. با توجه به نتایج پژوهش، عملکرد و انسجام محدوده تاریخی و ارتباط آن با ساختار کل شهر با تاثیرپذیری از تغییرات کالبدی، به مرورزمان کمتر شده و ساختار درونی این محدوده با ساختار کلی شهر پیوند نخورده است. همچنین بخش عظیمی از ارزش های هویتی بافت، با تاثیرپذیری از تغییرات از بین رفته و پیوستگی فضایی عناصر اصلی محدوده و اهمیت عملکردی راسته های تاریخی تضعیف شده است؛ از این رو تغییرات سریع کالبدی در دوره های اخیر بر ساختار فضایی محدوده تاریخی تاثیرات منفی داشته است.
    کلیدواژگان: ارومیه، چیدمان فضا، ساختار، فضای شهری، محدوده تاریخی
  • یاسر رمضان نژاد*، عبدالرضا رکن الدین افتخاری صفحات 97-110
    در دهه های اخیر، گردشگری ساحلی رشد چشمگیری داشته و مزایای اقتصادی فراوانی را برای جوامع میزبان به همراه آورده است. مدیریت سازمان های متولی گردشگری ساحلی نقش مهمی در فرایند به کارگیری موثر و کارآمد منابع انسانی و مادی در برنامه ریزی، سازمان دهی، بسیج منابع و امکانات، هدایت و کنترل به منظور دستیابی به اهداف سازمانی در فرایند توسعه مقاصد گردشگری ساحلی دارد. هدف از پژوهش حاضر، ارزیابی ظرفیت مدیریتی سازمان های متولی مقاصد گردشگری ساحلی است. برای این منظور، از پرسشنامه ای در شش بعد طراحی و استفاده شد. تحلیل بهکمک آزمون t تک نمونه ای صورت گرفته است. حجم نمونه پژوهش نیز 22 نفر، شامل مدیران و کارشناسان سازمان های متولی مقاصد گردشگری ساحلی مورد مطالعه است. براساس نتایج، در میان ابعاد مدیریت سازمان، بالاترین میانگین به مدیریت مالی (06/1) و پایین ترین میانگین به مدیریت اجتماعی (1/0) اختصاص دارد. میانگین کل مدیریت نیز 53/0 است. بدین ترتیب، این سازمان ها مدیریت ضعیفی دارند که نتیجه آن توسعه پایین مقاصد ساحلی است.
    کلیدواژگان: سازمان، ظرفیت مدیریت، گردشگری ساحلی، گیلان، مقصد گردشگری
  • مرتضی شعبانی، سیدعلی علوی*، ابوالفضل مشکینی، عبدالرسول سلمان ماهینی صفحات 111-127
    برنامه ریزی و مدیریت شهری در شهر سبز برمبنای مدیریت اکولوژیکی است که با تطبیق شاخص های زیست محیطی به دنبال پایداری اکولوژیکی و به تبع آن توسعه پایدار شهری است. تهران از جمله شهرهایی است که در دهه های اخیر به دلیل تمرکز شدید، ازدحام ترافیک، آلودگی هوا و افزایش منابع آلوده کننده محیط زیست، فشار اکولوژیکی گسترده ای بر طبیعت وارد کرده است. در پژوهش توصیفی-تحلیلی حاضر با هدف شناسایی شاخص های شهر سبز، به ارزیابی و مقایسه وضعیت زیست محیطی شهر تهران پرداخته شد. جامعه آماری شهرهای آسیایی و مناطق 22گانه تهران است. وضعیت هریک از شاخص ها نیز به تفکیک مناطق از منابع کتابخانه ای و مراجعات سازمانی جمع آوری شده است. روش این پژوهش در دو گام اصلی طراحی و تدوین شده است. در ابتدا برای تعیین و شناخت میزان سبزبودن شهر تهران، با استفاده از مدل تحلیل شبکه ای فازی و مدل رتبه بندی ویکور، جایگاه این شهر در میان شهرهای آسیایی تعیین و اولویت بندی شد. سپس با استناد به اوزان اختصاصی شاخص ها و مدل ویکور، رتبه بندی هریک از مناطق 22 گانه شهر تهران صورت گرفت تا اهمیت هریک از آن ها در وضعیت کنونی شهر تهران مشخص شود. براساس نتایج، شهر تهران با قرارگیری در رتبه پانزدهم شهرهای آسیایی از منظر شهر سبز، وضعیت نسبتا نامطلوبی دارد. همچنین بررسی وضعیت زیست محیطی با رویکرد شهر سبز در میان مناطق تهران نشان می دهد مناطق 1، 4 و 8 در بهترین وضعیت و مناطق 10، 11 و 12 در بدترین وضعیت قرار دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: تهران، شهر سبز، فرایند تحلیل شبکه ای فازی، محیط زیست شهری، ویکور
  • حمدالله سجاسی قیداری*، طاهره صادقلو، حمیده محمودی صفحات 129-144
    زیست پذیری مفهومی است که بر قابلیت سکونت پذیری مکان تمرکز دارد. سکونتگاه های روستایی از جمله مکان هایی هستند که توجه به زیست پذیربودن آن ها ضروری است؛ زیرا سبب جلوگیری از مهاجرت های روستایی، خالی شدن روستاها، حفظ روستاها به عنوان لکه های حیات و نبض اقتصاد ملی و... می شوند؛ بنابراین آگاهی از شاخص های زیست پذیری و درک سطح زیست پذیری مکان های روستایی می تواند برنامه ریزان را در دستیابی به اهداف توسعه پایدار سوق دهد. پژوهش حاضر کاربردی و توصیفی-تحلیلی است که اطلاعات آن به صورت کتابخانه ای و میدانی جمع آوری و برای این منظور از پرسشنامه استفاده شده است. جامعه آماری آن نیز 94 خانوار روستایی دهستان نظام آباد است. سطح تحلیل این پژوهش «روستا» است. اطلاعات استخراج شده از پرسشنامه به کمک روش های تجزیه و تحلیل آماری در دو نرم افزار SPSS و GIS و مدل ویکور بررسی شد. نتایج نشان می دهد از میان 16 شاخص مورد نظر براساس سطح معناداری آزمون T، تعداد 8 شاخص زیست پذیری از نظر نمونه های مورد مطالعه معنادار هستند و تفاوت معناداری میان زیست پذیری در بین نمونه های فوق را بیان می کنند. همچنین رتبه بندی روستاها براساس مدل ویکور نشان می دهد روستاهای قوری چای و حاجی نبی با توجه به شاخص های زیست پذیری در منطقه مورد مطالعه در پایین ترین رتبه و روستاهای اقچلی علیا و بهرام صوفی در بالاترین رتبه قرار دارند؛ بنابراین در شرایط کنونی، سطح زیست پذیری روستاهای بزرگ تر که جمعیت بیشتری دارند و به شهر و راه ارتباطی اصلی نزدیک هستند، بالاتر است. براین اساس می توان گفت دسترسی به خدمات بیشتر که عمدتا در روستاهای نزدیک به شهرها و روستاها بزرگ تر فراهم می شود، زیست پذیری بالاتری دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: اولویت بندی، زیست پذیری، سطح بندی، کیفیت زندگی، نواحی روستایی
  • حسن اسماعیل زاده، زهره فنی، سیده فاطمه عبدلی* صفحات 145-157
    توسعه پایدار از مهم ترین دغدغه پژوهشگران در دهه های اخیر است؛ زیرا تمامی ابعاد و جنبه های زندگی بشر را دربرمی گیرد. براین اساس، اصطلاح توسعه، معطوف به ارتقای سطح و کیفیت زندگی افراد و بهبود رفاه عمومی جامعه و پایداری آن است و به استمرار این فرایند در طول نسل های بشر اشاره دارد. در این زمینه، شهر هوشمند نه واقعیت بلکه نوعی راهبرد محسوب می شود که در جهت چشم انداز توسعه آینده به آن توجه شده است. این شهر به چگونگی شکل دهی شهر توسط شهروندان و اینکه چگونه می توان به امر توسعه پایدار شهری کمک کرد و به آن سرعت بخشید، اشاره دارد. تراکم بالای زندگی و وابستگی به منابع مشترک، شهرها را در موقعیتی قرار می دهند که به مکان هایی برای توسعه پایدار تبدیل می شوند؛ بنابراین هدف این پژوهش بررسی نقش شهر هوشمند (محیط هوشمند، پویایی هوشمند، اقتصاد هوشمند، حکمرانی هوشمند، زندگی هوشمند و مردم هوشمند) در تحقق توسعه پایدار شهری برای منطقه 6 کلان شهر تهران با بهره مندی از 14 محله است. پژوهش حاضر پیمایشی است و داده های آن به کمک پرسشنامه که اعتبار صوری دارد جمع آوری شد. برای دستیابی به میزان پایایی پرسشنامه نیز از ضریب آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شد. نتایج نشان می دهد هوشمندی و پایداری شهری رابطه هم بستگی مستقیمی دارند. همچنین براساس نتایج تحلیل رگرسیونی، سه عامل تحرک هوشمند، مردم هوشمند و زندگی هوشمند از مهم ترین عوامل موثر بر پایداری به شمار می آیند. زندگی هوشمند تاثیرگذارترین و مهم ترین عامل تبیین پایداری است و پس از آن به ترتیب تحرک هوشمند و مردم هوشمند قرار دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: ارتباطات و اطلاعات، توسعه پایدار شهری، پایداری، شهر هوشمند، منطقه 6 تهران
  • فرهاد عزیزپور*، فرهاد جوان، محمد حجی پور صفحات 159-175
    توسعه به ویژه توسعه اقتصادی یکی از اهداف مهم کشورهای درحال توسعه است. براین اساس، اجرای سیاست های تعدیل ساختاری نیز از مهم ترین اقدامات به شمار می آید. در کشور ایران از سال 1389 به بعد، قانون هدفمندی یارانه ها به عنوان یکی از سیاست های تعدیل ساختاری اجرا شد. دامنه گسترده پیامدهای اجرای این قانون، پرسش های متعددی را مطرح کرد. از جمله اینکه بازتاب و نتیجه قانون هدفمندی یارانه ها در اقتصاد روستایی چه بوده است؟ بنابراین در پژوهش کیفی حاضر، بررسی زمینه ای بازتاب های پرداخت یارانه در سکونتگاه های روستایی شهرستان رضوان شهر پرداخته شد و تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها به کمک تئوری زمینه ای صورت گرفت. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد در حوزه اقتصاد روستایی، اجرای هدفمندی یارانه با پیامدهایی مانند «تعدد ردیف های هزینه کرد خانوار و افزایش حجم پرداخت های از پیش برقرار در اقتصاد روستا»، «تقویت بنیه درآمدی خانوار روستایی»، «برپایی و تشدید شکاف میان تولیدگران و خانوارهای روستایی»، «دگرش الگوی کسب و مصرف ثروت در اقتصاد روستا»، «ایجاد تکانه در جریان سرمایه میان اقتصاد روستا و شهر» و «تشدید روند فرامحلی شدن و سیاسی شدن اقتصاد روستایی» همراه بوده که درنهایت به سه مقوله کلان «تغییر هزینه و درآمد روستاییان»، «دگرگونی نظام تولید و مصرف ثروت در اقتصاد روستایی» و «رشد ریسک پذیری در اقتصاد روستایی» منجر شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: اقتصاد روستایی، سکونتگاه های روستایی، سیاست تعدیل ساختاری، ناحیه رضوانشهر، هدفمندی یارانه ها
  • محمدتقی شیخی، صمد احسانی کلخوران* صفحات 177-192
    در پژوهش ترکیبی حاضر، ابتدا ماهیت مسئله زیست غیررسمی مدنظر قرار گرفته و سپس به کمک رویکردی بدیل، چارچوب نظری جامعی برای فهم ماهیت زیست غیررسمی در دوره کنونی ارائه شده است؛ از این رو در ابتدا طرح نظری مسئله صورت گرفت. سپس با اتکا به مطالعه میدانی - که در این پژوهش پس از بررسی موارد مختلف منطقه اوزون تپه واقع در شهر بومهن به عنوان نمونه مورد بررسی انتخاب شد - و آزمون های آماری هم بستگی پیرسون و رگرسیون بر داده های جمع آوری شده از میدان، ابعاد چارچوب نظری غنی تر و در عین حال تعدیل و اصلاح شد. با تمرکز بر دو مفهوم امنیت تصرف و کیفیت زندگی نیز ابعاد سکونت غیررسمی در این نمونه بررسی شد. به نظر می رسد با تمرکز بر دو مفهوم مورد نظر که از اساسی ترین مسائل سکونت گاه های غیررسمی هستند، می توان وجوه مسئله را دقیق تر بررسی کرد. درنهایت با تکیه بر یافته های حاصل از مطالعه میدانی و تحلیل نظری می توان گفت میان تامین حق سکونت و همه ابعاد کیفیت زندگی رابطه معناداری مشاهده می شود. همچنین تامین حق سکونت تنها در بعد ادراکی تاثیر چشم گیری بر وضعیت این قشر دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: امنیت تصرف، اوزون تپه، جغرافیای انسانی، زیست غیررسمی، کیفیت زندگی
  • سیدحسن مطیعی لنگرودی*، وحید ریاحی، حمید جلالیان، افسانه احمدی صفحات 193-209
    امروزه تخلیه و متروک شدن بسیاری از روستاهای کشور به دلیل ضعف و ناکارایی اقتصاد آن هاست. متنوع سازی فعالیت های اقتصادی در مناطق روستایی راهبردی است که خانوارهای روستایی به کمک آن منابع درآمدی خود را افزایش می دهند و می توانند واکنش و مدیریت مناسبی در مقابله با شوک ها داشته باشند. هدف پژوهش توصیفی-تحلیلی حاضر، بررسی مهم ترین عوامل تاثیرگذار در متنوع سازی فعالیت های اقتصادی از دیدگاه روستاییان است. جامعه آماری، روستاهای شهرستان سقز در استان کردستان با جمعیت 58092 نفر در قالب 14523 خانوار است. در گام نخست، برای مشخص کردن روستاهای مورد مطالعه ابتدا روستاها به 5 گروه جمعیتی تقسیم شدند و سپس براساس فراوانی روستاها در هر طبقه جمعیتی، تعداد روستاهای هر طبقه مشخص شد که درمجموع 28 روستا به عنوان روستاهای نمونه انتخاب شدند. به منظور تکمیل پرسشنامه ها براساس فرمول کوکران، 308 نفر از سرپرستان خانوارها به عنوان جامعه نمونه درنظر گرفته شدند. به منظور تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات حاصل از عملیات میدانی، از دو روش آمار توصیفی و استنباطی استفاده شد. نتایج حاصل از یافته های توصیفی و آزمون های لامدا، وی کرامر، گودمن و کروسکال نشان می دهد ارتباط معناداری میان تعداد فعالیت ها و میزان تحصیلات، تغییرات درآمدی حاصل شوک ها و میزان درآمد وجود دارد. همچنین نتایج آزمون فریدمن نشان می دهد از دید جامعه نمونه عوامل حمایت دولت، منابع مالی و پس انداز خانوار و تسهیلات زیرساختی برای متنوع سازی فعالیت های اقتصادی بیشترین اهمیت را دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: دیدگاه روستاییان، فعالیت های اقتصادی، شهرستان سقز، متنوع سازی، نواحی روستایی
  • حسین قهرائی*، کرامتاللهزیاری، احمد پوراحمد صفحات 211-227
    پیدایش شهرها و سابقه شهرنشینی در ایران قدمت زیادی دارد، اما افزایش و توسعه سریع شهرها به دهه های اخیر مربوط است. چنانچه در طول نیم قرن گذشته جمعیت شهرنشین کشور از 4/31 درصد در سال 1335 به 71 درصد در سال 1390 افزایش یافت. تعداد شهرها نیز از 199 به 1300 رسید. در پی گسترش و توسعه شهرها، سیاست های زمین شهری و نحوه اجرای آن مورد توجه قرار گرفت؛ زیرا زمین بستر توسعه شهر و عامل اصلی در شکل گیری توسعه و گسترش شهرهاست. همچنین باید توجه داشت که طرح جامع شهری (درصورت رفع نارسایی ها) سازنده پایه ها و اصول قدرتمند قانونی برای تصمیم گیری درمورد مقوله اراضی شهری است و استفاده موثرتر از منابع عمومی جامعه را امکان پذیر می کند. بدین منظور هدف پژوهش بنیادی-کاربردی و توصیفی-تحلیلی حاضر، بررسی نارسایی های طرح های جامع و ارزیابی سیاست های زمین شهری و تاثیر آن ها در توسعه فیزیکی شهر اصفهان است. نتایج نشان می دهد تعیین سیاست های کلی زمین و اهداف توسعه شهر بدون طرح جامع امکان پذیر نیست. همچنین طرح های جامع (در صورت رفع نارسایی ها و ارائه مدل) قابلیت کاربرد بالایی برای تعیین سیاست های کلی زمین و اهداف توسعه شهر دارند. در صورتی که سیاست های زمین شهری با اهداف توسعه طرح های جامع هماهنگ شود، قطعا از ناهنجاری ها و گسترش بی رویه شهرها (از جمله اصفهان) جلوگیری خواهد شد.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه فیزیکی، طرح جامع، سیاست های زمین شهری، شهر اصفهان
  • محمد جوانبخت، مجید کیاورز مقدم *، نجمه نیسانی سامانی، لعبت زبردست، علی درویشی بلورانی صفحات 229-247
    کیفیت محیط زیست شهری معیار سنجش و اندازه گیری درجه مناسب بودن محیط زیست انسان است. درواقع میزان توان محیط برای شکل گیری نیازهای افراد جامعه و پاسخگویی به آن محسوب می شود و از عوامل مختلفی تاثیر می پذیرد. با توجه به تغییرات شاخص های محیطی در مناطق شهری، هدف اصلی این پژوهش مدل سازی تغییرات مکانی-زمانی کیفیت محیط زیست شهری است. به منظور مدل سازی هریک از شاخص ها از داده های میدانی مکان مبنا و تصاویر ماهواره ای استفاده شد. شاخص ها شامل دو بعد طبیعی و انسان ساخت است. برای تلفیق شاخص ها و مدل سازی کیفیت محیط زیست شهری با توجه به ماهیت مباحث کیفی و محیطی که با عدم قطعیت همراه است، از منطق فازی استفاده شد. در شهر تهران به دلیل تراکم بالای جمعیت و فعالیت، محیط زیست شهری اهمیت زیادی دارد. بدین منظور مناطق 3، 6 و 11 شهر تهران انتخاب شدند. این مناطق در امتداد شمالی-جنوبی شهر تهران قرار دارند. نتایج نشان می دهد تغییرات کیفیت محیط زیست شهری در منطقه موردمطالعه روندی شمالی-جنوبی دارد. کیفیت محیط زیست شهری نیز از شمال به جنوب کاهش می یابد. از نظر تغییرات زمانی در دو فصل بهار و تابستان در مقایسه با دو فصل پاییز و زمستان کیفیت محیط زیست شهری وضعیت بهتری دارد؛ بنابراین تابعی از زمان و مکان محسوب می شود. نتایج تحلیل حساسیت نشان می دهد تاثیر تغییر ورودی ها بر نتیجه مدل در همه متغیرها بین 2 تا 17 درصد است. نتایج مدل سازی نیز از یک یا چند متغیر خاص تاثیر نمی پذیرد؛ بنابراین می توان نتیجه گرفت نتایج مدل سازی قابل اعتماد است.
    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل حساسیت، ضریب هم بستگی، کیفیت محیط زیست شهری، مدل سازی، منطق فازی
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  • Sowgol Fazel *, Masood Taghvaei, Amir Mahmoodzadeh Pages 1-21
    Introduction
     Iran is one of the most vulnerable countries in the world against the earthquake at the present time (Zabardast, 2013: 1331). According to the seismic hazard map of Iran, almost the whole territory of the country is in relatively medium to high hazard area(Ziari, 2006: 283). Najaf Abad city is located near the Isfahan with the population more than 221000 individual (in the year 2011) and the most important service center after Isfahan within the urban set of Isfahan. In terms of geology, Najaf Abad is located within Sanandaj-Zirjan zone regarded as one of the most active zones (Darvishzadeh, 2013: 118). Based on the conducted studies, the occurrence of earthquake over this zone is constantly possible (Shahpasandzadeh & Heidari, 2007: 64). With respect to the seismo-tectonics map of Iran, this county is located within a zone with a relatively medium hazard and the event of historical earthquakes and 20th century over Isfahan extension as well as the basic trend of faults and dynamic structures in this zone indicate the relatively high rate of seismicity of this area (Ambraseys & Melville, 1991: 133), (Safaei, 2003: 15). Regarding the importance of the issues related to the earthquake, the main objective of this research is to study and analyze the risk of Najaf Abad city to the possible earthquake. Basically, dedicating meaningful weights to physical , social,...attributes for evaluating the seismic vulnerability and providing a local model make the practical application of seismic risky analysis possible.
    Data and method
     The data collection as library including using the maps, the information of development plan and urban planning, aerial images, and statistical data related to population census in 2011. The procedure is based on a multiple decision-making approach. In order to analyze the data, Analytical Network Process (ANP) and Super Decision software were used and the maps and informational layers provided in ArcGIS environment. Hence, with reference to the previous conducted studies and making benefit from the views of some experts in this regard, 5 criteria and 18 sub-criteria were considered to prepare the vulnerability map of the town to theseismic risk. In addition, having the maps and information related to the relatively earthquake risk over the zone and regarding the mentioned descriptions given in theoretical concepts section, the earthquake risk within the viewed area will be studied and analyzed based on the proposed model.
    Discussion and results
    3-1- Studying of earthquake risk over the zone - Studying tectonic and faults conditions of the zone The contact of this town with the surrounding mountains is usually from the type of the fault that threats the town less and more due to its being active. The super-faults of Qom-Zafreh, Zagros and Rokh are located surrounding this district. Evidence shows that whenever they start to vibrate, they will certainly affect this area (Nabavi, 1976: 70). Moreover, according to the studies recently done on the seismic condition of Isfahan zone, a lot of important active faults, some with a higher than 100 km length have been detected within an area with a 100 km radius of Isfahan city (Safaei, 2005: 109). - Studying seismic condition of zone With respect to two references; Iranian historical earthquakes ((Ambraseys & Melville, 1991: 133) and Iranian earthquakes catalogues (Berberian, 1994), several historical earthquakes (higher than 5 Richter) and 95 earthquakes higher than 2.5 Richter at time interval 1962-2014 3-2- Analysis of the town vulnerability using ANP model This research regards the vulnerability as an integration of the risky factors (environmental, anatomic, social etc.) and the coping capacity of community (aid and management indices) and studies the vulnerability of Najaf Abad town through considering 5 basic criteria and 18 sub-criteria. Therefore, firstly the maps related to sub-criteria were prepared, converted to Raster and reclassified. Then, to weight the above indices, AHP model was used into Super Decision software environment. Finally, through introducing the obtained weights to the relevant layers, the maps were overlapped and the general vulnerability map of the town provided.3-3- Evaluation of the Urban risk to the earthquakeThe proposed model was used in this survey emphasizing that a risk is the result of integrating two factors; hazard and vulnerability. In this model, a risk based on the linear relationship between these factors as Risk = Hazard × Vulnerability is determined. Studying the tectonic conditions of the zone showed that there is the continuous possibly of earthquake hazard in this zone. On the other hand, due to the small area of under study zone, if one of the faults of this zone is activated promptly and/or the occurrence of an earthquake is possible, the whole county may be affected and the rate of hazard for the whole points is almost the same. Hence, with respect to the risk map of the town, around 33% of undeveloped area of the town is with a high risk involving the central core of the town and burnt brick buildings and some of the cement block buildings with more than 30 years old. In addition, 27% of this area has a medium risk including the buildings with masonry materials (brick and iron), without proper foundations and often with more than 30 years old.
    Conclusion
     Studying different models showed that risk is the combination of hazard and vulnerability. In this survey, initially the study of the zone tectonic condition showed that the threat of earthquake hazard is inevitable for this town. The results show that about 60% of developed areas of the town were found to be with a medium to high risk. These areas were located in the central district of the town that constructed by masonry and reinforced masonry buildings. Finally, the synthesis of the population distribution map and the risk map indicate that more than 51000 individuals are in the high to very high risk zone.
    Keywords: Risk, vulnerability, hazard, earthquake, Najaf Abad
  • Mahta Tari, Meysam Rezaei * Pages 23-40
    Now the most desirable approach is to create an integrated management to be introduced in neighborhoods, urban good governance and citizen participation lies in realizing this. The present study assessed the urban good governance among Ferdosiyeh located in the city Shahriyar neighborhoods, using criteria such as participation, equality, effectiveness, accountability and security is Among these criteria are the most influential in the creation of urban good governance criteria will be identified in Ferdosiyeh. Type of this research method is descriptive and analytical applications and relational comparison And for this purpose, the data obtained from questionnaires and interviews and field observations of both descriptive and inferential statistics (t-test, correlation, regression and ANOVA) was used on spss software. The statistical population, including residents Ferdowsieh city with a population of 30577, of which 384 of them using Morgan table were considered in five quarters as an example. Based on the research findings among the indicators of urban good governance and governance and urban management in relation to the 0/895 there Ferdosiyeh In other words, we can say that 78/4 percent of the indicators of urban good governance in the city there Ferdowsieh And this despite the fact that the citizens of the indicators are at a level lower than average. Also, the index constituent of urban good governance, in partnership with the 0/778 maximum impact and effectiveness with the -0/131 has less impact on urban good governance and urban management at the local level.
    Introduction
    The rapid development of urbanization in Iran and the wide acceptance of people-oriented city in which the number of cities in the 50-year period (1335-1390), the city reached 199 in 1331 The proportion of urban population increased from 32 percent to 71 percent, One can imagine that the management of the cities in the coming years, including a major concern in the country''s management system.In general, one of the new phenomena of the twentieth century and in recent decades the process of urbanization and excessive increase in population and physical development.The problem is that the urban environment the importance and necessity of a complex, dynamic and diverse needs substantial management capacity that appears to be capable of providing urban governance And a model of good governance is currently the most effective, cheapest and most sustainable management practices. This study aims to introduce urban good governance approach, the concepts and features To measure and evaluate indicators of urban good governance and influencing variables on urban good governance in city neighborhoods Ferdowsieh deals And especially because of Ferdowsieh each year, with the growth of immigrant populations with different ethnicities face and citizens with different beliefs This study can be used to measure and assess the variables governance at the local level and offer solutions to the questions raised in the following:What connections made between indicators of urban good governance and good governance is a city in Ferdowsieh And the measure of how much of the governance and management in the city Ferdowsieh have caused?
    Which indicators of urban good governance is the most affected neighborhoods Ferdowsieh?
    Methodology
    The sample and its applications and comparative description of the type of relationship is to do it, of two common methods in research, the library and field use. To develop a theoretical framework to analyze previous studies on the relationship between social capital and social justice were referred. After evaluation, review of relevant theories and knowledge of the current state of society, indicators and variables were developed. Measuring instruments used in this study, questionnaire data rate, using the whole five-item Likert took place. To ensure the validity of the questionnaire After preparing the preliminary questionnaire, the questionnaire was relevant experts And after the reforms necessary to evaluate its reliability during a pilot study (pilot test) reliability was assessed by Cronbach''s alpha coefficient obtained from (Handball 95% -76% = α), respectively. In this study, t-test, correlation, regression and ANOVA were used.
    Results and discussion
    Based on the findings of theoretical studies and field studies in the study area, to assess the relationship between social justice and social capital and assess households in neighborhoods, descriptive and inferential methods such as t-test, correlation, regression and variance, in the form of hypotheses were used. According to the one-sample t test in neighborhoods, urban good governance indices are these: Level of participation, equality, effectiveness, responsiveness and security at a level lower than the average in urban neighborhoods are located. According to the analysis of variance (compared to the average social capital and social justice in the neighborhood of) the following results were obtained:Figure 3 and 4, the neighborhood of Abbas Abad,Abd Abad, Khave, Ferdous and Mahmoud abad have the highest rate of urban good governance. And Pearson correlation coefficient test results show the indicators of urban good governance and the rule of Ferdowsieh urban neighborhoods, there is a significant positive relationship (0/000 = P-Value) and this hypothesis is confirmed. According to t-test the effect of participation, equality, effectiveness, accountability and good governance of urban security on the dependent variable showed that the greatest impact on urban good governance and citizen participation in city neighborhoods Ferdowsieh least it is effective.
    Conclusion
    Urban governance, urban management is an aspect of citizen participation and trust them to be city managers And in the midst of urban governance among citizens and participation in decision-making at the community level is important for the management of neighborhood oriented. In other words, good governance and urban social behavior patterns are affecting citizens. According to the literature and research in the literature mentioned that the majority of these studies have addressed the role of partnerships in urban good governance And have concluded that the participation of the indicators are that good governance leads to the realization neighborhoods. According to the results of this study and other studies, it seems that urban governance can be viewed as a mediator and organizer Improving management performance at the local level.
    Keywords: urban good governance, Ferdosiyeh city, participation, urban management
  • Nosrat Moradi, Hedaiatollah Nouri *, Abbad Amini, Mir Najaf Mousavi Pages 41-56
    Introduction
    In the contemporary era, vital environmental resources such as water and soil have degraded resulting from increasing population, development of environmentally harmful activities, inappropriate management and so on. Today, development beyond ecological thresholds and degrading the main factors of development and human survival has turned into one of the major challenges of human society. If this trend continues, the world society will face with various problems such as food security, environmental conservation and preservation of natural heritage. From perspective of land use planning, development of economic activities without taking into account the potentials and the degree of production capacity of land resources can bring about various environmental, social and economic problems in a specific region. Therefore, at any region, especially mountainous areas like Urmia, understanding and appropriate management of land resources and its parameters is necessary and unenviable for land sustainability Considering the physical conditions of land such as topography and landforms in Urmia region, which making sever limitations for development, it seems that analyzing of land characteristics and identifying limitations and potentials of this region can be used as an effective tool for land users in terms of developing activities. The present study is aimed at answering this critical question that: how much topographic and landform conditions can affect on land suitability for developing activities in Urmia County. The result of this study will lead a base map which can make a background for further evaluation of the land for determining various land uses in the region.
    Methodology
    In order to identify suitable classes for developing activities, the Multi Criteria Method was used. MCE is a method for combining data according to their importance in making a given decision. At a conceptual level, MCE methods involve qualitative or quantitative weighting, scoring or ranking of criteria to reflect their importance to either a single or a multiple set of objectives (Heywood and et al., 2006: 239). Over the last decade or so, a number of multiattribute (or multicriteria) evaluation methods have been implemented in the GIS environment including WLC and its variants, ideal point methods, concordance analysis, and analytic hierarchy process (Malczewski, 2004: 34). Among these procedures, the WLC and Boolean overlay operations are considered the most straightforward and the most often employed (Chen & et al., 2001: 387; Malczewski & Rinner, 2005: 250; Malczewski, 2006: 270; Lafortezza & et al., 2008: 194; Boroushaki & Malczewski, 2008: 399; Jelokhani-Niaraki & Malczewski, 2015: 493). WLC (or simple additive weighting) is based on the concept of a weighted average. The decision maker directly assigns the weights of ‘relative importance’ to each attribute map layer. A total score is then obtained for each alternative by multiplying the importance weight assigned for each attribute by the scaled value given to the alternative on that attribute, and summing the products over all attributes. When the overall scores are calculated for all of the alternatives, the alternative with the highest overall score is chosen (Malczewski, 2004: 34).
    Results and discussion
    Operations of overlaying layers 1. Producing Map A In order to produce map A, at first stage, slope and elevation parameters were compared. The Statistics results of this map show that the highly suitable and suitable classes cover 31.66 and 30.31% of the total area, respectively. The results also show that the combination of the slope and elevation layers has placed approximately 40% of the total areas in limited and not suitable classes.
    2. Map B In order to produce map B, the standardized layer of aspect is overlaid with map A. The results of the topographic map indicate that only 21 percent of the total area is highly suitable for developing activities. In the second class, i.e. suitable, which cover 22 percent of the total area, the lands are suitable for some activities.
    3. Map C By overlaying land type and map B and producing map C, more filtering was applied in structural land layers for developing activities. This phase can be regarded as the milestone of the layers overlaying process. In other words, in this step, by adding land type layer, main characteristics of land combined and the geomorphology map the region was completed. By producing geomorphology map, the area of the highly suitable was decreased, significantly. Therefore, the area of the highly suitable decreased to 13.02 percent, which indicate the highly effeteness of the land type in filtering among natural parameters for developing activities.
    Producing Final Land Suitability
    In final map, the drainage layer as an effective parameter was used in the analysis. The drainage map generated from river density and line density function. The results of this map show that approximately 11 and 21 percent of the total area is highly suitable and suitable, respectively. By adding drainage layer to geomorphology map, the areas of the two mentioned classes were significantly decreased. According to final land suitability map, 33 percent of the total area is highly suitable and suitable, 28 percent marginally suitable and 38 percent not suitable.
    Conclusion
    The results of parameters overlay showed that in all of the steps topographic elements have significant role in filtering of land suitability for developing activities. The results of the overlaying land evaluation map and slope with proposed land suitability demonstrate that the classes of marginally, very low and not suitable, with slope of 20.18, 28.69 and 42 percent, respectively, have severe natural limitations and the possibility of developing activities is not practical in approximately 67 percent of the total area. Therefore, topographic and landform characteristics of the region are the main constraints in developing of the activities in Urmia County. Based on these results, achieving to any activity development in Urmia requires to prioritize and take into consideration environmental issues and sustainable management of natural resources.
    Keywords: Topography, landform, Urmia County, Geographic information system, MCE Method
  • Mohammad Soleimani, Ahmad Zanganeh, Taher Parizadi, Yasaman Salahshour Fard Khalil Abad * Pages 57-77
    Introduction
    Core in Tehran would initially rely on the market to different stages of development and urban development much faster than the normal song, in a very short period of time has passed. urbanization, increasing population extreme, thereby traditional spaces were not able to respond to the business needs of the population. Second, new consumer products to large-scale services such as transportation and warehousing, etc., which require major problems in the markets comes to the account.
    Often, commercial centers were developed in conjunction with the main axes of movement and over time individual orders created in the course of its expansion. In essence the commercial centers in urban areas formed the center of the megalopolis are also some performance and higher levels of service are included.
    The species over time to a depth significantly from parts of the occupied services to commercial, industrial workshops and warehouses is dependent on.
    A plurality of experts such as Jacob Riis believes that the proximity of a market residential neighborhood, the neighborhood provides the backdrop backgrounds. According to him "assault commercial and industrial property to residential neighborhoods, lack of basic public services and the risk of deterioration of the social, ethical, morphing appropriate place to develop crime and corruption, the apartments are leased and sub-standard housing, a total of serious risks for family, morality, public health and urban cohesion is dumped. "
    District 17 of Tehran, as a sample of the present study is a disparate business units, most of which related to the megalopolis regional markets including market bags and shoes Amin al-Mulk and aluminum market and the furniture market is Yaftabad. . residential and convert them to business users.
    Methodology
    Cognitive research to discover facts, facts, and objects to study and develop the boundaries of human knowledge. The aim of the present study is part of cognitive research because it seeks to identify physical changes affected communities is megalopolis markets. Research Assessment comparative ahead in terms of the nature and methods for evaluating and measuring the impact of markets on local markets megalopolis around and compare deals neighborhoods. In terms of time, the longitudinal cross-sectional studies is because it investigates the physical changes during the years 1359, 1375 and 1390 deals. Also in the mix is a quantitative-qualitative data. Information and data from a self-made documentary and scrolling through questionnaires and interviews have been collected.
    The population is said to be a collection of individuals or units that have at least one common trait. In each study, the study population is the population that the researcher wants to study units on variable pay. The population of this research, building blocks, block statistics, land-use parts 1390, 1375 and 1359, and experts and officials Yaftabad urban neighborhoods, Holy Hassan, garden nursery is a crystal and the discretion of the supervisors of each neighborhood 30 Expert and city officials will be questioned. And finally using statistical software spss and one-sample t-test, Friedman software to analyze the results and mapping the physical to gis discussed.
    Results and discussion
    In this area also upon users of residential, industrial applications, workshops and commercial centers as is evident in the form of orders..
    Yaftabad neighborhood: from the 50s onwards, gradually livestock units owned furniture manufacturing workshop of the 50s and early 60s of income and as a provider Frvshgah Hay Yaftabad shops selling furniture and other stores throughout the city are Hasanabad. User is the highest level of residential users, industrial users and animal husbandry are the next ranked. This neighborhood has a 6/20ha or20%of thetotal land,wasteland andisnot made.
    After making changes in the terms detailed plan Tehran, green space and a workshop was changed to industrial users. Malls and collections were the exhibition and sale of furniture. In 1375, residential use and then transport (car garage) and industrial users and workstations accounted for the highest level of neighborhood. In 1390, the highest level for residential use and commercial and industrial users are next in rank
    Hasan Shrine neighborhood: in 1359 the highest level of user-residential user, the user of transport (car garage) and animal husbandry are the next in order of rank. has done. At the beginning of this street shops selling religious items, textile and food and ... My Prdakhtnd.
    In 1375 the residential and transportation (car garage) have the highest user level. Until 1370, the vast majority of farms to industrial and commercial workshops repurposed Vmsbb Amin al-Mulk had higher levels of business users in the street.
    Bagh khazane neighborhood: the highest level in 1359 related to land use is agricultural land, residential and transportation (car garages) are next in order of rank. There are various canals and fertile land in 1350 led to the existence of agricultural land and orchards in this area was. from 8.7 hectares in 1355 to 5/31 hectare was in 1375. In this neighborhood as residential, commercial and transportation (car garage) to have the highest level.
    In 1390, the highest level for the user account is residential. Change car garage on the street level Qazvin industrial users due to increased industrial users. Garages in the street Hosni martyr brothers (Castle avian) is repurposed and began to sell aluminum to the species that nowadays this street has become a megalopolis market.
    Bolorsazi Neighborhood: In the 1340 the district was faced with the migration of ethnic groups. Earlier this migration continued in the years after the revolution that was responsible for the conversion of agricultural land and orchards to residential land. That's why in 1359 the remaining residential use and then the highest level of neighborhood gardens were accounted for. Transportation (garage) were in third place. In 1375 the residential, industrial plants and transportation (car garage) have the highest user level.
    Conclusion
    Is. The study found that many residential neighborhoods immediate use of markets to shop-commercial or storage of goods have become. This change in the neighborhood Yaftabad been more severe than other localities.The results suggested that the presence megalopolis markets in residential neighborhoods in the neighborhoods he has been aggravated vehicular chaos.
    Keywords: Megalopolis markets, changes in the physical, Residential neighborhoods, urban buildings, Space turmoil
  • Asghar Abedini *, Naser Sobatsani, Mina Golshani Pages 79-96
    Introduction
    There has not been enough attention to the structure and shape of the historic core in many ancient cities of Iran. This has led to problems such as inability to adapt to new physical changes, lack of appropriate link with existing structural network and spatial isolation. The main structure of a city is a set of interrelated and continuous urban spaces that encompasses the essential elements and main activities of the city. Understanding of this structure requires a thorough analysis of all aspects of ours. Among the theories that deal with the urban spatial structure, is the space Syntax theory. In the past decades, Urmia city has seen major changes in its structure and its traditional structure and also the historic core of this city like many other cities. Under the influence of hasty actions, has undergone numerous difficulties. This paper with the aims to identify and analyze the process of growth and the urban development of Urmia and its structure, and also the study of the effect of contemporary physical changes on the spatial structure of the city’s historical district and analysis the network access structure and the relationship between key elements of the historical structure of this tissue for investigating the spatial coherence, Using Space Syntax theory, will analyze the structure and spatial configuration of it according to selected parameters for analyzing the urban structure during various periods and also it aims to study the changes of values and the performance of historical texture through the introduction and the study of the analysis elements of urban spatial structure and the output spatial parameters of this theory.
    Methodology
    The method used in this paper is descriptive, quantitative and a comparative method. In this paper after the presented case study (Urmia city and its historical district) with the Space Syntax method and also with applying the concepts of space syntax parameters and using AutoCAD, Depth map and ArcGIS software the structural analysis has been conducted. In order to study the spatial structural changes of Urmia city and its impact on the spatial structure of the historic core of the town, based on available documents and maps, four main periods of physical evolution of the city that is the years (1933, 1976, 1994, 2016) have been considered for analyzing its structure and entering to the software of space syntax theory. After analyzing of the parameters and analytical maps of the space syntax and the comparison of the periods, validity changes have been analyzed as the most important concepts in this method to study four factors of coherence and coordination of the structure of the historical district, assessment of value and importance of historical orders and its main elements and the manner of distributing of activities in the range.
    Discussion and Results
    After the analyzing of the findings of the maps and output of the spatial parameters every four year, we have analyzed the criteria for the study of urban space structure and the parameters of the space syntax of city. The spacing variable and the amount of its deviation has been considered as a criterion in the spatial coherence. For the analyzing of the spatial dispersion and city structure consistency and historical range. It can be seen that the lowest deviation and the highest amount of affiliation and thus the highest urban coherence is related to 1933. That this amount after the physical changes of the city has been reduced until 2016 and also city structural integrity has been reduced too. The values obtained from the analysis of value of the city affiliation and historical range during four indicate that the average of the historical context of city is less than the average of the value of city affiliation in four periods during 1933 to 2016. This shows that the internal structure of this area has not been related to this axes. For analysis of the subsequent criterion, the changes in the value of the inter connection of the main historical orders have been studied for structural analysis of the main axes.According to the result from 1933 to 2016 with imposing structure of the accesses of city structure. The spatial physical value of the axis is degraded to inferior position, because both the average value of the interconnection of each axes and also the average difference between each axeses with the total average gradually declined compared to previous periods. In the subsequent analysis public spaces and the main activity centers which contain historical market and the main fields of the historical core (The Velayat-faqih and Ayalat square) and the central mosque of the city has been considered and analyzed as the main religious element in the texture structure. Integration ranges show until 2016, the extent of the interconnection of the main historical spaces, which are one of the major city activity centers and formed down town has been reduced. The next criterion examines the over laps of the most integration axes with the active and attractive users of cities and their relationship.
    Conclusion
    According to the results of this paper it became clear that the performance and historical coherence of the range and its relation to the structure of whole city under the influence of physical changes has been reduced over the time and the internal structure of this range could not be grafted with the overall structure of city. Also a large part of identity values and physical texture affected by these changes have been lost and spatial continuity of main elements and the functional significance of historical orders has been weakened, and this indicates that the rapid physical changes in the recent years had negative effects on the spatial structure of historical range of Urmia city.
    Keywords: structure, Urban Space, space syntax, Urmia, Historical District
  • Yaser Ramezannejad *, Abdolreza Eftekhari Pages 97-110
    Introduction
    Although there is no reliable data on coastal tourism alone, it is generally considered to be one of the fastest growing forms of tourism in recent decades. Here again, UNWTO statistics show that 12 of the 15 world’s top destination countries in 2000 were countries with coastlines (UNEP, 2009: 2). Sun, beautiful beaches, and warm ocean waters have become standard vacation requirements for many tourists. Forty-nine percent of those visiting the Caribbean do so for the beaches, while 28 percent are primarily interested in sightseeing, and 17 percent in water sports. Moreover, roughly 25% of the jobs in the Caribbean are directly or indirectly tourism related (Bridges, 2002: 93- 94).
    Capacity is defined as the organizational and technical abilities, relationships and values that enable countries, organizations, groups, and individuals at any level of society to carry out functions and achieve their development objectives over time. Capacity refers not only to skills and knowledge but also to relationships, values and attitudes, and many others (Morgan, 1998). Capacity at the organization level will determine how individual capacities are utilized and strengthened. It refers to anything that will influence an organization''s performance (JICA, 2004). Key to the success of any of the processes discussed above is the individuals with the necessary capacities to participate effectively. According to Innes and Booher (2003) an individual with more capacity to participate in collaborative processes is one with a particular set of skills and a better understanding of problems and opportunities and of others’ perspectives. The integrated and coordinated process needed for progressing sustainable development will draw on a wide range of skills, some of which might be new to those involved (Innes & Booher, 2003). The aim of this study was to evaluate the managemental capacity of responsible organizations of coastal tourism destinations.
    Research Methodology
    The research method was descriptive- analytic. In this research, organizations’ management capacity were evaluated through the questionnaire in 6 dimensions leadership, human resource management, financial resource management, crisis management, ecological management, economic management and social management. One-sample t test was used for analysis. The sample size was 22 people, including managers and experts of responsible organizations of coastal tourism destinations.
    Results and discussion
    Organizations’ management capacity was evaluated in 6 dimensions. Results of dimensions are the following:Leadership: Creating harmony between different units for coastal projects (1.95), prioritizing of coastal tourism problems (1.72), the rule of law on the implementation of the Coastal Plan (1.27), the registry and archives data for coastal plan (1.27), doing things in the organization for coastal projects according Directives (1.09), the distribution of powers are balanced (objectives contained in the plan and procedures for the design and expertise and sector / unit) through the leadership of the organization for coastal projects (1), are the basis for control, monitoring and evaluation through the rules and regulations related to coastal tourism (0.9), save time to decide seaside plot (0.81) the existence of regulations, encourage employees in the organization (0.72), the management system of monitoring and evaluation, based on the structure and functioning of the villages in the project area (0.36), the use of external specialists for coastal tourism (0.18 ) and thinking room for coastal tourism with the participation of specialists (0.04).
    Ecological management: creating green spaces in the beach (0.63) and according to the proportion between the number of tourists and the area of the site and the potential of the site to reduce congestion and pollution (ecological carrying capacity of the beach) (0.54).
    Economic management: create a legal framework to facilitate investment community on the beach (0.18), creating a legal framework for community investment tax breaks on the beach (0.36), creating job opportunities for the local community on the beach (0.81), create sales opportunities for local production at the beach (1.45) and pay attention to reduce the cost of job creation by the local community on the beach (0.18).
    Social management: attention to social ills (crime, theft, drug addiction, etc.) seaside plot in the village (0.18), according to upholding the faith of villagers in coastal plan (0.13), due to maintaining customs villagers in traditional coastal design (0.18), according to maintain family integrity villagers in coastal plan (0.13) and pay attention to maintaining public safety in the seaside village (0.22).
    Human Resource Management: Financial experts could encourage (1), encourage experts could be promoted (0.13), proper screening of knowledge (0.18), a decent choice based on experience (0.18), both deserve choice based on the knowledge and experience (0.27) and build skills in coastal staff (0.36).
    Conclusions
    Coastal areas have long been of interest to tourists and it has potential capabilities (beautiful combination of sea and beach, quiet surroundings, etc.) for tourism and the ability to attract tourists from near and far (Beikmohammadi, 1385: 51). Management organizations, role in the effective and efficient use of human and material resources in planning, organizing, mobilizing resources, guidance and control in order to achieve the organization''s objectives in the development of coastal tourism. In the study area, these organizations are the result of poor management of coastal development purposes is low. In order to improve management capacity in coastal development purposes can be considered the following actions:In order to promote the necessary management capacity is an intellectual leadership, create organization as experts within the Organization and outside the Organization''s experts, especially academic experts in this room is brought together and in conjunction with the development of tourism to synergy. Another important role of management is human resources management in to the development of coastal tourism. In the majority of enterprises human resources management are not properly and thereby allocating the tasks to tourism experts, has the ability to do these tasks necessary for admission. It is necessary in the assignment of tasks, based on criteria for switching a decent education, knowledge and experience to be considered and to motivate the financial incentives in the form of experts and occupational promotion, especially to be considered as conditions of competition between the experts.
    Keywords: Organization, management capacity, Coastal Tourism, Destination, Guilan
  • Morteza Shabani, Seyyed Ali Alavi *, Abolfazl Meshkini, Abdol Rasul Salman Mahini Pages 111-127
    Nowadays cities play a pivotal role in the destruction of the environment that cause human and natural environment is unstable ecosystem. Planning and urban management approach in Green city, as an essential part and comprehensive of urban strategies, based on the ecological management that with adjustment of environmental indicators of ecological sustainability and sustainable urban development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental situation in Tehran with green city approach. To identify the size of greener Tehran, compared with Asian cities. After identifying indicators of green city, using fuzzy network analysis models and VIKOR, calculated weight of each indicator, Tehran were prioritized among Asian cities. Then 22 areas in Tehran were ranking. The results showed that Tehran ranked fifteenth among Asian cities and the situation is relatively poor. Regions 8, 4 and 1 in the best and regions 10, 11 and 12 the worst environmental situation with green city approach.
    Introduction
    With both the rapid growth of the world’s urban population and increasing concern about the environment, the challenge of making urban living more sustainable is in the forefront of the minds of many designers, academics and government officials.
    The 3E approach frames city development within the context of economy (The competitive city), equity (the inclusive city), and environment (the Green City). Each initiative sets out the key components for achieving such a city and supports the other, providing the basis for sustainable urban development.
    There are many approaches of sustainability including Green city, Eco city and Livable city. Each approach is focusing on specific issues of sustainability. Green cities are defined as the cities striving to lessen their environmental impacts by reducing waste, expanding recycling, lowering emissions, increasing housing density while expanding open space, and encouraging the development of sustainable local businesses
    Green City concept in the late twentieth century as one of the solutions to reduce urban environmental problems in cities to achieve sustainable urban development was common. Given that Tehran in critical air pollution, intense focus, rapid population growth and the increasing uncontrolled sources of pollution of the environment, study the status and recognition of the situation in Tehran based on indicators Green City can be a suitable approach for planning and achieving environmental sustainability, ecological and sustainable urban development in the future.
    Methodology
    The aim of this study was to assess the environmental status of Tehran is using Green City Index. The method used in this study has been designed and developed in two main steps. The first step is to determine and identify the emergence of Tehran, the status of which will be discussed among Asian cities. To this end, identify Green City Index, using fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making models assessed the effect (weight) of each of the index, attempted to prioritize and determine the position of Tehran were among Asian cities. In the second step, after the recognition of green in the city of Tehran, citing specific weights to each of the indices Green City in the first stage, using VIKOR ranking, attempted to rank and prioritize each of the 22 districts of Tehran has the importance of each of the areas identified in the current situation in Tehran.
    Result
    Today, cities play a pivotal role in environmental degradation that has led to an unstable ecosystem is human and natural environment. Planning and urban management approach in green city based on ecological management with the implementation of environmental indicators of ecological sustainability and sustainable urban development.
    Results showed that the index weighting of energy and carbon dioxide weighing 0.1836, transportation, weighing 0.1585 and weighing 0.1494 air quality rating among the most important indicator.
    Using VIKOR Technic and Fuzzy Analytical Network Process (FANP) for weighting in the index showed that in Tehran in selected Asian cities ranked fifteenth among the relatively unfavorable position is that this status. Tehran in negative factors such as the release of CO2 (8/7 tons / person), population density (12,411 people / km²) and water loss (percent) higher than the average, as well as positive measures such as energy share of GDP (3 / 4) and per capita green area (6/15 m), has access to sewerage, sewage treatment rate has been lower than average. Tehran in indices capita waste generation, water consumption and particulate matter are relatively well compared to the average Asian cities. Among the 22 districts of Tehran by Region 8, 4 and 1 in the highest areas 10, 11 and 12 in the lowest ranking of the environmental status of the green. In other words, Tehran eastern areas to central and western regions of the urban landscape better than green. In contrast, the central city areas due to population density, increased traffic, increased air pollution, carbon dioxide emissions are worse than in other parts of Tehran. Tehran is more in the modernization of large volumes of materials and energy on the one hand and on the other hand is out waste and scrap The major strategies to achieve and reach the green in Tehran, it is possible to reduce municipal solid waste, energy efficiency, conservation of urban ecosystems, the development of sustainable transport, air pollution control, sustainable urbanism and green building and plan for quality improvement environmental cited. We can move toward sustainability principles and practices and achieve green city in the use of public participation, public transport, green and efficient, energy saving, waste management, use of renewable energy, reconstruction of buildings and the use of efficient technologies, development of more pedestrian and cycling routes, local policy, and a council to protect the environment, environmental education of citizens (from primary schools to parents and citizens), a collaboration of institutions and organizations and develop and implement preventive laws outlined.
    Keywords: Green City, Urban Environment, Fuzzy Analytical Network Process (FANP), Vikor, Tehran
  • Hamdallah Sojasi Qeidari *, Tahere Sadeghlo, Hamideh Mahmoudi Pages 129-144
    Livability is a composite concept that concentrates on inhabitability of place. Rural settlements are from places that attending to the livability for precaution of population migration, rural vacating and they preserving them as a life spots, is necessary. Also, creating the livable settlement with standard infrastructures is one of the important indexes for achieving to sustainable development purposes, and rural wellbeing. Therefore, this study with having geographical approach had been survey the rural livability and assessing level of livability through of index selection and assessment. This study’s methodology is descriptive- analyzing and data gathering had been applied by questionnaire from 94 rural families in Nezam Abad rural district. Level of analysis in this study "village" and Information extracted from the questionnaire is studied using statistical analysis methods in both SPSS and GIS and VIKOR. Gained result show that 8 index of all examined indexes had a meaningful relation with rural livability of case study area. Also, rural ranking by VIKOR technique as a multi criteria decision making techniques, show that Ghourichai and Haji Nabi rural point had a low level and Aghchi Olia and Bahram soufi had a high level of livability among all of rural. Also, rural ranking by VIKOR technique as a multi criteria decision making techniques, show that Ghourichai
    Introduction
    All around the world Rural settlement are faced to many difficulties and problems (such as unemployment, migration, poverty and …) (Mohammadi yeganeh; 2014) because of existent leakage in services and facilities in their life All around the world Rural settlement are faced to many difficulties and problems (such as unemployment, migration, poverty and …) (Mohammadi yeganeh; 2014) because of existent leakage in services and facilities in their life (Cranwell & et al., 2005:1) that this situation decreased the general inhabitability of rural settlement especially in developing countries. Therefore, recognizing and understanding the rural people’s needs and making livable these spaces could improve the quality of life in rural area and provide the appropriate condition for achieving to general goals of sustainable development. Getting to this purpose is needed to promoting the level of livability and inhabitability of rural environments as a main place of rural living and employment. Because nowadays, in most cases and for so many reasons as like leakage of private facilities of living, rural environments haven’t enough standards for life that its consequent could increase spatial un sustainability for inhabitants. This condition observed in rural areas that are farther from urban environments. Then in order to planning and managing the rural area for getting to livable and inhabitable spaces as a living and employing place, it is needed to identifying the effective indicators and also ranking the rural point based on these indicators for recognizing the spatial livability differences among rural points.
    In this regard, the purpose of this paper is studying the concept of rural livability in academic literature and codifying the rural livability indicators by considering to sustainability dimensions and by using of multiple criteria attention and also ranking the rural point bay using of multi criteria decision making techniques in Nezam abad Dehestan of Azadshahr Township. For this regard, this study had been tried to answering to this man question that how is the level of rural point livability in case study area based on determined criteria and by using of VICORE technique?
    Materials and methods
    This practical study had been done by analysis – explanatory methodology that the main goal of it is ranking the rural point based on livability criteria. In this study, for gathering the needed information had been used of documentary and field study observation and also through questionnaire completing. Also, regarding to case study rural point, finally 4 dimensions and 16 criteria had been selected as a livability indicator among so many of indicators that are mentioned in theorical literature. Validity and reliability of indicators had been tested on 34 questionnaires Through of Cronbach's alpha formula that proved at range of 0.62 to 0.81. Statistical community of this study contains 17 villages that had been chosen from 22 recorded rural points at 2011. Sample community had been counted by using of Cochran formula among 3874 households that finally 94 households had been selected for data gathering. So many statistical tests as like as compare mean T-test, and also one of the MCDM techniques, VICORE, had been used for analyzing the data.
    Results and discussion
    Gained result of T-Test statistical examination show that 8 criteria of livability indicators were meaningful from respondent attitude in case study area and this indicate that there are meaningful differences among means of livability indicators in rural point of case study area. Thus, we obtained significant differences in the level of 0.05 alpha shows that from 16 indicators to measure viability, only 8 criteria were meaningful at alpha less than 0.05 and was accepted as a livable area. Also, ranking the rural point based on MCDM techniques, show that Ghurchay and Hajinabi was in lowest level of livability and Aghchi Olia and Bahram Sufi was in upper level of livability based on these indicators.
    Conclusion
    Result of field study and real observation are in harmony to the result of data analyzing in case study area. Therefore, it is possible using of these criteria as a proved pattern in another rural area for measuring the level of livability. Also, these criteria could be helping the rural development planners for revision of policies and plans result and presenting the new plans for improving the rural spaces conditions. In local level too, planners and managers must be concentrated on promoting the livability criteria in rural point and improving the rural spaces for inhabitants. So, in allocating the development credits and loans, they must focus on improving the rural livability especially in less livable villages.
    Keywords: livability, quality of life, rural area, VICORE, Rating
  • Hassan Esmaeilzadeh, Zohreh Fanni, Seyyedeh Fatemeh Abdoli * Pages 145-157
    Introduction
    The concept of the smart city over the past two decades has found great popularity in the world of world science and politics. The term of development focuses on improving the level and quality of life for individuals and improving the general welfare of society and its sustainability refers to the continuity of this process throughout the human generations. As a result, the sustainable development will encompass all the aspects and dimensions of human life. Sustainable development focuses on the qualitative and quantitative aspects. Since 1990, the term of Smart City has been expanded with the liberation of telecommunications and the development of services provided through the Internet (De Santis et al., 2014).
    What drives a city into intelligence is not merely the useing of electronic device and communication system of that city. Smart City is a city that administers all affairs of its citizens, online, including services, public and private services. So, one of the main differences between the smart city and other urban concepts (virtual city, electronic city, digital city, etc.) is the ability of the smart city to answer and solve the urban problems of citizens under the low to high hierarchies (Abdoli and Moradi Asl , 2015). Smart city citizens have a high responsibility for their city because they are more aware of their own city and can participate in its administration, and they will provide service at their level of participation. It can be said that the purpose of the Smart Cities project is to achieve some of the purposes of sustainable development. So, according to the aforementioned issues in this study, the role of smart city (smart environment, smart mobility, smart economy, smart governance, smart life and smart people) In Attaining sustainable urban development for Tehran's 6th metropolitan area with 14 neighborhoods, that one of the main physical features of which is its location in the city center of Tehran, on the one hand, and on the other hand, the establishment of the most important administrative-service utilities with a transnational, urban and even national scale of service-oriented utilization have been pointed out; that today faces many challenges and problems, such as blending of resources, population overflow in the region, the concentration of ministries and important institutions of the country and ... causing instability in the neighborhoods of this region.
    Methodology
    The current study was conducted using a survey method and a questionnaire technique was used to collect data. Measurement tools (questionnaires) have formal validity. For obtaining its validity, Cronbach's Alpha coefficient was used. The statistical population of this study is all residents in the Zone 6 Tehran, 400 of them were selected by cluster sampling method.
    The Zone 6 Tehran may be considered as one of the central areas of Tehran. The geographical area of this neighborhood leads from the south to the north of Enghelab Islami Street, from the north to the Hemmat highway, from the east to the Modarres highway and from the west to the Shahid Chamran highway. The Zone 6 Tehran is divided into smaller units called the neighborhood, with the number of units being 14 neighborhoods (Municipality of Zone 6).
    Results and discussion
    The results of this study indicate that there is a solid correlation between smart environment, smart governance, smart mobility, smart people, smart living, smart economy, and increasing each of the smart city components will increase the stability of Tehran's 6th area. This result is according to the research findings of Su, Li and Fu (2011), Awosusi and Jegede (2013), Lee, Hancock
    , and Hu (2013). The results of regression analysis indicated that three factors of smart mobility, smart people and their smart life affect their significant sustainability and are the most important factors. The smart mobility, smart people and smart lives are 26%, 16%, and 28%, respectively. So, among these factors, smart life is the most influential factor in explaining sustainability, followed by smart mobility and then smart people. The result of this research is consistent with the research by Ni and Liu (2014).
    Conclusion
    The term of development focuses on improving the level and quality of life of individuals and improving the general welfare of the community, and its sustainability refers to the continuation of this process throughout the generations. In this way, sustainable development encompasses all aspects and dimensions of human life. By paying attention to the purposes, principles and philosophy of sustainable development explain that sustainability of development depends on the participation of the people of a country in the planning, implementation and evaluation of projects. Since sustainable development has a quantitative and qualitative dimension, it is necessary to change the attitudes, skills, and perspectives of individuals, while the development wheels proceed more quickly, and this is not possible with the cooperation of all people. In sustainable development, people constitute the true wealth of every nation, and the purpose of development is to create conditions that people can enjoy from a long life and healthy life. Over the past decades, cities have become increasingly important in economic, environmental, social, and development trends, that point to the real and focal point of political and economic strategies. The smart city is about how citizens can shape the city and how it can contribute to urban development. Smart cities join each other by strategic planning initiatives from a bottom-up perspective. The planning approach from top to bottom and from bottom to top must be complementary. Areas, neighborhoods, and urban spaces are key elements of smart city strategies. In other words, sustained development is a dynamic and continuous process in response to changes in economic, environmental, social and physical pressures. So, the current paper argued that the use of new methods such as urban intelligence with intelligent economy, smart people, smart environment, intelligent mobility, smart people and intelligent governance can realize urban sustainability with purposes. Main supply of basic needs, improvement of living standards, better management of ecosystems and a secure future in various aspects of economic, social, cultural, environmental, physical and other.
    Keywords: Smart city, Sustainable urban development, sustainability, Communications, Information, Zone 6 Tehran
  • Farhad Azizpour *, Farhad Javan, Mohammad Hajipour Pages 159-175
    Introduction
    The rural settlements of Rezvanshahr area face a shortage of capital, lack of suitable economic infrastructure which resulted in the improper use of productive and active rural labor force in the three economic sectors: the emergence of hidden and seasonal unemployment and consequently the reduction of economic power and standard of living of rural residents in city under study. Mere dependence on agriculture, the basic requirement for revenue from the sale of products in this sector and the lack of rural industrial activities, such as agricultural conversion industries has led to the lowest value-added of agriculture products for the villagers. So severe economic vulnerability, rural income instability and employment constraints and the lack of job opportunities are the important structural features of rural economy in Rezvanshahr area which has been aggravated by the lack of government attention to the villages and agricultural sectors. Therefore, what is the impact of subsidies, as one of the structural adjustment policies on rural economy in area under study? As the most vulnerable sectors of society are villagers and rural populations, granting subsidies is justifiable to them due to their economic and social problems. The important reasons are low income in the rural areas of city under study than the urban areas and even the productivity of the agricultural sector is lower than the industrial sector. It is obvious that the study of the impacts and the consequences of implementing this project, especially in the rural households that are most affected by their economic conditions, can help decision-makers and policy-makers. Accordingly, the present study attempts to investigate the reflection of subsidy payments in rural settlements in Rezvanshahr area.
    Methodology
    The methodological framework for this project is qualitative research and focuse on 'grounded theory approach. To examine the reflection of targeted subsidy plan, collaborative observations and semi-structured interviews based on exploratory approach was used. Statistical population consisted of villagers and local natives (including council members, governers of rural districts and other villagers). Villages were classified into three categories in terms of reciving subsidy. Out of a total of each category, 20% of the villages were selected as samples. Snowball sampling used in the villages under study. The number of sample size was 53 based on theoretical saturation. According to grounded theory, data from interviews were analyzed in three steps: open, axial and selective coding. Research validity obtained through members control and self-monitoring.
    Results and Discussion
    Investigating the views of local community showed that in the villages of Rezvanshahr area, as in other regions of Iran, the liberalization of energy carrier price both in non-manufacturing and manufacturing sector has led to increase in costs such as moving different goods and rural travels. Income growth in rural household from receiving subsidy improved the savings for some households with previous financial ability on the one hand and on the other hand, some rurals who had no financial ability, said receiving subsidy in some extent has influenced the level of trust among villagers, and especially their urban relatives for lending and borrowing money to each other. Beacause urban relatives hope that if agricultural revenues in a year does not suffice, subsidy is constant payment for villagers to return their borrowings. According to the villagers in the Rezvanshahr area, after targeting subsiy plan, the owners with more agronomic background, have gain more advantages from production subsidies in form of receiving fertilizers and poisons. Accordingly, it can be said that economic inequality has been fueled by subsidies in the villages. In the rural area of Rezvanshahr, as the dominant pattern of most rural areas in Iran, households can be divided into two economic situations in relation to subsidies. Also, based on a six-year experience from targeted subsidies plan and its cash payment, the villagers day by day become dependent on the determined "supplementary income" (subsidies). As cash subsidy payments, on the one hand depends on the ruling government and on the other hand, is a function of the country's oil revenues, rural income system has always been exposed to political and economic (mainly psychological) shocks especially during the elections.
    Conclusion
    Targeted subsidy as one of the implemented structural adjustment policies in Iran has caused reflections in the rural economy of Rezvanshahr area. Based on selective coding it can be said that three core categories titled as "Change in the cost and income of villagers, “Changing the system of production and consumption of wealth in the rural economy, and “Risk-taking growth in rural economy "was the result of implementing this policy. Given that the duration of payment and spending subsidies is short (up to 5 days) per month, it creates a significant momentum in the flow of capital between rural and urban economy and then a depression appears in the market and trading sector. This situation is a reflection of growing dependence of the economic cycle (on the trading side) on subsidy payments in rural areas. The system and the source of subsidies, along with more and more dependence of villagers to subsidies has led to a drastic increase in the process of globalization and politicization of rural economy. Finally, it can be said that despite the fact that rehabilitation has not occured in the rural economy in relation to its constituent elements (villagers) and the compensation for losses of stagnation does not happen very quickly, nevertheless, targeted subsidies and its current support pattern (cash payments only to households) does not result in strengthening the foundations of this economy.
    Finally, it can be said that despite the fact that rehabilitation has not occured in the rural economy in relation to its constituent elements (villagers) and the compensation for losses of stagnation does not happen very quickly, nevertheless, targeted subsidies and its current support pattern (cash payments only to households) does not result in strengthening the foundations of this economy.
    Keywords: Structural Adjustment Policy, Rural economy, Rural Settlements, Targeted Subsidies, Rezvanshahr area
  • Mohammad Taghi Sheikhi, Samad Ehsani * Pages 177-192
    In this paper, we employ a critical approach for studying the informal life and try to offer a comprehensive framework for understanding this phenomenon at the present time. Our main claim in studying this phenomenon is that against the common belief, the informal life is not just a domain issue and it is not possible to assess it by emphasizing geographical domain. It is important the cultural and socio-economic layers of the informal settlements be studied since the reason behind forming the informal settlements maybe at the national and international scales. In this paper, we study our assumption by doing a field study in the Ouzoon Tapeh, Bumehen and try to enrich and modify our conceptual theory. We focus on study of two concepts namely as seizure security and quality of life in a limited geographical domain in order to limit our study. We think that with focusing on the security of seizure and the quality of life which are two of the fundamentals in the informal life, we can precisely assess the aspects of informal life. The results of this research help us to offer a comprehensive theoretical frame for understanding the informal life. In the end of this paper, we also offer some suggestions for further researches.
    Introduction
    Urban issues are not benign, and they can not be solved simply by technical and engineering methods. Urban issues are very complex, and facing them requires a multi-faceted and equally complex approach.
    The issue of social exclusion and space that has been mentioned in titles such as marginalization, informal economics, informal settlements, slumming, problematic textures, worn-out texture, etc. are one of the urban issues that are well understood by the common sense of The concepts of city and space collapse.
    We know that, despite the laws, plans, plans and studies that have been carried out over the past decades, we are witnessing the expansion and intensification of social and spatial exclusion. Urban fringes, which are increasingly widespread, are no longer physically marginalized, but can also be seen in urban centers.
    Capital accumulation at one point is necessarily accompanied by impoverishment at another point. These are interconnected internally. Consequently, poverty and urban inequality are not phenomena like what we usually know. Poverty and spatial inequality are inevitably the inevitable phase of the capitalist mode of production.
    Today, urban issues, as a result of the powerful process of capital, have a decisive role in everyday life of humans. The global urbanization process, as its global trait identifies, is no longer limited to some cities in some countries. Now all countries and cities are involved in this process.
    Meanwhile, the growth of urbanization and the fear of its maladaptive phenomena in different areas, especially in large cities, especially in metropolises, has led urban planners to new social orientations and trends, and the need to strengthen social considerations in urban studies has been strengthened further. Made One of these tendencies, which had a tremendous impact on the evolution of the views and methods of urban planning in the second half of the 20th century, was social theory and attention to the quality aspect of development, which today has consolidated its position in terms of quality of life and social welfare .
    One of the main goals of addressing the quality of life is to achieve human security in its general sense.
    Methodology
    The general approach of this research is descriptive-analytic. Research method is library and field. In order to formulate theoretical basis of articles and researches, to introduce the scope of the study, available statistics and documents (statistics in urban plans related to the Ouzoon tapeh neighborhood and population census statistics and housing) and to collect data from the field study area a questionnaire has been used. The questionnaire was developed in the research process based on the goals and theoretical framework. For data analysis, statistical analysis of confirmatory factor analysis (for statistical structuring and determination of superior factors), scaling (for questionnaire items), and Pearson correlation and regression statistical techniques were used.
    Results and discussion
    While private-sector private equity is the key provider of housing for most people, government action is needed to support such activities: Providing roads, sewage, water, regionalization controls, public transportation, and environmental standards. Government action also regulates what makes housing: construction standards, health and safety regulations, height restrictions, planning controls. However, the government also intervenes cautiously in regulating the profitable private financing.
    Conclusion
    Now that the political counteraction to housing is in the strongest position and housing and economic conditions are deteriorating, there is an opportunity to cultivate a progressive housing movement that can bring low-income and middle-income tenants and landowners around their shared interest in desirable housing. Unite in affordable and satisfactory neighborhoods ... What we need is a plan that can change the current state of the current debate on housing. A program that challenges the nature of housing commodities and their role in our economic and social system, and demonstrates how the needs of people's legitimate housing can be met through an alternative approach.
    The purpose of such an alternative program can be stated as follows: providing affordable housing, with appropriate proportions and desirable quality, with security, and located in a supportive neighborhood for all individuals, along with the recognition of specific housing problems facing oppressed groups Are located.
    A second strategy for the commoditization of housing can be an attempt to limit the role of profit in decisions that affect housing, instead of replacing the fundamental principle of social need.
    Another point is that the ideological core of the discourse of the new housing policy is that all income groups have their own segments in the housing market.
    Keywords: Informal Life, Seizure Security, quality of life, Human Geography, Ouzoon Tapeh
  • Seyed Hasan Motiee Langroodi *, Vahid Riyahi, Hamid Jalalian, Afsaneh Ahmadi Pages 193-209
    Introduction
    What is clear is that the sustainability of each village depends on the dynamism and durability of its economy, and therefore the cause of the evacuation and desertification of many villages in the country is the weakness and inefficiency of their economy. The stability of a settlement reflects the equilibrium and dynamism of rural settlements in relation to natural-ecological, socio-cultural, economic and spatial-physical structures. So that it ensures the stability of a settlement during spatial trends - time. In this regard, special attention is paid to paying attention to the village and rural development, and adopting monetary and credit policies for the governments of the Third World Societies, which play the role of facilitating and directing development, Investing and injecting financial resources can play a very important role in fostering rural livelihoods and achieving sustainable rural development.
    Methodology
    The general approach of this research is quantitative research and in terms of collecting data based on librarian-documentary data and field survey. Field scrolling method. Firstly, for identifying indices and indicators of diversification of economic activities with special emphasis on rural areas, studies related to the field were used. Based on this, components and items of sustainable livelihoods were identified and the basis for designing a questionnaire as the main tool of research in field studies was placed. To increase the validity of the method, the content and formality of the method were used. In this regard, the validity of the research tool was confirmed by a number of experts in the field, then the Cronbach's alpha technique was used for the research tool's sensitivity and 0.905 was obtained, which indicates the appropriate reliability Research tool. To identify the villages studied, the villages first divided into 5 groups of 20-50 households, 10-51 households, 150-101 households, 152-150 households, 250-95 households and 525-500 households. After identifying sample villages, based on the Cochran formula, 300 families were selected and the sample size of the household was determined in proportion to the population of the village.
    Results and discussion
    To investigate the relationship between educational variables and number of activities, as well as income and activity variables, Lameda, v Kramer, Goodman and Kruskal tests were used. The results of these tests show that since sig is less than 0.05, then there is a significant relationship between education and the number of activities. As the level of education increases, the number of household activities also increases. Field analysis showed that 123 out of 136 uneducated families with primary education, 123 had one activity and only 12 had two activities. Also, the results of Lameda, V Kramer, Goodman and Kruskal tests show that there is a significant relationship between the number of activities and income increase in the studied villages, which means that households with more economic diversity have higher income. Of the total households surveyed, 204 people have an annual income of 5 million or fewer. All these households have one type of economic activity. The research findings also show that among the 71 households with income levels between 5 and 10 million, 45 have dual activity and 6 have 3 types of economic activities. One of the weaknesses of rural households is that they do not have diverse economic activities and only rely on agricultural activities. The vulnerability of their income and livelihood to shocks (human and natural). For this purpose, Lameda, V Kramer, Goodman and Kruskal tests were used to investigate the relationship between livelihood vulnerability of rural households against shocks and number of activities. The results of these tests show that in the studied villages there is a significant relationship between the number of activities and their livelihood vulnerability to shocks, so that the households, which in addition to the agricultural activities Other side activities are less livelihood vulnerability than households that only have one activity. And there are a number of economic activities in which there is an increase in income, which means that households with more economic diversity have more income. Of the total studied households (68.18%) who had only one kind of activity, their income and livelihoods were affected by (such as drought, floods and pests) climate shocks. Friedman test (rank average) was used to prioritize the key factors affecting the diversification of economic activities from the viewpoint of villagers. The statistical results of the test show that there is a significant difference between the factors at the alpha level of 0.05. The average results of the Friedman test also indicate that the government's support for diversifying activities is ranked first.
    Conclusion
    The diversification of economic activities in rural environments can be seen as a consistent and dynamic process in response to threats and opportunities through which farmers can manage risk and can also increase their income and livelihoods, maintain their livelihoods and ultimately improve their living standards. Descriptive findings show that from the perspective of the sample society, the government's financial support by providing appropriate facilities to farmers, the availability of savings and financial resources for farmers, the purchase of guaranteed crops, horticultural and livestock, government support for entrepreneurship development and intermediary removals When selling products, raising the level of knowledge and knowledge of the people from the affiliated businesses can have the greatest impact on the diversification of economic activities. In confirmation of the descriptive findings, Friedman's test also shows that from the point of view of society, which is the factor of government support for diversification of activities, the second factor that influences the diversification of economic activities from the perspective of the sample population is the financial resources and household savings. In addition, the infrastructure facility for the diversification of economic activities from the perspective of the sample community is in the third place. Physical assets, institutional factors and climatic factors are also ranked next.
    Keywords: Diversification, Rural areas, Economic Activities, Viewpoints of Villagers, Saqez City
  • Hossien Ghahraie *, Keramatolah Zayyari, Ahmad Pour Ahmad Pages 211-227
    Introduction
    Isfahan is one of the ancient cities of Iran with its history dates back to thousands years ago. Before 1921(1300 SH) the growth and development of the city was very slow and the city had still a proportional and organic relationship with its neighboring villages. After 1921, however, the city growth was relatively slow and the first urbanism projects also the construction of streets were embarked and the traditional form of the city was changed.
    In recent decades, the population of Isfahan, like most of other cities of Iran increased fast such that it rised from 255000 (254708) in 1956 to 1900000 (1908968) in 2011(i.e. more than seven times during the half century of 1956-2011, Statistical center of Iran, 1956,2011). The undesirable consequences of population growth were the destruction of gardens and countryside’s farms, also ? and the formation of suburbs and the settlement of people there.
    As the purpose of the present research is to examine urban land policies and its effects on Isfahan city’s physical development, the main issue here will be the study and analysis of imbalance between urban land policies and development goals of urban comprehensive plan of Isfahan city especially after Islamic revolution. Therefore, the failures and problems encountered when performing comprehensive plans, also the influence of urban land policies on the city’s physical development will be considered here.
    Methodology
    The type of research is basic-applied and performed using a descriptive-analytical method. The area of study was Isfahan’s city. The data was collected through studying available texts and documents and internet sites. Other sources of information were interviews with experts (of roads and urban development organization and municipality), counselors for urban issues and the counseling workshops held. The urban development map was drawn using aerial photos of Isfahan city during years, as well as urban maps. The data was analyzed quantitatively using SPSS, Excel and Arcgis soft ware.
    Result and Discussion
    The comparison of Gross Urban land per capita of Isfahan city and gross density of population during 1956-2011 shows that except for 1956, in following years, the gross urban land per capita was higher than population density of the city. Of course this does not mean that all citizens enjoyed urban utilities the same way, instead it means the excessive supply of land (especially in 1996 that urban gross per capita was at the highest point) (table6).
    The process of Isfahan city’s extension and physical development (1921-2011) shows that the extent of the city during the last 90 years has increased by 12 times and if it is calculated considering its extent in 2006 (before Khorasgan being merged with legal limits (city proper) of Isfahan), it will be found that the city has extended by11 times. The slow development of the city during 1923-1956 can be observed in figure2. From 1965 onward, however and especially following land reforms and the implementation of development plans (the policy of establishing industries around big cities like Isfahan), the slope of the curve increased and the city was extended around 4.5 times by 1956. Following Islamic revolution of 1979, until 1996, the slope of the curve and the extent of the city increased considerably. This was the result of urban policies made after revolution and the lands assigned. From 1997 and due to policies adopted by the seventh administration (i.e. the policy of decreasing or adjustment of land assignment), the slope of the curve decreased.
    Also, regarding map 3 obtained from aerial photos and urban maps, it can be found that during the mentioned period, the city has developed in all directions. Indeed the development is much significant in the North, Northwest, West and Southwest parts of the city (Eastern development of Isfahan in 2013 was the result of Khorasgan merge with Isfahan). This kind of development transformed many of the gardens and farm lands around the cities to urban and residential lands. Therefore regarding the fast development of Isfahan during the last decades, a definite border for Isfahan cannot be explicitly considered; instead it should be called urban region or metropolis of Isfahan as it has conjoined surrounding suburbs (Malekshahr, Khane Isfahan, Sepahanshahr, Khorasgan).
    Conclusion
    Following the development of cities, the policies of urban land and the way they were implemented has gained importance. It is because the land is the basis of land development and the main factor in the formation and development of cities. It should however be considered that growth and development of cities without control and planning or in other words a comprehensive plan, will be followed with undesirable economic, social and cultural consequences, but this doesn’t mean the negligence of inadequacies observed in comprehensive plans (whether in study or performance phases). Instead it is necessary to overcome weaknesses of comprehensive plans. In this way the development and extension of cities will be controllable, schedulable, as well as predictable. By presenting a model, a comprehensive plan should predict future conditions especially the physical development of the city. On the other hand urban land policies should be adopted in a way that on one hand the development goals of comprehensive plans be achieved and does not cause the excessive growth of the cities on the other hand.
    Therefore, while studying the weaknesses of comprehensive plans, the present research will evaluate and analyze comprehensive plans and how they influence the physical development of Isfahan.
    The results of studies performed in Isfahan show that on one hand the weaknesses of performing two comprehensive plans (especially organic comprehensive plan) and inconsistency between urban land policies with development goals of these plans (especially after Islamic revolution and by organizations and institutes) on the other hand has caused the excessive growth of Isfahan city.
    Keywords: Urban Land Policies, physical development, Comprehensive plan, Isfahan city, Urban Land
  • Mohammad Javanbakht, Majid Kiavarz Moghaddam*, Najmeh Neisany Samani, Lobat Zebardast, Ali Darvishi Boloorani Pages 229-247
    This research modeling of the Urban Environmental Quality (UEQ) of districts of 3, 6 and 11 of Tehran using an integrated Geographic Information System and remote sensing approach. The identified indicators in this study contain both natural and artificial aspects in order to model the quality of urban environments. The current study aims to develop a method for spatiotemporal modelling of UEQ. For this purpose fuzzy logic method is used. The results show the existence of a fairly regular pattern as an increase in desirability of UEQ from south to north of the area. The seasonal changes of UEQ show the improvement of environmental condition in spring and summer compared to autumn and winter.
    Introduction
    Fast growth of the urban population and increasing demands for high living standards, have intensified the pressure on natural resources and made it more difficult to answer every need. Regardless to the fact of the environmental capacity, population and economy would effect on the fundamental functions of the environment. So, analysis of the environmental quality can help us to understand the exact need for natural resources in any urban areas along with considering its economy and social development scale. The quality of urban environment is recognized as an indicator for assessing and measuring the degree of suitability in urban settlements. It is also a rate for meeting the needs of individuals and society which can be affected by several factors such as air, noise and etc. All these factors would vary by any changes in time and space. Previous studies have mainly focused on spatial changes, but in this paper we decided to consider seasonal changes in addition to spatial ones. Also, we tried to use more complete set of indicators. So, the main purpose of this study is modeling the quality of urban environment based on a set of spatio-temporal factors.
    Methodology
    We used satellite imagery and some geospatial data such as NDVI index maps, land surface temperature, Land Surface moisture, Land Surface Albedo, Solar radiation, air pollution, Urban Heat Island, Building height, population density, Enhanced Built-Up and Bareness Index and also noise pollution. Landsat 8 (OLI) is used to calculate NDVI indices, land surface temperature, land surface moisture, Land Surface Albedo, Urban Heat Island, and Enhanced Built-Up and Bareness Index. A digital elevation model (DEM) used to extract solar radiation. Finally, we used based location field data to enhance Air pollution, Building height, population density and noise pollution. Because of the uncertain nature of quality measurements, we used Fuzzy logical approach to model the quality of urban environments. One of the most important fuzzy operators for overlapping indices is the GAMMA. Gamma operator is the general mode of multiplication and addition. In other words, the gamma fuzzy function is the product of the algebraic multiplication of two functions of collect and multiply fuzzy. This function is the result of the compatibility between the incremental effect of the fuzzy sum function and the decreasing effect of the fuzzy multiplication function. Therefore, districts of 3, 6 and 11 of Tehran municipality have been selected to be measured for the quality of urban environment in Tehran along with northern-southern line.
    Results and discussion
    The results show a northern-southern trend in the quality of urban environment which is reducing from north to south. The environmental quality conditions of the three defined urban areas are categorized into five classes, moderate, ‘very good’, ‘good’, ‘very low’ and ‘low’. As the results show, region number three has a better environmental condition than the regions of six and eleven. We can also realize that the most of the selected indicators have shown seasonal changes within a year in our study area. This is due to the existance of more parks and less air pollution in the northern regions. Also, time intervals show a better quality situation in spring and summer than in autumn and winter. To investigate seasonal changes, the total area of each class was compared in a different season and the urban environmental qualities were devised into five categories: very good, good, medium, low and very low. In the spring, a large partial of the region has a modest and good quality, and a small part of it has a very good situation. In the summer, most of the area has a middle class situation and a small part with a very low level, which indicates the region's good status on this season. In the fall, we have maximum of the area with the lowest quality and the minimum of it with a very good level that indicates the worst condition for the urban environmental quality. In the winter, the situation is a little better. most parts of the area are in middle levels and small parts of it is in the lowest class. therefore, the quality of urban environments changes dramatically within a year. At the next step, we studied the Pearson correlation coefficient of indicators and the results showed that the greenness is the most effective indicator of quality in urban environments. One-At-A-Time (OAT) Sensitivity Analysis were used to analyze the sensitivity of the model. Results show that the effect of 30% increasement on all inputs is between 2% and 17%. By considering the fact that all the changes in model outcome is less than the total percentage of input change (30% increase) for all the variables, it can be concluded that the results of the gamma fuzzy model are reliable and not affected by one or more specific variables.
    Conclusion
    According to an extensive review of the literature, this study selects a wide range of factors in both natural and artificial environments to assess the urban environmental quality (UEQ) of Tehran. It is hoped that this study provides a useful basis for a more researches in the field of UEQ, combining both natural and built-up parts of urban zones. Further work will focus on validation and verification of the UEQ indices.
    Keywords: Modeling, Quality of urban environmental, fuzzy logic, Pearson Correlation Coefficient, Sensitivity analysis