- Volume:3 Issue:2, 2019
- تاریخ انتشار: 1397/12/10
- تعداد عناوین: 5
Pages 9-18When deliberating on the spiritual dimension of tourism, one would seek to understand how people seek meaning and life purpose themselves, their quest for meaning, and experiences of divine existence and connectedness as subjectively lived through their travel. In fact, tourism is closely linked to religion which has acted as a powerful motive for travel from the time of early pilgrimages to contemporary journeys to sacred places. Religious buildings, rituals, festivals and ceremonial events are important tourist attractions for those with a casual interest as well as more devout followers of the particular systems of belief represented. This feature of the tourism experience is arguably the reason for the popularity of spiritual tourism experiences among novices to spirituality-driven endeavors, as well as to those who wish to develop and deepen their ongoing transcendent engagement through and during travel. There are various reasons for travelling for spiritual growth, as opposed to the traditional notion of religious pilgrimage. However, relatively few scholars have explored the multitudinous relationships between religion, spirituality, and sustainable tourism, despite the pervasiveness of religious tourism and spiritual connections to place. A subject that has received only scant attention in the literature is the negative social and ecological impacts of religious (mass) tourism. Several authors have noted the negative impacts of religious tourism on the commercialization of places and artifacts that were once held as sacred locations. The commodification of religious symbols and the economic implications of selling them should become of increased interest to researchers as the world becomes more consumption-oriented.Keywords: Spirituality, alternative tourism, Sustainable Tourism
Pages 19-41The main purpose of this study is identifying influential factors on the future of spiritual tourism and formulation of plausible scenario for it. From philosophical point of view, this paper is pragmatic, exploratory from target’s point of view and it’s practical. It’s a survey research in collecting data and its methodology is mixed. In this study, by studying the literature and interviewing with experts, the factors influencing the future of spiritual tourism were identified and then, using the Cross Impact analysis approach, the data was entered into the MIC MAC software and two key factors affecting the future of spiritual tourism in Qom province. It was found out that Facilitate versus Rigor and Culture policy which were selected among the eleven final effective factors. In the next step, four scenarios are presented in this study. These scenarios include Limited liberalism scenario, Liberal world Scenario, Negligence scenario and Authoritarian Spirituality scenario.Keywords: Spiritual tourism, Future Study, Soft Systems Methodology, Cross Impact Matrix
Pages 43-67By producing the paradigm of creative tourism, the knowledge increasing discipline of tourism invites tourists to visit and interact with unique and live culture of societies instead of just sightseeing in museums and ancient monuments. In this paradigm, tourists engage all of their senses in the creation of their unique experience and improve their relations with local people from seller/buyer to a master/apprentice level. Not only the cultural capital, but also the social capital would be increased from this interaction. The main goal of this research is to show that contrary to what appears at first, the creative domain of gastronomy is a spiritual one and flourishing local communities and creative tourism based on this paradigm can evolve the wellbeing and material life of inhabitants and tourists as well, and includes significant spiritual endowments both for guests and hosts in the creative gastronomic destinations. Creative tourism based on gastronomy regards new looks to local communities as the first step in creating unique and added value experiences (Including economic, human and social values). In this paper, it is shown by thematic analysis and Delphi method that the components of spiritual perception have significant overlaps with the components of gastronomic creative tourism. In other words, “comfort and satisfaction”, “Giving meaning to life”, “interaction with others”, “friendship with nature and environment” and “surrender and thanksgiving...Keywords: Creative tourism, Spirituality, Gastronomy, The man must consider what he is eating
Measurement of Relationship between Factors Affecting the Demand of Spiritual Tourism in Tehran Using Fuzzy TechniquePages 69-84Today, sustainable development of tourism as a strategy for the development of cities, especially remote cities is a relatively new idea, the importance of which has been realized by policymakers. So far as this type of tourism can be used as an alternative for income, creating jobs and making positive changes in the income of cities. In tourism studies, there are also discussions about spiritual tourism. But most scholars believe that spiritual tourism can't be considered a type of tourism since spirituality is like an umbrella that can include various types of tourism, which leads to a transcendental sense and sacred values that Spiritual city tourism is one of those foundations.
Then, using laboratory techniques of test and evaluation of fuzzy DEMATEL decision making as one of the appropriate decision-making techniques that deals with systematic relations between variables, relations among factors influencing the development of Spiritual city tourism in Tehran are studied and modeled.
The results of the fuzzy DEMATEL method showed that factors affecting the development of Spiritual city tourism include Appropriate planning and management, Direct supervision of the government and institutions on those active in the field of tourism, Participation of private sector in the field of investment in regional tourism, Marketing, advertising and introducing tourism attractions in national and international areas, Culturalization of tourism development and promotion of tourist acceptance culture among city residents, Paying attention to the resources that lead tourists to spirituality and high values.Keywords: Tourism, Spiritual city tourism, Spiritual tourism, DEMATEL fuzzy technique, Tehran
Pages 85-105The Study of the concept of spirituality in tourism is not from among new study approaches, or a study of a particular kind of tourism or simply a religious perspective to tourism; rather it is an indicator of spiritual contents that today's tourism is submerged in, in order to discover and attain non-material values and the reality during the length of its journey. This research offers a new perspective in the study of the methodology of tourism studies with a descriptive-analytical approach, conjunctive view, while using library documentation and a review of theoretical foundations according to Fuzzy Logic methodology. The Fuzzy Logic theory possesses a more precise capacity to explain and analyze concepts and phenomena and also a spectral reading of phenomena which uses the binary numbers of 0 and 1 as the extreme points of reality and accepts that there are infinite points of reality between the two of them; therefore, in order to more precisely and comprehensively understand reality, one must have a hierarchical view towards phenomena. With this approach, spirituality in tourism includes a great variety of concepts and elements, all of which are ambiguous and graded; similar to reasoning and probing, religious denomination and beliefs, mutual relations, quality of life and culture, the propositions of spirituality in tourism essentially possess Fuzzy and Spectral logic not only with Fuzzy Logic but because of the essential ambiguity that exists in concepts and elements because of their metaphysical aspect. Therefore, this study is built upon the studies related to spirituality in tourism, and the methodology which is used is that of Fuzzy logic. According to its results, this important approach must be paid attention so that the great capacities of spirituality in tourism in the areas of knowledge and action can be correctly utilized.Keywords: Spirituality, Tourism, methodology, Fuzzy logic