فهرست مطالب

Biological and Biomedical Journal - Volume:4 Issue:4, 2018
  • Volume:4 Issue:4, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/09/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
  • Begüm Erpaçal*, Emrullah Bahşi, Ezgi Sonkaya Pages 170-176
    Dental erosion is the loss of substance that occurs in the hard tissues of the teeth without being related to a bacterial component as a result of acid attacks. This condition, which is caused by continuous acid exposure, is irreversible. The aim of this review is to examine the anti-erosive materials and to present protective and invasive treatment methods. Many materials are recommended to prevent dental erosion. Studies about sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and tricalcium phosphate, protease inhibitors, oils, chitosan and multivalent metal ions are available. Beyond all available materials and methods, the most critical point in treatment is the detection and elimination of the erosion causing factor. This is only possible with the early diagnosis of the erosive lesion, and the detection and elimination of the etiological factor with a good anamnesis.
    Keywords: Dental erosion, treament methods, acid exposure
  • Zahra Ahmadi, Milad Ashrafizadeh* Pages 177-182
    Lead is one of the persistent agents found extensively in the environment and has destructive impacts on the tissues. Regarding the high spread of lead, particularly in Iran, we investigated the effects of lead acetate II on the expression level of osteocalcin gene and histological changes of bone. 40 chickens were randomly divided into four groups. As well as the libitum, the control group was fed with distilled water, while treatment 1, 2, and 3 groups were fed with distilled water and 50, 100, and 200 ppm of lead acetate II, respectively. Alterations in the histological profile of bone including decreased level of bone and pyknosis in the nuclei of osteocytes, and decreased expression of osteocalcin gene are the results of exposing to the lead. Regarding the adverse effects of lead on the bone, the spread of this toxic metal must be limited to decrease its adverse impacts on the birds, especially chickens.
    Keywords: Lead acetate, osteocalcin, bone, chicken
  • Rimaz Alhag Gurashi*, Moawia Elsadig Hummeida, Faisal Galal Abdelaziz Pages 183-189
    Ovarian cancer ranks fifth in cancer deaths among women, and causes more deaths than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. Since diagnosis at an early stage is associated with improved survival rate, an effective screening strategy that detects early stage ovarian cancer could have a significant impact on mortality from this disease. Cancer antigen 125 (CA125) is an established biomarker for ovarian cancer detection. As CA125 effectiveness in the identification of the malignancy is threatened by its low diagnostic specificity, measurement of prolactin (PRL) in serum have been proposed for improving the sensitivity and specificity of disease identification. The aim of the present study was to assess the level of serum PRL among healthy and ovarian cancer women at Khartoum state, Sudan. 90 Sudanese ladies with age range (16-80) years old who attended the gynecological oncology clinic in Omdurman Military hospital were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were collected, and quantitative determination of serum prolactin (PRL) levels was performed by immunoassay. Epithelial ovarian cancer was the most common ovarian cancer type followed by germ cell tumors. PRL serum levels were within the reference range in both control and study groups. No significant difference in PRL levels was observed when considering the parity or the stage of cancer (P > 0.05). Investigating different isoforms of PRL may help to better understand the mechanism of action of this hormone in ovarian cancer induction.
    Keywords: Ovarian cancer, serum biomarker, Prolactin
  • Masuma Khanam, Muqbula Tasrin Akter, Muhammad Asaduzzaman, Zinat Rehana Sharmin, Sadia Sultana, Jiaul Hasan, Abu Syed Md Mosaddek* Pages 190-198
    During treatment of multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), patients suffer from many adverse effects. Severe adverse effects may lead to refusal and discontinuation of treatment. Though national tuberculosis control programs are generally well structured, they do not collect information on adverse effects of drug directly. This study had been designed to observe the pattern of adverse effects of MDR-TB drugs in Bangladesh. This observational and descriptive type of longitudinal study was carried out at the in-patient department of the National Institute for Diseases of the Chest and Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The total number of subjects included was 64. The data collection was carried out with pretested questionnaire. After the interview at the initial stage, the respondents had to take part in interview again at one month interval up to the end of the 3rd month of treatment. The collected data was analyzed in terms of descriptive method. The mean age of respondents was 34.76 ± 12.98 years. 20-60 years age group comprised80% of respondents. Male to female ratio was 2:1. Regarding the adverse effects of MDR-TB drugs, 80% of respondents suffered from arthralgia, 59% from anorexia, 52% from dizziness, 44% from nausea/vomiting and 44% from sleep disturbances. Gastritis, hypothyroidism and psychological disorders were each observed in 19% of patients. 17% developed impaired hearing. Peripheral neuropathy was developed by 28% of respondents. Serum creatinine level was raised in 3% of respondents. Hypocalcemia had been developed in 6% of respondents. Among psychological disorders, 67% consisted of depression, 25% were anxiety, and 8% were psychosis. The mean number of adverse effects that the respondents had to suffer from was 5 (range 1 -11).  Uninterrupted treatment had been continued in 86% of cases. Drug dose had to be reduced in 11% of cases and drug had to be stopped in 3% of cases. The findings of this study may provide baseline information in Bangladesh on adverse effects of MDR-TB drugs. The information may help minimizing the treatment interruption and thus preventing propagation and dissemination of MDR-TB.
    Keywords: MDRTB (Multi drug Resistant Tuberculosis)
  • Dursun Kurt*, Omer Caliskan, Mehmet Serhat Odabas, Jolita Radusiene, Cuneyt Cirak Pages 199-205
    Hypericum orientale L. that is growing in high altitudes is used traditionally for hemorrhoids in Turkish folk medicine. In the present study, models were developed to estimate the altitudinal variation in secondary metabolite contents of Hypericum orientale growing wild in “Güldağı” mountain, Turkey. Aerial parts of 30 flowering individuals were collected at six different altitudes (500, 1150, 1650, 2100, 2720 and 3250 m). Actual secondary metabolite contents of plants were measured by high performance liquid chromatography method. Multiple regression analysis was performed for each altitude and chemical separately to develop multiple regression models. The R2 coefficient values between the predicted and observed contents of secondary metabolites were determined as 0.89 for hyperoside and neochlorogenic acid, 0.94 for rutin, 0.95 for avicularin, 0.97 for quercetin, 0.98 for hypericin, pseudohypericin, cholorogenic acid, and 0.99 for hyperforin, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, amentoflavone, isoquercitrin, quercitrin. catechin, and epicatechin. All R² values and standard errors were found to be significant at the P < 0.001 level and a very close relationship was found between the actual and estimated values of secondary metabolites, tested. Prediction of secondary metabolite composition by using simple equations may represent a complementary important topic for phytochemical and taxonomical studies.
    Keywords: Altitude, HPLC, Hypericum orientale, modeling, secondary metabolite
  • Akintayo John Omimakinde, Ilemobayo Oguntimehin, Elizabeth Adetuju Omimakinde*, Olarinde Olaniran Pages 206-212
    The leaves and pods of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) were analyzed for their proximate and some phytochemical compositions using standard methods. The results of proximate composition for fluted pumpkin leaves (FPL) and pods (FPP) indicated that carbohydrates, moisture, and crude fibers contents values were 51.41±0.60 and 63.91±1.02%, 85.70±0.66 and 91.21±0.3%, 15.05±0.37 and 22.05±1.47% for FPL and FPP, respectively. The crude fats, crude proteins, and ash contents were 6.67±037 and 3.57±0.81%, 22.97±0.66 and 12.47±0.66%, 10.12±0.31 and 5.74±0.5% for FPL and FPP, respectively. The crude proteins, crude fats and ash contents were higher in leaves in comparison with pods, while the pods showed higher levels of carbohydrates, crude fibers, and moisture contents. Results of phytochemical analysis showed that terpenes were the most abundant  of the three determined phytochemicals (terpenes, flavonoids, and phenols) in both leaves and pods (25.19±0.16 and 21.83±0.00 mg/g) while phenols had  the lowest value (0.68± 0.31 mg/g and 0.52±0.03 mg/g) for both FPL  and FPP, respectively. Therefore, Telfairia occidentalis may be considered as a rich source of carbohydrates, crude fibers and proteins as well as terpenes.
    Keywords: Telfairia occidentalis, fluted pumpkin, phytochemical composition
  • E Okrikata*, C. E. Anaso, S. M. Bukar Pages 213-217
    Harvester ants (Messor galla Forel) are field and store insect pests that may cause extensive damages to crop production. Two field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of spent engine oil and other nature-based materials on the emergence of harvester ants in Maiduguri, Borno State of Nigeria. The treatments evaluated were spot application of spent engine oil and some natural materials, or the application of individual and equal mixture of pure neem seed kernel oil and spent engine oil. Spot application of permethrin served as control. There was no significant difference between permethrin and spent engine oil regarding their effects on the population index of the harvester ants (P > 0.05). Neem seed oil was significantly more effective than the untreated control (P < 0.05). However, after 4 weeks application, aqueous neem seed extract, salt/potash solution, and extract of Eugenia aromatic fruit showed no significant difference in the population index of ants that emerged from treated nests in comparison with the untreated control (P > 0.05). No significant difference was observed between permethrin, spent engine oil, neem seed kernel oil, and equal mixture by volume of pure neem seed kernel oil and spent engine oil in controlling the emergence of the ants (P < 0.05). These were however, significantly different from the untreated control (P > 0.05). Equal mixture of spent engine oil and neem seed kernel oil was most effective, followed by spent engine oil, permethrin, and neem seed kernel oil. This study has shown probably for the first time, the potential of spent engine oil and neem seed kernel oil individually or in combination as a cheaper, technically effective, and conservation minded alternative to synthetic pesticide in harvester ant management.
    Keywords: Harvester ants (Messor galla F.), permethrin, spent engine oil, neem seed oil
  • Michel Leclerc* Pages 218-219
    We observed a new structure similar to a blood platelet using transmission electron microscopy methods. This structure was about 5 µ in length. It included many mitochondria and "azurophile granulations" (osmiophile granulations) which are typical of human blood platelet. The similarity of this structure to a platelet reveals the high degree of sophistication of Asterids from an evolutionary point of view. As a result, the blood platelets and sea star platelet may have the same embryonic origin. It is obvious that this observation must be completed by genomic studies.