فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:6 Issue:1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/12/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • Somaye Kavousipor* Pages 1-5
    Background
    The home environment is the first context where children have experience, so in the present review article, important aspects of the child development that are influenced by home environment are analyzed, and common questionnaires were used to evaluate them.
    Review of literature
    The method applied in the present study was a narrative review. Initially, a variety of different sources were employed to find the related literature. The sources included;  web-based browsers of Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest & Google Scholar, OT Seeker,  Magiran and Iranmedex with keywords combination of “Development”, “child”, “home environment”, “Measurement ”&“Questionnaire” and word related to  Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) adaptation. A total of 13 articles were included to be studied in detail in order to find the impact of home environment on the child developmental skills, including cognition, movement, emotion and interaction with regard to common home environment measurement.
    Discussion
    All aspects of the home environment such as; physical space, toys, play, and learning materials, and child-adult interaction relationship stimulate motor, emotional and cognitive development and are influential on child developmental skills. The home environment is dependent on family culture, ethnicity, social economic status, and poverty.
    Conclusion
    Most common questionnaires   (The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) in domains of cognitive and social development and the Affordance in the Home Environment for Motor Development (AHEMD) in the domain of motor development) were set up to evaluate the home environment.
    Keywords: Development, Home environment, Child
  • Antoninus Obinna Ezeukwu, Gideon Ebisike, Jeneviv Nene John, Obinna Okezue, DavidsonOkwudili John* Pages 6-14
    Background
    Non-Specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP) is a common musculoskeletal disorder that leads to impaired physical activity (PA) level and functional limitation, which might cause disability. This study evaluated the self-reported PA level and associated factors among NSCLBP patients.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study involved 57 patients purposively recruited from the out-patient physiotherapy clinics of two tertiary hospitals. A self-structured questionnaire, long form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire and Modified A</strong>ssessing L</strong>evels of Ph</strong>ysical A</strong>ctivity and fitness (ALPHA) environmental questionnaires were administered to assess the patient’s socio- demographic/clinical profile, PA level, disability level and environmental characteristics respectively. Pearson Chi-square and Spearman rank correlation were used to determine the associations between the variables of interest. Alpha level was set at p <0.05.
    Results
    Males had a higher JRPA, TRPA and LTPA. Females had a higher DGPA. Age was significantly negatively moderately correlated with JRPA (p=0.001), TRPA (p=0.016), DGPA (p=0.021) and LTPA (p=0.007). Highest Educational level was significantly positively moderately correlated with JRPA (p=0.001) and LTPA (p=0.002). Pain intensity and disability had a significant negative weak correlation with TRPA (p=0.001) and LTPA (p=0.048), respectively, while sidewalks availability was significantly positively moderately correlated with LTPA (p=0.001). Crime safety at day (p=0.001) and at night (p=0.024) was significantly moderately negatively correlated with LTPA.
    Conclusion
    The PA level of NSCLBP patients was moderate and influenced by socio-demographic, clinical and environmental factors. These factors should be considered in the management of these patients to encourage and promote PA participation.
    Keywords: Physical activity level, Non-specific chronic low back pain, disability level
  • Shadan Mohammadpour, Reza Rajabi*, Hooman Minoonejad, Ali Sharifnezhad Pages 15-20
    Background
    Knee valgus angle seems to be a key factor in both primary– and second–ACL injury risk models. The control of the alignment of the lower limb during dynamic movements depends on the neural activation of the muscles crossing the knee joint prior to the occurrence of stressful events. The current study examined the relationship between the preparatory knee muscle activity and knee valgus angle.
    Methods
     Twenty-eight ACL reconstructed (ACLR) athletes were asked to perform three trials of a single-leg cross drop landing (SCD). Lower extremity kinematics and surface EMG were recorded. Initial contact knee valgus angle and EMG from 100 ms prior to ground contact were used in the data analyses.
    Results
     Preparatory activation medial and lateral hamstring muscles were found to be negatively correlated with knee valgus angle at initial contact (P < 0.05). However, the preparatory activity of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles was not associated with initial contact knee valgus angle (P > 0.05).
    Conclusions
    The preparatory activity of the knee muscles is linked to knee valgus angle at initial contact, and it may indicate a potential target of second ACL injury prevention programs.
    Keywords: Neuromuscular control, Muscle, Electromyography, ACL injury, Return to sport
  • Najme Mardani, Nahid Jalilevand*, Mona Ebrahimipour, Mohammad Kamali Pages 21-26
    Background
     Recent studies have demonstrated that ALS patients suffer from cognitive and language impairments. One of the most striking and consistent cognitive dysfunctions in these patients is verbal fluency deficits. The aim of this study is the determination of verbal fluency performance of Persian speakers with ALS.
    Methods
     It was a cross-sectional, analytical-descriptive study. In this study, 30 individuals (15 patients with ALS, and 15 healthy people) were examined by verbal fluency test. Verbal fluency test is a cognitive-linguistic test that has two subtests: phonemic fluency and semantic fluency; in each of them, words normally fall in clusters. Finally, the total number of words, mean cluster sizes and number of switches between clusters are counted and the results are compared between patients with ALS and healthy control groups.
    Results
     Mean score of total naming, switching, and clustering in verbal fluency in the patient group was 39.80, 22.53, and 0.809. For the control group, it was 55.26, 31.86 and 1.00. Difference between the two groups in total naming (p≤ 0.05) and in switching (p≤ 0.05) was significant, but not in clusters (p≥0.05).
    Conclusion
    Result of this study shows that ALS patients have a deficit in total naming and switching parts of verbal fluency test, but they have no impairment in clustering part. Based on these results, it seems that these patients may have problems in searching in the lexicon, but no problem in accessing words in clusters.
    Keywords: ALS, Verbal fluency, Cognition
  • Zahra Etminan, Mohsen Razeghi*, Farahnaz Ghafari Nezhad Pages 27-33
    Background
    Tennis elbow syndrome (TES) is mainly known by having pain in the external side of the elbow. Physiotherapy plays an effective role in the treatment of this syndrome. Dry needling is a less invasive, novel, and inexpensive method that shows its therapeutic effects in a shorter time in comparison with the other physiotherapy methods. Effect on tough bands, circulation, and environmental and central neurophysiological effects are some mechanisms by which dry needling poses its effects. The aim of this study was to study the effect of adding dry needling to routine physiotherapy methods in order to improve grip strength and function and reduce pain, as well as to decrease costs and treatment duration for treating tennis elbow syndrome.
    Methods
    Forty four athletes aged 18 to 40 years old who had exercise or match for at least 3 sessions per week (for a sum of 6 hours per week), and were detected to have tennis elbow syndrome lasting more than 3 months were recognized and classified into two groups. The first group received physiotherapy including ultrasound, deep friction massage, and muscle stretching and strengthening exercises. The second group received dry needling in addition to physiotherapy treatment. Therapeutic duration was 3 weeks in each group and 3 sessions in each week. The patient rate elbow evaluation questionnaire (PREE) was completed at the beginning of treatment and the beginning of the second and third weeks, as well as at the end of the third week; grip strength was measured at the mentioned times as well. One week after the end of the therapeutic period, patients were re-evaluated for the reliability rate of the treatment outcomes. For analysis of data obtained for the study, repeated measure test, Mixed ANOVA, and Paired T-test statistical tests were used.
    Results
    Results showed that all evaluated variables (including pain, function, and grip strength) were improved in the patients of both groups after completion of the therapeutic period (P<0.0001). Comparison of the two groups showed a significant difference in the pain variable at the seventh session with P<0.0001, the ninth session with P=0.006, and one week after the end of treatment with P<0.001, and the performance variable at seventh sessions with P<0.0001, ninth sessions with P=0.006, and one week after the end of treatment with P<0.0001, respectively. The pain reduction and function increase rates were higher in the group that received dry needling in addition to physiotherapy in comparison with the group that received physiotherapy after the seventh session. Regarding grip strength variable, the mean of groups was different, though the effect of these two methods in the enhancement of grip strength was not statistically significant (P=0.09). Moreover, regarding the results obtained for the group that received physiotherapy in addition to dry needling, the pain variable reduced in a shorter time in comparison with the other group.
    Conclusion
    With regard to the results mentioned above, both therapeutic methods resulted in an improvement in the studied variables in a comparison that was performed before and after treatment. Moreover, in comparison with the single physiotherapy, using dry needling in addition to physiotherapy had a more powerful effect in improving the studied variables. Therefore, it could be said that using dry needling in addition to other therapeutic methods results in the facilitation of treatment process in the patients, and can reduce their therapeutic costs.
    Keywords: Tennis elbow syndrome, Physiotherapy, Dry needling
  • Amir Dana*, Saleh Rafiee, Amin Gholami Pages 34-40
    Background
    This research aims to study the effect of neurofeedback training on the working memory and perceptual-motor development of athlete boys.
    Methods
    Thirty athlete boy students of Gorgan province were selected by convenient sampling and participated in the research process. First, a pretest was conducted. All participants had done Wechsler digit span test and Lincoln-Oseretsky perceptual-motor capabilities test. After that, participants were randomly divided into test and control groups. Subjects of the experiment group had 12 one-hour sessions neurofeedback training while the control group subjects received no intervention during this time. Data were analyzed by using multivariate covariance test (MANCOVA) by SPSS 18.
    Results
    The results of data analysis showed that there is a significant relationship between mean direct and reverse digit span numbers and perceptual-motor development of the experiment group before and after treatment (P<0.05) and neurofeedback training has positive effect on the working memory and perceptual-motor development of athlete boys.
    Conclusion
    Regarding the results of the current research, it seems that neurofeedback training is effective on the working memory and perceptual-motor development of athlete boys; however, more research is required to achieve more definite results about the effective and perpetual effects of neurofeedback on the cognitive function of people.
    Keywords: Neurofeedback, Working memory, Perceptual-motor development, Adolescent
  • Farzaneh Moslemi Haghighi, Katayoon Rezaei *, Zahra Etminan, Habibollah Lari Pages 41-46
    Background
    Kyphosis means an abnormal increase in the curvature of the thoracic region of the vertebral column and refers to a situation where the thoracic kyphosis range is more than forty five degrees. Vertebral column taping seems to be one of the most effective ways of treating kyphosis. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effect of two taping techniques in reducing the degree of kyphosis in girls aged 18-30 years.
    Methods
    Thirty-two volunteers were randomly assigned into two groups (n=19 per group) of V–shaped tape and I-shaped tape. Taping techniques were performed as follows by applying 50% tensile force: V–shaped tape: The tape started on both sides of the anterior of acromioclavicular joint and extended to the spinous process of T6 vertebra. I–shaped tape: The patient's body was kept in a standing and straight state and then a longitudinal tape was applied from T1 to the deepest lumbar lordosis region. The measurements were carried out before, immediately, 24, and 48 hours after taping by a flexible ruler in a similar manner. Data analysis was performed using Friedman Test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney Test.
    Results
    The results of this study showed a significant reduction in the degree of kyphosis in the case of the V-shaped tape 48 hours after taping. However, the degree of kyphosis decreased after 24 h (P = 0.001) and 48 hours (P< 0001) in the I-shaped tape group. In addition, there was no significant difference between the two interventions in terms of decreasing the degree of kyphosis at any time interval except for 24 hours (P=0.043).
    Conclusion
    Taping reduces the degree of kyphosis by creating mechanical support, creating proprioceptive feedback, affecting the proprioception, improving the function of spinal erectors, and improving the mental image of the body with kyphosis. It appears that the I-shaped tape positioning on the alignment of spinal erectors spine makes it more effective.
    Keywords: Vertebral column, Kyphosis, Taping
  • Sadegh Jafarzadeh*, Mohammad Reza Golrokhian Sani Pages 47-50
    Background
    Bilateral Meniere’s disease presents with attacks of vertigo leading to severe imbalance and oscillopsia. Sometimes, treatment of bilateral Meniere’s disease is challenging. The following case report presents an appropriate and successful management for a complicated Bilateral Meniere’s disease.
    Presentation of Case
    Patient was a 42 years male referred with severe attacks of vertigo, severe to profound bilateral hearing loss and severe tinnitus as well as imbalance. Vestibular assessment was done with electronystagmography, head impulse test, cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential that showed bilateral and widespread vestibular abnormality in the semicircular canals and otolith systems. Patient had different medical treatments before referring to us and we started some medical and rehabilitation treatments based on his unstable conditions and followed him up for over three years.
    Discussion
    Vestibular rehabilitation is an approach for the management of many vestibular abnormalities such as Meniere’s disease. It could help to resolve vertigo and imbalance in acute and chronic stage of Meniere’s disease.
    Conclusion
    Vestibular rehabilitation may be helpful in controlling the acute symptoms and helps to improve imbalance and oscillopsia.
    Keywords: Meniere’s disease, Vestibular rehabilitation, Vertigo, Imbalance