- پیاپی 20 (پاییز و زمستان 1397)
- تاریخ انتشار: 1397/10/01
- تعداد عناوین: 10
صفحات 1-14دو مسئله مرگ و معاد نقش انکار ناپذیری در تبیین معنا برای زندگی دارند. این مقاله با روشی تحلیلی تطبیقی، ضمن تحلیل مواضع ابن سینا و ابن عربی در این باره، مواضع وفاق و خلاف گفتار آنان را می کاود. در نگاه هر دو، زندگی این جهانی انسان بدون باور به معاد و جاودانگی و وصول به سعادت ابدی، نه هدفی معقول، نه ارزش چشمگیر و نه کارکرد قابل دفاعی دارد. گرچه هر دو بر مسائلی چون نگاه خوشبینانه به مرگ، وابستگی تام حیات پس از مرگ به زندگی این جهانی، باور به دو بعد جسمانی و روحانی معاد اتفاق نظر دارند، جدای از اینکه ابن سینا با روشی عقلی و ابن عربی با تلفیقی از دو روش شهود و نقل آیات و روایات مسئله را می کاوند، در مسائل دیگری چون نوع تلقی از معاد جسمانی، تبیین تناسب دو نشئه وجودی انسان، بحث خلود و برخورد با مسئله هراس از مرگ، با دو نگاه متفاوت از جانب این دو اندیشمند مواجهیم.کلیدواژگان: مرگ، معاد، معنای زندگی، ابن سینا، ابن عربی
صفحات 15-28میرداماد، فیلسوف، متکلم، محدث و فقیه آغاز قرن یازدهم است. هرچند آثار اندکی از او در حوزه تفسیر متن باقی مانده، بررسی این مستندات در راه شناخت شیوه های تفسیری تاویلی رایج در میان اندیشمندان مسلمان مفید است. میرداماد از سویی در مقام محدث و فقیه، در چهارچوب برآمده از لفظ و با دغدغه آشکارکردن مراد صاحب متن، دست به تفسیر می زند و از سویی دیگر، باورها و اصول اندیشه فلسفی اش در تفسیر او از متن تاثیر تعیین کننده ای دارد؛ تا جایی که پای از دایره ظاهر و قراین سخن بیرون می نهد و متن را براساس دریافت های فلسفی و حتی گاه ذوق عرفانی تاویل می کند؛ البته گاه این تاویل ها با برآمد متن سازگاری ندارد. این چندگونگی در منش هرمونتیکی میرداماد چگونه و بر چه اساسی تحلیل می شود. با ارائه نمونه هایی از کتاب های میرداماد، این روش و منش، پیگیری و بررسی می شود. میرداماد گاه در مقام فقیه و محدث در چارچوب برآمد وا ژگان، متن را معنایابی و تفسیر می کند و گاه متن را در مقام فیلسوف و عارف و بر پایه آموزه های فلسفی و ذوق عرفانی تاویل می کند؛ درنتیجه، رویکرد میرداماد نشان دهنده طیفی از دامنه تفسیر و تاویل در دانشمندان علوم اسلامی است. میرداماد در آثارش اندکی نیز به بررسی پدیده «فهم» پرداخته است.کلیدواژگان: میرداماد، تفسیر، تاویل، ظاهر لفظ، فهم
صفحات 29-39ماهیت علم واجب متعال، چگونگی علم قبل از ایجاد و نحوه علم او به متغیرات زمانی سه مسئله مهم از مسائل علم خدا است. درباره هر سه مسئله، هم در حکمت و هم در علم کلام بحث و گفتگو شده است. در این مقاله با تکیه بر اثر تازه منتشر شده از ملاشمسا - با نام حاشیه تعلیقه خفری بر شرح الهیات تجرید قوشجی در مباحث قدرت و علم الهی - و برخی آثار دیگر، پاسخ این متکلم و حکیم تنسیق شده است. همان طور که در مقاله آمده است ملاشمسا به علم واجب متعال به منزله علم ذات به ذات، قائل است و این علم را علم حضوری اقوی و تفصیلی به معنای غیرمشهور آن می داند. او در مباحث خود به اشکالات مختلفی پرداخته که به دیدگاه ابن سینا در این مورد وارد شده و معتقد است بسیاری از افراد در تفسیر دیدگاه شیخ الرئیس دچار سوء فهم شده اند. او بر این باور است که با کمک نظریه او چنان تفسیری از دیدگاه ابن سینا به دست می آید که اشکالات سهروردی و خواجه نصیر به آن وارد نباشد یا در صورت طرح پاسخ داده شود.کلیدواژگان: علم، علم حضوری، علم کلی، علم جزئی، ملاشمسا گیلانی
صفحات 41-57بیش از 30 سال است که حضور در اجلاس ها و سمپوزیوم های گفت وگوهای بین ادیان در دستور کار برخی از سازمان ها و نهادهای دینی و اجتماعی ایران قرار گرفته است. کنشگران فعالیت کننده، ازنظر دانش و تجربه و نیز رویکردهای متفاوتی که برگزیدند، منبع مهمی برای تحلیل به شمار می روند. این پژوهش می کوشد به فهم دانش و تجربه کنشگران و تفسیر انتقادی آنها به گفت وگوی بین ادیان بپردازد و با ساخت و نظام مندسازی مضامین فراگیر مرتبط با آن، تحلیلی روشمند از آن ارائه دهد. از این نظر، این پژوهش با رویکردی توصیفی تحلیلی و با روش کیفی انجام شده است. بدین منظور، در کنار یافته های نظری سعی شد با استفاده از تکنیک مصاحبه نیم ساخت یافته، داده های تجربی گردآوری شود. روش نمونه گیری، هدفمند و معیار اشباع نظری مصاحبه با 15 نفر از فعالان این حوزه است. در تحلیل مضامین، مشخص شد نگاه انتقادیون به گفت وگو و دیگری، برون دینی است. گفت وگو را به مثابه امری اخلاقی و نه صرفا دینی در نظر گرفته اند. بین معنای الهیاتی و معنای عمومی از گفت وگو تفاوت قائل اند. نگاه قدرت و حاکمیتی به گفت وگو و دولتی شدن این سنخ از گفت وگوها نقد کرده اند و الهیات گرایی را مانع جدی برای آن می دانند.کلیدواژگان: دیگری دینی، گفت وگوی بین ادیان، فهم انتقادی، تحلیل مضمون، ایران
صفحات 59-73آموزه پیمان و میثاق در دین زرتشت و یهود اساس رابطه خدا با انسان بوده و پشتوانه ای ماورایی برای پیوندهای میان انسان ها با یکدیگر تلقی شده و در حفظ نظم اخلاقی و اجتماعی نقشی تعیین کننده داشته است. در این پژوهش به مفهوم پیمان و میثاق و چگونگی بازتاب این آموزه در این دو دین پرداخته شده است. این پژوهش بر دین زرتشت و یهود، کهن ترین ادیان بزرگ آسیای غربی، تمرکز دارد که به نظر می رسد باوجود تفاوت های چشمگیری که دارند، هر دو این آموزه را بنیادین تلقی کرده و با اشکال و نمادهای مختلف آن را نشان داده اند. تفاوت های اساسی در این زمینه بیشتر به منشا پیمان و میثاق، دایره شمول، تکراری و دفعی یا تدریجی بودن آنها و شباهت های شایان توجه به مفهوم، اهمیت و جنبه تعلیمی آنها در حوزه روابط انسان ها با یکدیگر مربوط می شود. این مطالعه به شیوه تطبیقی و تحلیلی انجام شده و هدف آن، شناخت هر چه بیشتر یکی از آموزه های بنیادی این ادیان در راستای تقویت درک مشترک میان آنها است.کلیدواژگان: پیمان، میثاق، رابطه انسان با خدا، زرتشت، یهود
صفحات 75-94شناخت هدف و خواسته نهایی در زندگی اهمیت فراوانی در معنا و سبک زندگی دارد. برای شناخت بهترین هدف نهایی برای زندگی از استدلال های عقلی، وحی و شهود استفاده می شود. استدلال عقلی منهای شهود برای رسیدن به کمال و ادراک حقایق کافی نیست؛ اما شهود مخالف با برهان قطعی، نامعتبر است. بنابراین با روش کتابخانه ای به شکل توصیفی تحلیلی، گزاره های حاصل از عقل و شهود درباره هدف زندگی در حکمت متعالیه جمع آوری شد. در این مقاله نتیجه گرفته شد جهان غایتمند بوده و خدای تعالی، هم مبدء المبادی و هم غایت الغایات است. بهترین هدف زندگی عبارتست از شناخت گسترده و عمیق خدای تعالی (خلیفه اللهی) که باید آن را خواسته نهایی دانست. همچنین روشن شد عقل و شهود چگونه در این باب با یکدیگر هماهنگ اند؛ زیرا هماهنگی به مولفه های گوناگونی تجزیه شده و مصادیق این مولفه ها در داده های به دست آمده از عقل و شهود به دست آمده است.کلیدواژگان: هدف (نهایی) زندگی، عقل، شهود، هماهنگی منابع، ملاصدرا
صفحات 95-108پیتر ون اینواگن، فیلسوف متاله تحلیلی، سازگارگرایی است که میان دترمینیسم با جهش های تصادفی و داروینیسم با خداباوری تعارضی قائل نیست. او با تبیینی متفاوت از ارکان نظریه تکامل، نظریه «داروینیسم ضعیف» را پایه گذاری و موضعی لاادری در برابر آلیسم اتخاذ می کند. در این نظریه، او با پذیرش مبانی اصلی تفکر داورینی، قائل است انتخاب طبیعی و جهش های تصادفی در زیست کره، در برخی حوزه های محدود، کارآیی ندارد. او معتقد است شاید برهان نظم با نظریه تکامل ابطال شود؛ اما این امر با اصل وجود طراحی هوشمند در جهان طبیعت منافاتی ندارد. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهند ون اینواگن در ترجیح پذیرش داروینیسم ضعیف بر آلیسم، معیار درستی ندارد و تقریرش از ارکان نظریه تکامل کاستی هایی دارد و نیز مانند سایر فیلسوفان غربی به تمایز دقیق برهان نظم با برهان غایی توجه نکرده است. با چشم پوشی از تفکر فیزیکالیستی او و ضعف های دیدگاهش، در سازگاری اش میان نظریه تکامل و خداباوری، برحق است و دیدگاه او تا حدودی با آرای شهید مطهری در این باب مقایسه پذیر است.کلیدواژگان: داروینیسم ضعیف، آلیسم، طراحی هوشمند، پیتر ون اینواگن
صفحات 127-144مفهوم «رسول» در شمار مفاهیم پرکاربرد و اساسی در دو متن مقدس دو دین بزرگ ابراهیمی، یعنی عهد جدید و قرآن کریم قرار دارد؛ با این حال با وجود اشتراکاتی چند، تفاوت هایی جوهری در میان مهم ترین مصادیق این مفهوم در این دو متن به چشم می آید. دست یابی به این تفاوت ها، حاصل بررسی مستقیم نصوص عهد جدید و قرآن کریم است؛ براساس این بررسی ها می توان باز پرسید آیا این مفهوم در این دو کتاب بنیادین، به یکسان به کار رفته اند. هدف این پژوهش، ارائه پاسخی به این پرسش بوده است. این مقاله از روش توصیفی تحلیلی استفاده کرده و با مطالعه تطبیقی در منابع مربوط به توضیح مفاهیم این دو کتاب - که به شناخت صحیح تر این دو دین از بعد فرهنگی و تاریخی کمک می کند - مفهوم و مصداق شناسی «رسول» در عهد جدید و قرآن کریم را نشان داده و تفاوت های اساسی میان آن دو را نیز به دست داده است. مهم ترین یافته این پژوهش، بیان تفاوت ها در به کارگیری لغوی و اصطلاحی مفهوم رسول در مسیحیت و اطلاق اصطلاحی آن در اسلام خلاصه می شود؛ به گونه ای که نمی توان مفهوم و مصداق رسول در عهد جدید را با مفهوم و مصداق آن در قرآن کریم همسان دانست.کلیدواژگان: رسول، حواریون، عهد جدید، قرآن کریم، اسلام، مسیحیت
صفحات 145-158موضوع پایان متافیزیک در اندیشه برخی متفکران پسامدرن مثل هیدگر این شائبه را ایجاد می کند که فلسفه های سنتی برای بشر امروز ره آوردی ندارد؛ ولی رانر با اقتباس تومیسم استعلایی از جوزف مارشال و آمیختن آن با وجودشناسی هیدگر، خوانشی جدید از الهیات تومیستی را ارائه و امکان متافیزیک را نشان می دهد. رانر با ارائه تحلیل پدیدارشناسانه از فعالیت انتزاعی ذهن، سه عنصر مقایسه، نفی و استعلا را استخراج و ادعا می کند تمام جهت گیری های معرفتی بشر مسبوق به درک پیشاتاملی و فرامقولی از خداوند است. به نظر رانر، ماحصل یگانگی «علم به وجود عام» و «علم به خدا» انتوتئولوژی است که طبق آن، انسان در هر شناخت خود از جهان مادی، گویی به سوی خدا در حرکت است. ملاصدرا نیز بر پایه نگرش وجودی و اثبات عالم به مثابه تجلی از مواجهه پیشامفهومی انسان با خدا سخن می گوید. این مواجهه بسیط، همگانی و خطاناپذیر است. بر حسب این مواجهه، خدا معروف، نزد هر جاهلی است و نفوس، مجبول بر معرفت حق اند. در فقره انتزاع مفهوم وجود از خدا نیز به سه گام معرفتی در فلسفه صدرا اشاره می شود: امتناع دریافت حصولی خدا، دریافت شهودی از خدا و دلالت برهان به اطلاق مفهوم وجود بر خدا؛ بنابراین، هر گونه معرفت حصولی به خدا ریشه در مواجهه پیشامفهومی با خدا دارد.کلیدواژگان: انتوتئولوژی، ملاصدرا، کارل رانر، هیدگر، درک پیشامفهومی، تومیسم استعلایی
گفتگوی بین ادیان: مفاهیم، رویکردها و گونه شناسیصفحات 109-126در جهان معاصر به دلیل رشد و رواج فناوری های گوناگون، امکان ارتباطات درون و میان فرهنگی بسیار بیش از پیش شده است. افراد با ادیان و فرهنگ های مختلف در تلاش برای ابراز دین و فرهنگ خویش اند. بر همین اساس، مفهوم گفتگو به صورت عام استفاده و تاکید شده است. همچنین به دلیل اهمیت یافتن دین و امکان اثرگذاری روی گروه های مختلف اجتماعی، سیاستگذاران می کوشند با استفاده از حوزه مطالعاتی گفتگوی بین ادیان سیاست های خود را به نحو کامل، طراحی و اجرا کنند. این مقاله با استفاده از روش اسنادی درصدد است به بررسی مفهوم شناسی گفتگوی بین ادیان و جمع آوری گونه های مختلف آن بپردازد. در این راستا، براساس شاخص های بعد، شیوه، نوع، گفتگوگران و موضوع گفتگوی بین ادیان، که چهار شاخص نخست، هرکدام به سه گونه و شاخص آخر به دو گونه تقسیم می شوند، 54 گونه در حالت شباهت گفتگوگران و 162 گونه در حالت غیرشباهت ایشان استخراج شده اند. روشن است با توجه به کمبود شدید منابع فارسی در این حوزه، دستیابی به الگوی جامع گونه شناسی گفتگوی بین ادیان، نوآورانه و مقدمه ای در راستای سیاستگذاری فرهنگی ارتباطی حوزه گفتگوی بین ادیان محسوب می شود.کلیدواژگان: گفتگو، گفتگوگران، گفتگوی بین ادیان، سیاستگذاری گفتگوی بین ادیان
Searching for the Meaning of Life in Avicenna’s and Ibn Arabi’s Systems of Thought Regarding Death and the HereafterPages 1-14The two issues, death and the hereafter, play an irrefutable role in explaining the meaning of life. While using a comparative analytic method to analyze Avicenna’s and Ibn Arabi’s points of view in this regard, this paper explores points of view supporting and opposing their statements. To both of them, mankind’s this-worldly life, without belief in the hereafter and immortality, and without achievement of eternal salvation, does not possess a reasonable goal, a considerable value, and a defensible function. Although both of them agree on issues such as an optimistic attitude towards death, the absolute dependence of the hereafter on the this-worldly life, belief in both the physical and spiritual aspects of the hereafter, but apart from the fact that Avicenna explores these issues through his rational method, and Ibn Arabi through combining the two methods intuition and referring to the Qur’anic verses and the traditions, these two thinkers have two different views on other issues, such as their perception of the physical hereafter, the explanation of the proportion between mankind’s two existential essences, the topic of eternity, and dealing with the issue of fear of death. The importance of addressing this issue arises from the fact that as the issue of the meaning of life, like an ever-lasting stream full of adventure, has approached the recent centuries that feature industrial and technological development and increased social welfare and bio-facilities, it has become more highlighted and controversial for multiple reasons. In the meantime, what has made this issue face a more serious challenge is the issue of death and the quality of the hereafter. The emergence of atheistic schools, such as: Marxism and materialism, which have introduced death as the end of human life, and which have considered the hereafter as an unreasonable and unjustifiable issue, has made mankind face the following serious question: “If this is the case, will this short life with a great deal of all kinds of hardships and pain worth living?”, “Does our existence basically lead to a strategy other than what we see and hear?”, and “Is it possible to imagine any functions for life other than satisfying the lusts and animal instincts?” This way, death finds its own place in the course of human life. Avicenna and Ibn Arabi have made efforts to remove the ambiguity of this mysterious fact as far as possible through reason and thought, and have shed light on the dark angles of this perpetual concern of human beings, so that both; life can find meaning in the light of the reality of death, and death can become a desirable thing in transitions through life. Avicenna defines death as follows: “Death is nothing but the separation of the immaterial spirit from its material attachments. Death is like a blacksmith's tools and equipment when he leaves those tools and equipment. Avicenna’s attention to death, as the final point of mankind’s this-worldly life, stems from his attention to the fact that the misunderstanding and misrepresenting of death can greatly harm the attitude that “life is meaningful”. His research into death begins by exploring how the soul emerges and explaining the relationship between the soul and the body in mankind’s this-worldly life. In the Soul section of The Book of Healing, he emphasizes the creation of the soul by denying its existence prior to the existence of the body, and recognizes the creation of the soul to be simultaneous with that of the body, albeit he regards the body as a tool for the soul as well as its realm. According to Avicenna, fear of death is the greatest fear that seizes humans. The main cause of this fear is mankind’s ignorance, and Avicenna’s solution is paying attention to the fact that while leaving the body, the spirit continues its life in an intact manner by cutting its bodily attachments, thus achieving its true salvation. According to Avicenna, the necessity of a meaningful life (at least in its purposeful perception) is belief in the existence of the hereafter, which is subordinate to the acceptance of the independence of the soul. But in his definition of death and life, Ibn Arabi considers ignorance equal to death in the sense of nonexistence and annihilation, whereas most people consider benefiting from wealth and position as a sign of life. But death, in the sense of alertness and wakefulness, is what he calls a "Gate towards God", in case of whose absence, nobody and no nations will succeed in their desires and goals. Therefore, his advice to anybody who aspires for a meaningful life is that he or she mortify his or her own senses and their achievements, and listen to his or her own inner call, which is full of divine inspirations. This way, a human achieves the ultimate meaning of life. On the other hand, he regards death as a separation wall between the beloved and the human, who is very eager to overwhelm this obstacle and pass through it to visit their beloved as soon as possible. But since this is out of their power and authority, they have to be patient and disappointedly wait until the period of this "blessing"; i.e. life, ends, and the obstacle is removed. Although Ibn Arabi regards death as the separation of the soul from the material body, which has brought its sensory life, elsewhere, he avoids using the word death, and is more willing to call it “glad tidings about reunion”. But by emphasizing the inability of reason in all areas related to the hereafter, and relying on intuition from his heart and narrative sources, Ibn Arabi regards the physical hereafter as being decisive and essential, and considers belief in the mere spiritual hereafter as being due to ignorance of existential essences. In this regard, he says: “This group has been ignorant of the fact that there are two essences: the essence of bodies and the essence of spirits. They have tried to prove the latter, and have neglected the former. But we take both of them into consideration.” Accordingly, he considers both the physical and spiritual aspects for the hereafter, except that he has his own interpretation of the physical hereafter. “When God takes mankind to himself, he gives them a body, but not this earthly body, but rather something deserving the domain to which they have been transferred. That place is home of eternity and a house for eternal life, which is consistent with a moderate existence, leading neither to death nor to the disintegration of parts. Since the misrepresenting of the hereafter can disrupt the meaningfulness of life, Ibn Arabi tries, in the light of the holy Qur’anic verses, to depict a realistic image of the truth of the hereafter and mankind’s status and life in it. In this regard, since both absolute disappointment and false and illusory hope act like bandits on this path, he mixes the hereafter with a kind of fear and hope. If the main benefit of the topic of meaningfulness is to find the spirit of hopefulness towards life, and to be free from suffering from purposeless and absurdism, exploring Ibn Arabi’s works and paying attention to his special attitude toward the meaningfulness of life, in the light of belief in death and the hereafter, can be an appropriate way to achieve this goal. Considering the image that Ibn Arabi has presented of death and the hereafter, and on the assumption that we ponder and correctly perceive these concepts, in addition to the fact that no doubt will remain about the inherent value and usefulness of the tiny and huge streams of this worldly life, it is also likely that in the light of this perception, human life becomes filled with enthusiasm for traveling from this house to the eternal house, and thus becoming free from the constraints of materiality and the miracles of material and bodily pleasures. And this is the exact final point of all efforts having been made by Ibn Arabi to lead humans toward this pleasant stage and brilliant point of life.Keywords: death, resurrection, meaning of life, Avicenna, Ibn Arabi
Pages 15-28Mirdamad is philosopher, mystic, theologian, scholar, and jurisprudent of the 11th century AH. He lived in the Golden period of the Safavid dynasty and he had a Popular school in Isfahan. Though few works remain of him, however the study of these documents helps us to understand the interpretive and interpretative methods of Muslims. Mirdamad As a jurisprudent Understands the text On the apparent meaning of the words and His goal is to discover the purpose of the author of the text. On the other hand, his philosophical beliefs and mystical sentiment force him to move out of the circle of the text and make a Interpretation based on paraphrase (Tawil). Mirdamad, as a philosopher, attaches great importance to philosophical thought. If the text is consistent with its philosophical thought, it interprets the text in that framework and if he is not compatible, he carries his philosophical thought as an intellectual and transcendental case on the text. He sees the text as a sign of meaning in philosophical thought, and of course this "indication" does not depend on verifying the appearance of the word. Mirdamad interpretations and interpretations of texts are also excluded from the field of philosophical thinking and based on mystical acquiescence; what is not in the sense of words is not based on the symbols inside and outside the text, it is not based on philosophical and theologycal evidence. By mention examples of Mirdamad books, this diversity is analyzed in his interpretive method. Mirdamad's way of interpreting the text shows a range of interpretations in Muslim scholars. Additionally, Mirdamad has also studied the concept of understanding in his works that in these studies, he has approached to Philosophical Hermeneutics. In his view, meanings are like gemstones in the depths of the ocean, The intelligent mind is to extract these treasures. Mirdamad does not consider the interpretive mind as passive, but sees it as active. He knows the mind as the cultivator that brings up the seeds of the text and cultivates the product. So Understanding is not just about the text, but the understanding of each person is proportional to himself.Keywords: Mirdamad, Interpretation, Hermeneutics, Understanding, Apparent meaning
Pages 29-39The essence of transcendent God’s knowledge, state of his knowledge before creation and the way of his knowledge to temporal variables are three important issues of his knowledge. These three are discussed both in philosophy and Kalam. In this article, based on a newly published work of Mulla Shamsa - named Khafri’s Review on Sharh Elahiyat Tajrid of Ghoshji about Divine Knowledge and Power- and some of his other works, we have been trying to present Shamsa’s answer. As will be described in this paper, he believes in knowledge of entity to entity for God, and calls it intense detailed knowledge by presence as unnamed meaning. He has presented some objections to Ibn-Sina’s view and believes that those are misunderstandings of Sheikh al-Raeis’s view. He thinks with his theory we can get an interpretation of Ibn-Sina’s view that Sohrevardi’s and Khaje-Nasir’s objections are answered. Although Mulla Shamsa, influenced by Hekmat Eshragh, accept the division of knowledge to by presence and acquired and in precise look only accepts knowledge by presence and believes that the acquired one backs to by presence, but does not admit some definitions of knowledge like attribution of knower to cognitions and by this, shows his independent way from Shiraz school. In Hashiiyeh, he reasons that since presence of objects for God is stronger than theirs for themselves, so the God’s knowledge to his nature is his knowledge to others and he believes that knowledge by presence comes true either by presence of cognition itself or presence of something more intense than presence of knowing itself, and knowledge of God is from second kind. This theosopher philosopher in Masalek Al-Yaghin introduces God’s knowledge a third kind of knowledge to show that calling God’s knowledge by presence or strongest knowledge by presence is not all of his theory but it has another aspect that is being detailed before creation. The philosopher of Gilan thinks both kinds of knowledge cause need to others for God and from this point of view he differs from Illuminationist philosophers and Theologians, giving a special interpretation from Ibn-Sina. Mulla Shamsa believes that the detailed knowledge of entity to entity for God is comprehensive and includes all aspects of his knowledge and explains it with two rules; first, knowledge itself is an absolute perfection for being as a being. Second, denying detailed knowledge in entity is the same as denying perfection from entity of God. The result of these two rules is proving detailed knowledge for God. He denies the attribute of non-detailed knowledge from God’s entity as argued by Peripatetic who told detailed knowledge is not perfection for entity in grade of entity. The exegete author believes God’s knowledge to effects is active one and knowledge of entity to entity is detailed knowledge that is united with entity. The God’s knowledge to creatures is not the creatures themselves (as Sohrevardi thought) but it is just God’s knowledge to his entity. Then, Mulla Shamsa’s intention from detailed knowledge is not like the famous meaning but it is derived from Ibn-Sina’s opinion. The detail and brevity, which are in common use of philosophers, in Mulla Shamsa’s view are attributes of everything other than God (cognitions). Then, basis of knowledge would be the entity of transcendent God and so he does not admit existence of grades in God’s knowledge and refer them back to cognitions which are not basis of his knowledge. Mulla Shamsa clarifies the knowledge of before creation with his special theory on God’s knowledge to others. According to this theory, knowledge to everything other than God is the same as knowledge of entity to entity. In this way, the problem of knowledge to non-existence would be solved, although he has not made any mention to this problem and its solution based on his theory. About God’s knowledge to variables, Hakim Mulla Shamsa mentions the putting down of suspended forms and acquired knowledge to Ibn-Sina by Sohrevardi in Mashare and Motarehat which was spread between late philosophers. This divine philosopher thinks because of denying acquired knowledge by Ibn-Sina in Shefa, the objections of Khaje Nasir don’t need any answer. He also believes excommunication of Ibn-Sina by Ghazali and others is because of their misunderstanding from Shekho Al-Raeis idea about Knowledge to details since they thought his intention about universal science means ignorance to temporal details which was not his purpose. Therefore, we can conclude that Mulla Shamsa’s idea about God’s knowledge is a kind of extending the theory of Ibn- Sina’s, especially about universal knowledge to temporal details.Keywords: Knowledge, God’s Knowledge, Universal Knowledge, Detailed Knowledge of Mulla Shamsa
An Inquiry of the critical understanding of inter-religious dialogue in Iranian experience and mentalityPages 41-57It is more than 30 years that attending inter-religious meetings and symposiums has been on the agenda of some of the Iran's religious and social institutions. Those who have been and are still active in this area, as well as the different approaches they choose are an important source of analysis in terms of knowledge and experience. This research seeks to understand the knowledge and experience of the activists of the area and their critical interpretation of inter-religious dialogue and to provide a systematic analysis of it by constructing and systematizing its respective themes. Therefore, this research has been conducted with descriptive-analytic approach and qualitative method. For this purpose, along with theoretical findings, we have tried to collect empirical data using semi-structured interview techniques. The sampling method is purposeful and theoretical saturation criterion is an interview with 15 activists in this field. Thematic analysis method is also used for data analysis. Analyzing the findings, it became clear that the critics did not pay close attention to the religious and denominational origins of the subjects and were neutral in their critical analysis of them. Hence, their view to “the other” and the dialogue is “extra-religious” and they acknowledge the views and the ideas of this field in political and cultural terms and analyze them on this framework. In this approach, originality is with "the other" and the theological pluralism viewpoint is governed. Hence, dialogue with another-religious is not considered to be religious, but as an ethical-based subject. Through dialogue, critics do not seek to prove legitimacy, but consider their action as a means of looking at another according to moral standards, acting on ethical imperatives and sharing and generalizing ethics in controversial discussions. According to critics, the networking of societies, the attention to the ethical rationality, the ethical judgment and the expansion of rationality in the social and collective arenas of Iranians are among the factors that have led to the spread of the moralism for the issue of dialogue in Iran. Contrary to traditional beliefs that are loyal to religious texts and give importance to the role of religious government in interpreting religious texts, critics believe that this led to a political bias in the issue of dialogue and has created a serious weakness in the structure of government to make a decision about "the other" and the nature of dialogue. The critics try to separate the dialogue from theological perspective and believe the destruction of theology is the first step in the dialogue. They believe that this destruction leads to the emergence of a sound understanding of one another and the dialogue for the human beings. They criticize the bias in jurisprudential beliefs and considerations, and consider the unidimensional thinking and the disregard of the various human demands as major pitfalls for the failure to bring about social and religious justice in society and a reason for the creation of violence. In their view, jurisprudential monolog rather than a synthetic approach in this regard has led to a decline in tolerance in Iranian society. They insist on this fact that focusing on self-criticism, reviewing "the other" in religious interpretations, revising understanding of religious plurality, seizing the meaning of the invitation, which is a Qur'anic notion as well as an attention to the difference in the new concept of dialogue and making a distinction between dialogue and controversy in in the public domain and the theological system is the set of measures by which one can change the position of traditional theory of dialogue and define it in the context of the sociological studies of inter-religious dialogue.Keywords: Another-religious, inter-religious dialogue, critical understanding, thematic analysis, Iran
Pages 59-73In the ancient world, the covenant was a serious agreement that societies attempted to regulate the behavior of individuals and institutions, especially in areas where there was not enough social control in them. Therefore, in the history of religion, the concept of the Covenant is the longstanding concept, which has been emphasized especially in monotheistic religions. The God of the Old Testament sets his own behavior with his servants according to the covenant. The treaty in the Zarathustrianism can be study by the principle of Asha / Artah (Truth) and the practice of Mithra. It is a supernatural law that is one with natural law. This doctrine is considered a metaphysical supporter to all treaties and then, it has played a decisive role in maintaining the moral and social order. The concept of these words and their reflection in these religions are the issues that have been investigated in this study. Despite the considerable differences between these oldest religions in Western Asia, they seem to regard these doctrines as fundamental and have shown it with various shapes and symbols. The essential differences in this regard, are related to the origin of the Covenant, its inclusion, repetition and being exclusion or graduality and significant similarities related to the concept, importance and educational aspect of them. This research has been done by comparative and analytical method with the aim of understanding of this common doctrine to enhance mutual understanding between religions.DiscussionsIf we consider the covenant and the covenant as the axis of the relationship between God and man, all events, as well as human affairs, are interpreted on the same basis. However, this concept can be considered in terms of similarities and differences in two different fields. First, the Covenant and treaty have a single meaning in both religions. In both of them, with the closure of the treaty, the parties are obligated to perform their duty, and if they fail to do so, they must bear the consequences of it. Second, the covenant that first appeared between God and man has become an interactive model of intercourse between human beings and has become a moral concept and the basis of human communication. Of course, God's covenant with Man is fundamentally different from human contracts. Because firstly, Man and God are not equal parties, on the other hand, God is the leader and the source of that grace and love. In Judaism, there are different views about human freewill. However, in Zoroastrianism, everything is based on man's freewill. Another common point in these two religions is the tradition of salvation. The understanding of salvation in the light of understanding the Covenant is easily possible. In both religions, salvation requires observance of the Covenant with all its aspects, and non-salvation means any violation of the Covenant of any size and extent.ResultBased on what has been said, in the sense of both religions, the covenant or treaty with God is the supreme linkage that has taken place, and this is the origin of the emergence of many customs and habits. The most important difference is that the origin of the treaty in Zoroastrianism is the principle of Asha and Mithra is the guardian of it, but in Judaism, the origin of his covenant is God, and there are no rules beyond him and God is the guardian of that. Historically, the belief in the Covenant and its beliefs in the Zoroastrian religion is roughly stable, while undergoing radical transformations Judaism. In terms of modeling, in both religions, this kind of relationship between man and God affects the relationships between human being. In this way, it has found a moral concept, In addition to religious authenticity. Therefore, the covenant between God and Man is the source of morality, so, the human morality has a superlative guarantee.Keywords: Covenant, Relationship of God&Man, Zoroastrianism, Judaism
A Study of the Application of Reason and Intuition and Their Harmony in the Issue of Ultimate Goal of Life from the Point of View of Transcendent TheosophyPages 75-94It is needless to say that the lack of spirituality and peace, cultural and moral decline of human values are among key global challenges and unfortunately we are also encountered with these problems. Finding the best goal for life is one of the pillars of a desirable culture and is of paramount importance in lifestyle and life purpose. After knowing the life purpose, we must provide an exact and long term plan in order to come up with suitable strategies in line with the purpose at issue. To know the best ultimate purpose one can make use of rational arguments, revelation and intuition; Mull Sadra has used diverse (rational, traditional and intuitional) methods in his philosophical system. He believes that man in view of his mode of creation and free will have the potentiality to be a mirror that reflects the Divine Names and Attributes and becomes God's vicegerent on earth (Sadra, 1999, vol. 1: 2). In the current article, we have made use of rational arguments and intuitive findings (primordial introspection and mystical intuition) and by means of library based method in descriptive and analytic form collected the propositions resulted from reason and intuition about life goal in Transcendent Theosophy in order to reach the following conclusions As to the application of reason and intuition in Transcendent Theosophy, one can say that they are both necessary but none of them is sufficient alone (Transcendent Theosophy is an interdisciplinary study). Mystical intuition must be formulated in the form of arguments because substantial proof is the basis and measure of mystical intuitions. Some teachings are trans-rational and are known to be irrational and undependable visions; but intuition through reason is much more dependable and certain though prophetic and revealed intuition is the most dependable way for knowledge acquisition as compared to other visions of mystical visions. From the point of view of rational principles and arguments, the telos of world and man is God and we must choose the knowledge of God as our own purpose in life. But reason alone is not sufficient for reaching perfection and it needs to be associated with vision and intuition in order to reach certain truths. By referring to primordial consciousness and approaches and realizing the initial primordial nature, one can reinforce his internal enthusiasm and love and via a deep and extensive intuition conceive the existence of God so that the Divine Names and Attributes to become reflected in us and we reach real pleasure and peace. Then, realization of primordial potencies and the perfection of intuition must be chosen as the ultimate goal of life. According to Sadra, intuition is compatible with rational proof and they are not opposing. There is also harmony in the field of their application. Having analyzed the data and studied the harmony elements (including coherence, convergence, enlightenment, leading to end, leading to purpose, argumentization and combined association), we prove the way that reason and intuition are used in line with each other as regards the problem of ultimate purpose of life. Thus, it became clear that the epistemic system in Transcendent Theosophy enjoys higher degree of coherence which can be found in no other epistemic system.Keywords: Ultimate Telos of Life, Reason, Intuition, Harmony of Sources, Mulla Sadra
A New Interpretation of the Theory of Evolution and its Compatibility with Intelligent Design Based on Peter Van Inwagen’s ViewPages 95-108This study aims to present a new interpretation of the theory of evolution and its compatibility with intelligent design based on special views of Peter van Inwagen. This article which is conducted by descriptive analysis relies on library research findings. Peter van Inwagen, an American analytical philosopher and one of the leading figures in metaphysics and philosophy of religion, is a skeptical theist who defends compatibility between the theory of evolution and Darwinism and intelligent design. He maintains that he has presented a new interpretation of the theory of evolution and in this regard, proposes a kind of Darwinism called “weak Darwinism”. In his account, Van Inwagen admits basic principles of Darwinism such as common descent, random mutations, natural selection, and even the widespread acts of natural selection in nature, however, he restricts the acts of random mutation and natural selection with a sort of agnosticism in order to pave the way for explaining the universe through other mechanisms like intelligent design. As a Christian who has love and affection to God, he believes that the order in the universe is as a result of God’s guidance and wisdom, and although the order in the world is under the influence of random mutations and natural selections, all the past and current events could not have occurred randomly. Many research works have been conducted about the theory of evolution and intelligent design and we can point to the most recent ones entitled “Theological Argument, Evolution, and Accurate Arrangement: The Comparative Analysis of Swinburne and Mutahhari’s Viewpoints” by Ghazale Hojjati  and “Anthropological and Critical Analysis of Darwin Based on Transcendent Theosophy” by Faranak Bahmani and Ali Allah Bedashti . However, no article has been written in Persian yet on the theory of evolution and intelligent design from the perspective of Peter van Inwagen. The objective of this study is to shed light on Van Inwagen’s views on the theory of evolution and his theist defense from intelligent design as well as the compatibility between these two theories. Van Inwagen can be regarded as compatibilist in two sense: first, because he holds there is compatibility between free will and determinism, and also because he does not regard any inconsistency between the theory of evolution and theism. After he believed in determinism, Van Inwagen felt skeptical toward the theory of evolution as in his view, every event has causes and effects and it’s impossible to see something would occur randomly and through evolution some unwanted parts be omitted and put aside. Therefore, he presented a perception of the theory of evolution called “weak Darwinism”. He proposed an interpretation of compatibility in which, not only Darwinism is not against theism but also the theory of evolution can represent divine providence in the world. Accepting weak Darwinism, Van Inwagen holds that although random mutations and natural selection can explain major part of variety and complexity in natural creatures, natural selection is not the only mechanism to describe these complexities and there are phenomena yet unexplainable by natural selection. Furthermore, even if we assume this theory can justify order in the universe, why shouldn’t God make use of natural selection to create such a splendid system?
His total viewpoints on the compatibility between theism and theory of evolution can be summarized as follows: “We should distinguish between incompatibility of two theories and refuting one theory by another. If we hold that the theory of evolution and Darwinism are incompatible with intelligent design it does not convey that Darwinian theory of evolution nullifies intelligent design argument. There is no incompatibility between the theory of evolution and intelligent design; although the latter may be refuted by the former. Yet, it should be determined what is intended by refuting an argument, and what perceptions from intelligent design argument would be refuted by the theory of evolution? Inwagen states: “the assumption that a given argument may not be efficient in achieving certain results differs from the assumption that a given result is false. For example, when Shakespeare writes in his plays that Richard murdered the princess it cannot convince us that he really committed this act. Even if Darwinism refutes all the interpretations of intelligent design it does not harm my decisive theist beliefs. My faith to God and the perception that living creatures are by means of an intelligent design does not rely on theological argument as my belief on the existence of my wife does not rely on the argument that because there are other entities so my wife exists too, though it may seem an appropriate philosophical argument. Although theological argument, as a philosophical-Kalami argument perceived from philosophers’ minds, might be refuted through the theory of evolution,it is not incompatible with the basic principle of intelligent design in the universe. Having love and faith to God, one can accept the intelligent design and perfect system of being.”
The findings of this research indicate that Peter Van Inwagen claims that, by his new interpretation of the theory of evolution, he could have defended the compatibility between the theory of evolution and theism in a unique way. Through early studies on this theory it seemed that the foundation of his thoughts is based on physicalism and skepticism and in this regard, his thoughts have fundamental differences with Islamic thinking. The present research findings showed that he maintains weak Darwinism, though he does not present an appropriate criterion on its preference to Alism. In his theory, the effect range of natural selection and random mutations is restricted, and regarding some gaps in the theory of evolution, the way is open for the impact of contributing factors other than natural selection explaining order in the universe. Van Inwagen is a theist who confronts Alism skeptically. Considering principles of the theory of evolution as inadequate, he represents it in different statements, and finally, admits the outcome of this argument which is belief in the existence of an intelligent design for the universe, although he does not have any serious defense for the theological argument particularly some of its interpretations. He holds that, even needless to theological argument, one can believe in almighty and all-wise God through love and faith. In some certain domains, he limits the performance effect of natural selection and asserts that it is one of the most important natural mechanisms which can be a powerful device to determine divine creation, although God might have other devices as well. Apart from its drawbacks and important criticisms, Inwagen’s perspective is comparative to the views of Shahid Mutahhari as he is also a theist compatibilist and affirms that the theory of evolution-if true-can confirm theism, and it is a masterpiece in creation that through natural selection and random mutations, various creatures gradually evolve from a simple matter.Keywords: weak Darwinism, Alism, Intelligent Design, Peter Van Inwagen
Pages 127-144IntroductionThe present article seeks to first examine the concept of "apostle" in the sacred texts of the two religions i.e. Christianity and Islam: the New Testament and the Holy Qur'an, and then, in a comparative approach, tries to identify the difference between this concept in these two religions. As we will see in this introduction, this essay can help to clarify some of the most important concepts in these two religions.
Discussion. All divine / Abrahamic religions are based on the three basic concepts of the sender of the messenger, the messenger, and the message, but the most important difference between these religions lies in the concept of the apostle or the messenger. The present article is designed to examine the same concept in these two religions in a comparative way. Therefore, this article seeks to: examine the difference between the concept of the apostle in the sacred texts of Christianity and the same concept in the Holy Qur'an.
The necessity of dealing with this subject. The importance of the subject matter can be summarized as follows: 1. Getting a better knowledge about the above mentioned cultures; 2. Understanding more correctly some of the thoughts of Christian theologians in interpreting the teachings of their religion; 3. Understanding the thoughts of the first Christian theologian and author; Paul; 4. Finally, the recognition of the roots of the church / synagogue as a religious concept used in the Christian thought.
Methodology of the research. In this research, we use the narrative / descriptive method to restate the concepts in these two holy texts.
The hypothesis of the article. In this research, we will prove that there is an essential difference in the term "messenger" between the two religions of Islam and Christianity, and it should be believed and accepted.
The uses of the concept of "messenger" in the New Testament
1. Divine Prophets. By this title it is meant those who have been sent to God by Allah with a mission. Examples of this title in the New Testament are: 1/1. Christ, 2/1. John the Baptist 3/1. Jacob and the other apostles 2. Jesus Christ' apostles. 3. The Apostles of the Holy Spirit. 4. The General apostles. 5. Paul 6. The two apostles of Paul,. 7. The False messengers. 8. Great Messengers
What is the common task that can bring all these titles together?
These tasks, according to Christ's teachings, are: 1. They shouldn’t be fishermen, rather, they must be the hunter of human beings. .2 "They should accompany Christ .3. the should speak "in his name". 4. They should distribute bread among the people. 5. They should govern the crowds who refer to them. 6. They should be the column pf the church.
In understanding the prophet's examples in the Bible, the following questions must be answered.
1. Who are the examples of Prophets In the New Testament,?
2. What are the characteristics of these people?
3. What was their duty?
4. How were they given this title?
In the article we will address this issue, and then we will examine the concept of the Messenger in Islam.
The most important concepts related to the "messenger" in the Holy Qur'an can be categorized as follows: what is the nature and reality of the message of the apostles, what are the attributes of the divine apostles, what are the types of divine apostles, and the degrees of them, what are the duties of the apostles, and how are they confirmed by the miracles.
Based on these discussions, we finally conclude and present 11 outcomes as the results of this article.Keywords: Messenger, Apostles, The New Testament, The Quran, Christianity
Pages 145-158In this article, the views of Karl Rahner and Mulla Sadra on the pre-conceptual understanding of God are compared. Although these two thinkers belong to different historical and intellectual traditions, there are some ways in which they can be compared. With the adaptation of the concept of Transcendental Thomism from Joseph Marshall's thought and the use of Heidegger's ontology, Rahner presents a new interpretation of onto-theology. Rahner says that Heidegger's ontology ultimately leads to nihilism, since Heidegger interprets Being in terms of nothingness. Rahner believes that ontology should determine its orientation regard God, either as atheistic or theological approach, but the Heidegger’s ontology is silent about God and does not speak positively or negatively about Him. The most important feature of Dasein in Heidegger's thought is to ask of being, and this asking shows that Dasein has pre-conceptual or a-priori understanding of God. According to Rahner, Dasein’s asking of Being indicates that he or she has pre-conceptual understanding of absolute Being or God. Rahner takes the idea of ‘pre-conception’(Vorgriff) from Heidegger's philosophy and uses it in direction of his theological purposes. Like Marshall and some of the French spiritualists such as Maurice Blondel, Rahner emphasizes on dynamic nature of reason, and believes that Dasein's permanent quest for understanding of Being and his or her active presence in the world is impossible without a-priori understanding of reality. Although Dasein is aware of his finitude and knows that the death will end up all of his possibilities but still has an uninterrupted effort to outline new plans for future and understanding the universe. Referring to Thomas Aquinas' philosophy, Rahnee poses a new interpretation of the process of mental abstraction. In his opinion, the process of abstraction can be analyzed in three moments: comparison, negation, and transedence. The human mind first compares objects and looks at their differences and similarities, and then rejects the particularity of objects and extract the universal concepts that are applicable to many things. The negation of the particularity of objects and transcending them to universal concepts depends on the fact that man has pre-conceptual understanding of absolute Being (God). Therefore, any knowledge that man finds from the world cannot be realized without pre-conceptual understanding of God. In fact, the transcendental horizons of human comprehension can not filled with the finitude and and particulaity of objects, and this leads to dynamics of human intellect for acquiring the science. On the other hand, endless activity of Dasein is not possible without understanding his own finitude and going beyond of present situation, and this requires a pre-conceptual understanding of Absolute Being. Of course, pre-conceptual understanding of God does not mean a-priori understanding in terms of epistemological approach, but in existential one’s. On this basis, Rahner joins the existential attitude of the universe with Aquinas' doctrine of theology, thus allowing the possibility of dialogue between contemporary ontology and theology. The fruit of such combination can be seen in onto-theology or ontology that based on theology. Also, Mulla Sadra on the basis of ontological attitude and explaining the universe as manifestation of God, speaks of the pre-conceptual encounter of human with God. This confrontation is universal and infallible. According to this confrontation, God is familiar for every ignorance man, and the people are intrinsically know Him. Also, Mulla Sadra speaks of pre-conceptual encounter of human in the realm of prenatal world according to arc of ascent and arc of descent. In Sadra’s view on Abstraction, It can be outlined three epistemological moment: impossibility of acquired knowledge to God, intuitional understanding of God, demonstration for applying the concept of Being to God. Sadra maintains that God is the foundation of being and phenomenon in relation to God, are pure connection. Therefore, knowledge of everything requires knowledge of God. Analyzing of this theory is based on some views in Sadra’s doctrine such as: ontological attitude (fundamentality of existence), universe as manifestation of God, arcs of ascent and descent, the being of God as beyond of infinite. Therefore it can be claimed: in terms of this fact that in Sadra’s philosophy the being of God is the origin of universe, then pre-conceptual confrontation of human with God is prerequisite for every cognition. Although, Mulla Sadra discusses the pre-conceptual understanding of God in prenatal world and in this case his position is dissimilar to Rahner’s one.Keywords: Onto-theology, Mulla Sadra, Karl Rahner, Heidegger, Pre-conceptual Understanding, Transcendental Thomism
Interfaith Dialogue: Concepts, Approaches and TypologyPages 109-126In the contemporary world, due to the growth and spread of various technologies, intra and inter cultural communication have become much more possible. Individuals with different religions and cultures struggle to express their religion and culture, which is why the concept of dialogue is generally used and emphasized. Also, because of the importance of religion and the possibility of influencing on various social groups, policymakers try to fully design and implement their policies through the interfaith dialogue study. This article, using the documentary method, aims to examine the conceptualization of interfaith dialogue and the collection of its various types. In this regard, according to the indicators of dimension, style, type, dialoguers and the topic of interfaith dialogue, 54 types in the similarity of the dialoguers and 162 types in their non-marital status are extracted. It is clear that in view of the severe shortage of Persian sources in this field, achieving a comprehensive pattern of interfaith dialogue typology can be an innovative and an introductive to cultural and communicative policy making of interfaith dialogue.The explanation of these indicators as components of species is as follows: 1- Dimension: interfaith dialogue can be an insight, a tendency, or action. In the first place, insights containing rational beliefs are the subject of interfaith dialogue. These beliefs often include the specialized concepts of religious theology. The form of manifestation of this kind can emerge in comparative theology. The second type focuses on the emotions and motivations of interfaith dialogue in the dimension of orientation. Accordingly, the path to the full realization of interfaith dialogue will be a heart understanding of the parties to the dialogue over the religion of the other side. So while the rational form of interfaith dialogue focuses on acquired knowledge, it focuses on in-person knowledge. Third, it seeks to present the practical aspect of interfaith dialogue in the form of social cohesion. In this view, interfaith dialogue is considered as a tool for solving and reducing social problems. Perhaps this type of interfaith dialogue can be regarded as an operational-functional dialogue. In this sense, policymakers use the functions of religion in the form of interfaith dialogue in describing the problem and prescribing a solution for it.
2. Method: Each of these three types can be arguable, emotional, and behavioral in order. In the ordinary way, the rational, cardiac, and intellectual forms of interfaith dialogue choose reasoning, emotional and behavioral methods, respectively. Of course, the combination of these dimensions and methods should be possible together, which will cause the complexity of the species. This means that the rational species (based on dimension) may use an emotional (method-based) type. This possibility is unlikely due to its occurrence. Moreover, in addition to this, simultaneous use of two or three methods can be found in interfaith dialogue for one or two dimensions.
3. Type: This indicator can be formal, semi-formal or informal. This type also relates to dialogue with the dialoguers who can be leaders and officials, elites or ordinary people. In this regard, the direct connection of these three dialoguers is often rare. Thus, in most cases, the type of dialogue is on a level, that is, for example: thinkers with thinkers. Often, the type of interfaith dialogue will be officially held, if the dialoguers are leaders and officials. However, if the intellectuals are the two sides of interfaith dialogue, the kind of dialogue will be realized in the form of a semi-official. The third type, informal, also occurs when the dialoguers are the general public.
4. dialoguers: It seems that, as seen in practice, there is a similarity between the dimension and methodology and the dialogue. It is natural that the dimension of insight and the method of reasoning often occurs in dialogue between thinkers and elite. On the other hand, people-to-people interfaith dialogue often takes place in the context of normal social behavior and actions. Therefore, the axis or issue or area in the dialogue is important and fundamental. Of course, the complexity of the dialogue may even be the difference between intellectual paradigms - the way dialogue people even appear in a religion and beliefs.
5. Subject: The subject of interfaith dialogue can be religious or non-religious on the basis of the affinity (ie, religion) that is the subject of dialogue. Religious talk is about comparing commons and differences of a subject from the point of view of different religions. These varieties The dialogue with the general purpose of the conversation, which is further understood, is consistent, although the discussion of a subject from the point of view of one's religion to another can open new horizons in understanding its own religion. On the other hand, the subject can be non-religious. In this sense, there are issues or common problems such as justice, security, creativity in the context of justice and war, poverty, and so on. The level of these problems can also be urban, national and international.
It becomes clear that in view of the severe shortage of Persian sources in this field, achieving a comprehensive pattern of inter-religious dialogue typology can be an innovative and prelude to cultural-communication communication policy in interfaith dialogue.Keywords: Dialogue, Dialoguer, Interfaith Dialogue, Interfaith Dialogue Policy Making