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پژوهش نامه مدیریت تحول - سال دهم شماره 2 (پیاپی 20، پاییز و زمستان 1397)
  • سال دهم شماره 2 (پیاپی 20، پاییز و زمستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/02/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • عادل زاهد بابلان، غفار کریمیان پور * صفحات 1-20
    این پژوهش با هدف بررسی رابطه بین رهبری توزیعی و سرمایه روان شناختی با تعهد به تغییر با میانجی گری خودکارآمدی تغییر در کارکنان دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی انجام شد. پژوهش از نظر هدف کاربردی و از نظر روش توصیفی از نوع همبستگی به روش معادلات ساختاری است. جامعه آماری پژوهش کلیه کارکنان دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی بودند که با توجه به جدول مورگان و با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری در دسترس، نمونه ای به حجم 180 نفر انتخاب شد. برای جمع آوری داده‏‏ها از پرسشنامه رهبری توزیعی ایلمور (2000)، سرمایه روان شناختی لوتانز و همکاران (2007)، خودکارآمدی تغییر چن و همکاران (2001) و تعهد به تغییر تعهد مایرز و هرسکوتیچ (2002) استفاده شد. برای تجزیه وتحلیل داده‏‏ها از نرم افزار SPSS و روش های آمار توصیفی (میانگین و انحراف استاندارد) و روش های آمار استنباطی (ضریب همبستگی پیرسون و آزمون کولموگروف اسمیرنوف) و نرم افزار LISREL استفاده شد. نتایج تجزیه وتحلیل داده‏‏ها نشان داد که رهبری توزیعی با ضریب بتای (18/0) و سرمایه روان شناختی با ضریب بتای (71/0) بر خودکارآمدی تغییر اثر مثبت و مستقیم دارند و خودکارآمدی تغییر با ضریب بتای (47/0) بر تعهد به تغییر کارکنان اثر مثبت و مستقیم دارند. همچنین نقش واسطه خودکارآمدی تغییر در رابطه بین رهبری توزیعی و هم سرمایه روان شناختی با تعهد به تغییر معنی‏دار بود.
    کلیدواژگان: رهبری توزیعی، سرمایه روان شناختی، تعهد به تغییر، خودکار آمدی تغییر
  • حسن کاویانی*، جمشید صالحی صدقیانی، حسین فتح آبادی صفحات 21-44
    در دهه های اخیر، تلاطم و تغییرات پیچیده محیطی، سازمان های نظامی را ملزم به تمرکز بر مفهوم دوسوتوانی سازمانی در قالب مفهومی گسترده تر از حوزه کسب وکار نموده است. موضوعی که در تحقق آن، تفکر راهبردی نقش اساسی ایفا می نماید. پژوهش حاضر در پی تبیین رابطه تفکر راهبردی و دوسوتوانی سازمانی است. این تحقیق از حیث هدف، یک تحقیق کاربردی و از جهت نحوه گردآوری داده ها از نوع تحقیقات توصیفی- پیمایشی به شمار می آید. روش تحلیل داده ها از نوع همبستگی و به طور مشخص مبتنی بر مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری است. جامعه آماری پژوهش دربرگیرنده فرماندهان و مدیران عالی دو یگان نظامی منتخب به تعداد 73 نفر می باشد. پس از متناسب سازی، از پرسشنامه های تفکر راهبردی جون مون و دوسوتوانی سازمانی جانسن بر اساس ماموریت ها و اهداف سازمان هدف و نیز نظریات خبرگان دانشگاهی و کارشناسان حوزه دفاعی جهت جمع آوری داده ها استفاده گردید. روایی پرسشنامه ها بر اساس نظرات خبرگان و اساتید دانشگاهی (روایی صوری) و نیز تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی (تناسب سوالات با سازه ها) و پایایی آن ها با استفاده از ضریب آلفای کرونباخ مورد تائید قرار گرفت. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد بین تفکر راهبردی و کلیه ابعاد آن با دوسوتوانی سازمانی ارتباط مثبت و معناداری وجود دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: تفکر راهبردی، دوسوتوانی سازمانی، اکتشاف، بهره برداری
  • حامد محمدی شهرودی، علی شیرازی*، فرشته صادقی صفحات 45-66
    امروزه با بین المللی شدن سازمان ها، اهمیت ارتباطات فرهنگی در سازمان ها، بخصوص در سازمان هایی که فعالیت های بین المللی دارند، بیشتر می شود. هدف پژوهش حاضر، بررسی تاثیر هوش فرهنگی کارکنان بر رفتارهای شهروندی آنان از طریق بهبود یا تقویت همدلی فرهنگی است که رویکردی کمی دارد و داده ها با استفاده از روش پیمایش و ابزار پرسشنامه، گردآوری شدند. تعداد اعضای جامعه آماری از کارکنان واحد بین الملل یک شرکت لبنی به تعداد 190 نفر بودند. برای نمونه گیری از سرشماری استفاده شد و پرسشنامه ها میان تمامی اعضای جامعه آماری توزیع گردید؛ درنهایت تعداد 152 پرسشنامه گردآوری و در تحلیل ها مورداستفاده قرار گرفت. به منظور تحلیل داده های پژوهش نیز از روش مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری و نرم افزار اسمارت پی.آل.اس استفاده شد. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که هوش فرهنگی بر همدلی فرهنگی تاثیر معنادار دارد. بعلاوه، متغیر همدلی فرهنگی نیز بر سه ابعاد جوانمردی، نزاکت و نوع دوستی تاثیر معنادار دارد. از طرفی همدلی فرهنگی نیز نقش میانجی را در ارتباط بین هوش فرهنگی و رفتار شهروندی سازمانی دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: هوش فرهنگی، رفتارهای شهروندی سازمانی، همدلی فرهنگی، شرکت محصولات لبنی
  • مهدی نفتی، علی حسین زاده* صفحات 67-94
    هدف این تحقیق، بررسی تاثیر اعتماد سازمانی بر تعهد سازمانی کارکنان بانک ملی مشهد با نقش های میانجی فضیلت سازمانی و انگیزه شغلی است. روش تحقیق، کاربردی و از نوع تحقیقات توصیفی همبستگی و مدل یابی معادلات ساختاری بوده است. جامعه آماری شامل کلیه کارکنان بانک ملی مشهد به تعداد 1500 نفر است که با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده، 305 نفر  از آنان به عنوان نمونه آماری برای مطالعه انتخاب شدند. برای گردآوری داده های تحقیق از پرسشنامه استفاده گردید که روایی آن توسط روایی محتوا و تحلیل عاملی تاییدی و پایایی آن به وسیله ضریب آلفای کرونباخ بررسی شد. برای آزمون فرضیات این تحقیق از نرم افزارهای SPSS و SMART PLS استفاده شد. یافته های این تحقیق نشان داد که اعتماد سازمانی بر تعهد سازمانی به طور مستقیم و غیرمستقیم با میانجی گری انگیزه شغلی و فضیلت سازمانی تاثیر مثبت و معنی داری دارد؛ اما تاثیر مثبت و معنی دار  فضیلت سازمانی بر تعهد سازمانی مورد تایید قرار نگرفت.
    کلیدواژگان: اعتماد سازمانی، تعهد سازمانی، انگیزه شغلی، فضیلت سازمانی
  • حبیب زارع احمدآبادی، فاطمه زمزم، محمدرضا زارع بنادکوکی*، محمد حبیبی رضی آباد صفحات 95-122
    یکی از عوامل موثر در توسعه اقتصادی کشورها توجه به جایگاه کارآفرینی سازمانی است به همین منظور بیشتر سازمان ها منابع خود را در این زمینه هدایت می کنند. برای موفقیت کارآفرینی سازمانی عوامل متعددی نقش دارند که بدون در نظر گرفتن آن ها کارآفرینی میسر نیست. ازاین رو پژوهش حاضر به بررسی و شناسایی عوامل موثر بر کارآفرینی سازمانی در شرکت توزیع برق استان یزد می پردازد. نوع این پژوهش با رویکرد کیفی و کمی است که در بخش کیفی با مصاحبه با تعدادی از مدیران شرکت توزیع برق و تحلیل آن ها به کمک نظریه بنیادی عوامل موثر بر کارآفرینی سازمانی استخراج گردید. در بخش کمی به تحلیل ارتباط بین عوامل مستخرج از مرحله کیفی پژوهش اقدام گردید. درنهایت نتایج برنامه ریزی بر اساس سناریو نشان داد سناریوی بازبینی نظام ارزیابی عملکرد در میان 24 سناریوی تدوین شده، به علت ایجاد بیشترین میزان تغییرپذیری و شدت تغییر در 58 عامل تایید شده، به عنوان مهم ترین سناریو شناخته شد.
    کلیدواژگان: کارآفرینی سازمانی، توسعه کارآفرینی، ارزیابی عملکرد، نظریه بنیادی، نقشه شناختی فازی
  • محسن اکبری*، مصطفی ابراهیم پور ازبری، یعقوب ممبینی، مسعود میرزا کاظمی صفحات 123-148
    امروزه همگان بر اهمیت نقش انسان ها در سازمان پی برده اند و از آن به عنوان سرمایه ای یاد می کنند که بهره وری سایر سرمایه های سازمان به میزان خبرگی و دانش گر بودن آن بستگی دارد. استفاده صحیح از سرمایه انسانی مستلزم توجه به شرایط روحی، روانی و پیچیدگی های وجودی انسان ها و ایجاد بسترهای مناسب برای شکوفایی استعداد آن هاست. یکی از عوامل مهم و تاثیرگذار در عدم بهره وری سرمایه انسانی، که منجر به رفتارهای بازدارنده از سوی کارکنان می شود، ناامنی شغلی است. هدف این پژوهش بررسی روابط بین ناامنی شغلی، تعهد عاطفی و رفتارهای بازدارنده در شرکت خدمات بندری و فنی و مهندسی آریا دیزل اروند است. همچنین در این پژوهش به بررسی اثر تعدیل گری حمایت سرپرستان نیز پرداخته شده است. روش پژوهش، توصیفی از نوع پیمایشی بوده که اطلاعات از طریق پرسش نامه جمع آوری شده و برای تحلیل داده ها از مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری و الگوریتم حداقل مربعات جزئی (PLS) استفاده شده است. بعد از برازش مدل های اندازه گیری و ساختاری به برازش کلی مدل پژوهش پرداخته شده و فرضیات، مورد آزمون قرار گرفتند. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد امنیت شغلی و تعهد عاطفی در کاهش رفتارهای بازدارنده کارکنان تاثیرگذار است و حمایت سرپرستان تاثیر تعهد عاطفی بر رفتارهای بازدارنده را تعدیل می نماید. ایجاد حس تعلق سازمانی در کارکنان موجب کاهش رفتارهای بازدارنده و افزایش امنیت شغلی و تعهد سازمانی می شود. حمایت سرپرستان، فرصت های لازم را جهت شکوفایی کارکنان در محیط کار فراهم می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: رفتارهای بازدارنده، تعهد عاطفی، حمایت سرپرست، ناامنی شغلی
  • امین زارع*، حسین علیزاده، سعید سپهری صفحات 149-178
    دراین پژوهش، تاثیر سبک رهبری قلدرمآبانه بر بروز رفتار منافقانه موردبررسی قرار گرفت. همچنین نقش میانجی گری اعتماد در رابطه بین رهبری قلدرمآبانه و رفتار منافقانه ونقش تعدیل گری جو سکوت ادراک شده در رابطه بین اعتماد بین فردی ورفتار منافقانه بررسی شد. جامعه آماری پژوهش، کارکنان ستادی یکی از ارگان های نظامی استان قزوین می باشد که از میان آنها 81 نفر بر اساس فرمول کوکران مربوط به جامعه محدود، به عنوان نمونه آماری به روش نمونه گیری در دسترس انتخاب شد. به منظور جمع آوری داده ها، از ابزار پرسشنامه شامل پرسشنامه های استاندارد اعتماد بین فردی مک الیستر (1995)، جو سکوت ادراک شده واکولا و بورادوس (2005)، رفتار منافقانه باقری ماهونکی (2014) و پرسشنامه محقق ساخته رهبری قلدرمآبانه اقتباس شده ازجرکویک، مک کورمک و کسمیر (2006) استفاده شد. روایی و پایایی پرسشنامه های یاد شده با استفاده از روایی صوری، روایی سازه وهمچنین محاسبه آلفای کرونباخ مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. جهت تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها، از روش های تحلیل عاملی تاییدی و مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری استفاده شد. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که رهبری قلدرمآبانه بر بروز رفتارهای منافقانه دارای تاثیر مثبت و معنادار و بر اعتماد بین فردی دارای تاثیر منفی و معنادار می باشد و اعتماد بین فردی بر بروز رفتارهای منافقانه تاثیر منفی و معنادار دارد. همچنین بر اساس نتایج پژوهش مشخص شد که جو سکوت ادراک شده به عنوان متغیر تعدیل گر در رابطه بین اعتماد بین فردی و رفتارهای منافقانه دارای تاثیر مثبت و معنادار است. در نهایت مشخص شد رهبری قلدرمآبانه به صورت غیرمستقیم و با توجه به نقش متغیر میانجی اعتماد بین فردی بر بروز رفتارهای منافقانه تاثیر دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: رهبری قلدرمآبانه، اعتماد بین فردی، رفتار منافقانه، جو سکوت ادراک شده
  • ملیحه آبی حسن پور، سمیرا پور*، سید مرتضی غیور باغبانی صفحات 179-202
    هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی تاثیر خودکارآمدی و توانمندسازی روان شناختی معلمان زن در مقطع ابتدایی بر روی فرسودگی شغلی آنان بوده است. خودکارآمدی معلمان، نقش اساسی در تربیت و آموزش دانش آموزان دارد. هدف اصلی از توانمندسازی این است که مدیران مغزهای کارکنان را همانند بازوانشان به کار بیندازند. یک شغل رضایت بخش می تواند به منبع نارضایتی تبدیل شود و فرسودگی شغلی را به دنبال داشته باشد. روش پژوهش حاضر، توصیفی و از نوع همبستگی و به طور مشخص مبتنی بر معادلات ساختاری بوده است؛ بدین منظور نمونه ای به حجم  325 آزمودنی از بین معلمان زن مدارس ابتدایی منطقه تبادکان شهر مشهد در سال تحصیلی 96-1395 که تعداد 2100 نفر گزارش شده است، با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده انتخاب شد. جهت جمع آوری اطلاعات از پرسش نامه استفاده گردید که به روش انفرادی توسط آزمودنی ها تکمیل و پایایی و روایی پرسش نامه ها بررسی شد. به منظور برازش مدل مفهومی و نیز آزمون فرضیات از نرم افزار لیزرل استفاده گردید. نتایج نشان داد بین توانمندسازی روان شناختی و خودکارآمدی، رابطه مثبت و معناداری وجود دارد؛ همچنین بین توانمندسازی روان شناختی و فرسودگی شغلی رابطه منفی و معنادار و بین خودکارآمدی و فرسودگی شغلی نیز رابطه منفی و معناداری وجود دارد. ازاین رو پیشنهاد می شود سازمان های آموزش وپرورش با روش های مختلف ایجاد و تقویت توانمندسازی روان شناختی و بالابردن سطح خودکارآمدی نیروی انسانی خود بکوشند تا بتوانند فرسودگی را در بین نیروی انسانی کاهش دهند.
    کلیدواژگان: خودکار آمدی، فرسودگی شغلی، توانمندسای روان شناختی، معلمان
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  • Adel. Zahed Babalan, Ghaffar. Karimianpour* Pages 1-20
    In today's organizations, change and its management are fundamental to organizational and managerial development, because any organization that ignores the change jeopardizes itself. Stable changes in the organization is based on its acceptance by employees and they should have a commitment to change in order to accept organizational changes. Commitment to change is described as a factor that establishes Basic connection between individuals and the goals of change, and is the most important factor in acceptance or failure of change projects in an organization. Therefore, investigating the factors affecting employees' commitment to change is very important. The literature review of research indicates that distributed leadership style, psychological capital and self-efficacy of change have been identified as factors influencing organizational changes. Therefore, this study was conducted aimed to investigate the effect of distributed leadership and psychological capital on the commitment to change with the mediating role of self-efficacy of change in University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
    Keywords: Distributed Leadership, Psychological Capital, Commitment to Change, Self-Efficacy of Change
  • Hassan. Kavyani *, Jamshid. Salehi Sadaqyani, Hossein. Fath Abadi Pages 21-44
    In recent decades, complexity and environmental turbulence have faced many challenges for organizations. In such a situation, for individuals and organizations, being successful means adapting to life through learning, and changing behavior patterns.  But some scholars believe that this approach should simultaneously and balanced emphasize on the creation of new knowledge related to new products and services for emerging markets, as well as the utilization of competencies and capacities to improve existing products and services. A process is known as organizational ambidexterity. In this process, the ability to use of existing status (exploitation) and opportunities to grow and survive in the future (exploration) are two sides of the organization's move toward ambidexterity. The realization of ambidexterity in organizations requires the creation of a dynamic structure and internal flexibility which can empower organizations to face environmental changes so that they can anticipate environmental change and find appropriate strategies for dealing with them. This approach is addressed in the field of strategic management as strategic thinking.
    Keywords: Strategic Thinking, Organizational Ambidexterity, Exploration, Exploitation
  • Hamed. Mohammadi Shahroodi, Ali. Shirazi *, Fereshte. Sadeghi Pages 45-66
    Given the increasing competition between organizations and employees, paying attention to tasks and behaviors beyond them is one of the major concerns of organizations and their members. Unfortunately, extra roles in some organizations, especially international companies, are rare. Hence, Organizational Citizenship Behavior can increase the organization's ability to recruitment and retain qualified and efficient employees. On the other hand, it is necessary to note that Organizational Citizenship Behaviors do not occur in all situations, and some individual and organizational characteristics contribute to emerge and spread of these behaviors. Although attention to cultural intelligence has grown among international organizations in recent years, they need to consider variables such as cultural intelligence and the mediating role of Cultural Empathy in solving the problem of promoting extra role behavior. This lack of attention to the role of Cultural Intelligence as well as the empowerment role of Empathy is one of the gaps in international organizations. this research addresses the role of Cultural Empathy in improving Employee Citizenship Behaviors so that it can be determined that in order to promote extra role behaviors, people just needed to have high Cultural Intelligence, or both Cultural Intelligence and Cultural Empathy contribute to Citizenship Behavior.
    Keywords: Cultural Intelligence, Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, Cultural Empathy, Dairy Products Company
  • Mehdi. Nafti, Ali. Hosseinzadeh * Pages 67-94
    Today human capital is considered as the main competitive advantage of organizations and it is also recognized as the key indicator of the success of organizations. In Iranian organizations, especially government agencies, there is a huge gap between employees and management and their demands. As a result of this gap, decisions are usually encountered with executive problems, as employees resist against decisions, and managers in turn do not trust employees and are reluctant to share decision making, all of which create a climate of mistrust in the organization. On the other hand, lack of employee’s motivation can have irreparable consequences for organizations, both in the short term and in the long run, and affect the quality of their products, or even give rise to issues such as turnover intention or absenteeism. In this regard, the issue of organizational commitment is also highly important because sometimes under the shadow of distrust, members of the organization intend to leave the organization and find another job. Therefore, a study of attitudes can offer valuable insights to managers to better understand of employees in the organization. In this context, organizational virtue has an important effects in organizations. The feeling of working in a virtue-based organization may encourage employees to do their jobs for something greater than material rewards or career progress including personal satisfaction or simply pleasure derived from implementation of a good job.
    Keywords: Organizational Trust, Organizational Commitment, Job Motivation, Organizational Virtues
  • Habib. ZareAhmadabadi, Fatemeh. Zamzam, Mohammad Reza. Zare Banadkouki *, Mohammad. Habibi Raziabadi Pages 95-122
    INTRODUCTION
    Necessity of Organizational entrepreneurship is result from incompatibility and slow response of small and big scale organizations to increasing rapid, complex and uncertain changes of environment. Therefore, organizations must use external and internal resources effectively and timely in order to obtain better competitive advantages. Also learning and innovation for organizations seeking survival and effectiveness are necessary needs and many organizations are heavily seeking entrepreneurial ways and approaches in order to improve their effectiveness, efficiency, and flexibility. So this research aims at identifying and studying influencing factors on organizational entrepreneurship of electricity Distribution Company of Yazd province.
    THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
    Literature review in the field of organizational entrepreneurship expresses that organizational entrepreneurship is a complex and multidimensional concept which has numerous dimensions and elements.  Schipers et al (2008) and Milz et al’s (2009) suggest that these elements are four dimensions including innovation, pro-activeness, self-renewal and risk taking. Innovation is the production and creation of new products, services, processes, technologies and models of business. Pro-activeness means the forecasting and acting to meet future needs through the search and use of opportunities that implies the development of products. Self-renewal in the organization needs to change and reform in organizational mission, reorganization and making big changes in organizational system. Risk taking includes the organizational readiness for employing resources in order to use opportunities and starting projects without knowing the results and return of investment.
    Keywords: Organizational Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship Development, Performance Evaluation, Grounded Theory, Fuzzy Cognitive Map
  • Mohsen. Akbari *, Mostafa. Ebrahimpour, Yaghoob. Mombini, Masoud. Mirzakazemi Pages 123-148
    INTRODUCTION
    In terms of psychology, job dissatisfaction and insecurity may have an impact on counterproductive behavior because they create conflicts between the employee and the employer and have negative impacts on employee well-being and efficiency. Individuals who are dissatisfied with their job, their commitment to work will decreases and consequently their destructive behaviors will increase. Affective commitment suggest that the employees of the organization have a strong desire for membership and a very low willingness to leave and is more likely to be the indicator of job satisfaction. The existence of job insecurity creates counterproductive behaviors in the organization, which leads to the elimination of employee commitment and the emergence of problems in the organization; therefore, it seems necessary to examine the relationship between these factors. In general, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of job insecurity on counterproductive behaviors with the mediating role of Affective commitment and the moderatoring role of supervisor support. The researchers seek to answer the question that does job insecurity lead to counterproductive behaviors in organizations?
    THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
     The counterproductive behavior can continue in a range of less severe offenses (such as five minutes late or leave five minutes early, surfing the Internet) to more serious offenses (such as verbal harassment, or physical harm to employees). Despite the fact that most of the reports of economic losses related to these behaviors in workplace are committed by employees in the United States and in other countries, there is some evidence that indicates these behaviors are not limited to a specific geographical range and they have a global outbreak. According to industrial and organizational psychologists, job security is one of the factors that creates job satisfaction. The sense of job security can be defined as an individual's assessment of the individual, organizational and environmental conditions that leads him to a conclusion that his particular occupational safety factor doesn,t threat him and that he can be sure of his employment at the present time and in the future. If a person feels job insecurity in the organization, he may engage in Counterproductive behaviors that have implications to the organization. The main sources of support in the organization for employees are the percieved organizational , supervisor and Colleague support. The hypotheses of this research are: Hypothesis 1: Job insecurity affects counterproductive behaviors. Hypothesis 2: Job insecurity affects affective commitment. Hypothesis 3: affective commitment affects Counterproductive behaviors. Hypothesis 4: affective commitment mediates the impact of job insecurity on counterproductive behaviors. Hypothesis 5: Supervisors' support moderates the impact of job insecurity on affective commitment. Hypothesis 6: Supervisors' support moderates the effect of affective commitment on counterproductive behaviors.
    METHODOLOGY
    Based on the purpose, this study is an applied research and in terms of nature is a descriptive-survey research. Structured questionnaires has been used to collect data. Because this study investigates the relationship between variables, thus it uses structural equations model and the second version of Smart PlS software.
    RESULTS & DISCUSSION
    Considering the significance coefficient for paths between variables, all the research hypotheses have been confirmed. Confirming the mediating role of affective commitment, job insecurity has a indirect and significant effect on the counterproductive behaviors. The amount of Z-value obtained from the Soubel test is 6.865 which because it is greater than 1.96, therefore it can be suggested that the effect of the mediating role of affective commitment on the relationship between job insecurity and counterproductive behaviors is significant at the 95% of confidence level. The achievement of the 0.381 for VAF in this study means that more than one-third of the job insecurity effect on counterproductive behaviors is explained by the mediating role of affective commitment.
    CONCLUSIONS & SUGGESTIONS
     Based on the results obtained from the hypothesis test and given that job insecurity has a direct impact on increasing the intention to perform counterproductive behaviors by employees, it is suggested that the company adopt strategies and activities to increase the employees' job security and reduce their concern for loss their job. It is suggested that the studied company should pay attention to the empowerment of its employees in order to achieve a higher organizational performance; Regarding the effect of affective commitment on employees' counterproductive behaviors, it is suggested that the company consider the necessary arrangements to create a sense of satisfaction among employees, so that the organization and the position of the employees of staff will give them a sense of pride. It is suggested that supervisors carry out the necessary activities to increase work motivation, accountability, as well as regulating employees in the organization. On the other hand, it is recommended that the company take steps to create a friendly and ethical atmosphere. The results of the hypotheses indicate that supervisors through appropriate feedback and attention to employees have a moderating effect on their affective commitment; therefore, they will reduce the intention to perform counterproductive behaviors by employees.
    Keywords: Counterproductive Behaviors, Affective Commitment, Supervisor Support, Job Insecurity
  • Amin. Zare *, Hossein. Alizadeh, Saeed. Sepehri Pages 149-178
    INTRODUCTION
     In a particular kind of organizational behavior, a member of the organization at least two interpersonal communication situations with other stakeholders in the organization issues different and sometimes contradictory behaviors on a single attitudinal issue, only one or none of them is consistent with his (her) actual attitude. Such a form of organizational behavior is known by the name of hypocrisy in interpersonal communication. Trust have the most effect on interpersonal behavior, because it influences the efficiency and accuracy of communications. If trust is affected by factors such as leadership style and Perceived climate of silence and reduced, the ground for happening hypocritical behavior will be provided. One of the style of leadership that can confuse interpersonal trust and create organizational silence is the style of Bully leadership. This study examine the effect of bully leadership style on hypocritical behavior. The mediating role of interpersonal trust between bully leadership and hypocritical behavior and the moderator role of perceived climate of silence on the relationship between interpersonal trust and hypocritical behavior were also investigated.
    THEORETICAL FRAMWORK
     One of the most harmful leadership species is bully leadership, a leader who apply psychological or physical abuse of power against someone who is in a weaker position. The bully leader is heavily angry, bad-tempered and jealous of others; hence he decomposes and destroys the others. Hypocrisy is a kind of lie in which a person pretends to have a particular attitude to be holy or justified to others. Hypocritical behavior is a behavior in which a person, without changing his attitude, displays a heterogeneous behavior for a particular attitude. Hypocritical behavior has many implications, such as the darkness of trust in interpersonal relationships and the reduction of group performance, and affects the long-term organizational stability and relief of organization members. Trust is defined as a mutual treaty with others to achieve the goal and conduct behavior. Trust is a positive expectation from the other side, in which the individual is confident that the other party does not act opportunistically through words, actions or decisions and can be relied upon on him in various situations. Interpersonal communication will become mistrust if the behaviors of honesty, immorality and ignorance of values, accuracy, truth and stability of behavior are revealed. The climate of silence is the dominant atmosphere of organization in which members of the organization prefer not to manifest disadvantages and problems of the organization. Because they believe that it is not worthwhile to say and its consequences in the future come back to themselves. The climate of silence will lead to the organizational silence. In this case, interpersonal trust will also be destroyed. A leader who applies the style of leadership based on distrust to employees, actually provokes distrust, and the less trust between members of an organization is, the more the range of hypocritical behaviors in interpersonal communication is increased.
    METHODOLOGY
     Population of the study consist of the staff of one of the military organizations of Qazvin province which 81 people are selected based on Cochran’s formula and convenience sampling method. Questionnaires are used to collect the required data. The collected data were analyzed Using confirmatory factor analysis, Structural equation modeling and Smart PLS software.
    RESULTS & DISCUSSION
     Data analysis consists of two parts: a) descriptive statistics (demographic characteristics of the statistical sample) and b) inferential statistics (testing research hypotheses). In the inferential statistics section, fitting the model was confirmed and the model was evaluated in two modes of estimating the standard coefficients and significant magnitudes and given that all the research hypotheses had a value of t greater than 1.96, all assumptions were confirmed.
    CONCLUSIONS & SUGGESTIONS
    Based on the results of the research, it was found that the bully leadership has a positive and significant effect on the hypocritical behavior, which suggests that leaders avoid the occurrence of Machiavellian behaviors and practices that provide flattery. It has also been shown that bully leadership has a negative and significant impact on interpersonal trust, and thus it is suggested organizational leaders will focus on the negative consequences of bullying on interpersonal trust and lead their leadership style towards positive leadership styles, such as ethical Leadership. The results indicated that interpersonal trust has a negative and significant effect on the hypocritical behavior. Accordingly, organizational leaders should be bound to the principle of honesty in order to build trust among employees; providing opportunities for exchange of views and values in the organization; and respecting for justice among employees.
    Keywords: Bully Leadership, Interpersonal Trust, Hypocritical Behavior, Perceived Climate Of Silence
  • Malihe. Abi Hassanpour, Samira. Pour *, Morteza. Ghayour Baghbani Pages 179-202
    INTRODUCTION
     Job burnout results in deterioration of service quality that provided by staff and it can be an influencing factor in turnover, absenteeism, diminished morale and responsibility. Teachers' jobs are among the jobs that their employees suffer from burnout. Self-efficacy is predicted to be a protective factor against burnout. Self-efficacy of teachers plays an essential role in educating students. Psychological empowerment is also one of the effective factors in reducing job burnout of teachers in order that they believe have the ability and competence to perform their duties successfully. Thus, the present research surveys the role of women's psychological empowerment and self-efficacy on their job burnout in the primary schools of Tabadakan district of Mashhad city.
    THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
     The definition of Maslach, Jackson (1997) about burnout is that they considered three dimensions for job burnout, including emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. According to Spreitzer (1995), psychological empowerment includes sense of competence, autonomy, effectiveness, meaningfulness and trust. Teachers' self-efficacy also involves engaging learners, training strategies and classroom management. Accordingly, hypothesizes is presented below:Psychological empowerment has a significant effect on teachers' selfefficacy. Psychological empowerment has a significant effect on the job burnout of teachers. Self-efficacy has a significant effect on the burnout of teachers. Psychological empowerment has a significant effect on the job burnout of teachers through their self-efficacy.
    METHODOLOGY
     The present study in terms of purpose is applied research. The population includes all women teachers in the primary schools of the Tabadkan district of Mashhad that consist of 2,100 teachers in the academic year of 20112012. The sampling method was simple random sampling method and the sample size which is measured by the Cochran formula was 325 people. In order to measure psychological empowerment, the Spreitzer questionnaire (1995) was used. The teachers' self-efficacy was measured through the Channen, Moran, and Woolfolk (2001) questionnaire and maslach questionnaire is applied for job burnout which all of them used the Likert scale of 5. the reliability of the questionnaires is confirmed by Cronbach's alpha and to assess the validity of the questionnaires, in addition to face and content validity, factor analysis has been used through confirmatory factor analysis and differential and convergent validity. Structural equation modeling using PLS software was used to analyze the data.
    RESULTS & DISCUSSION
     The findings from the descriptive statistics of the research data showed that most of the teachers were officially recruited and their age ranges from 31 to 40 years. Most of them have a bachelor's degree and a career background of 5 to 10 years. The reliability of the questionnaire and the fitting indicators of the model were also reported as optimal. The results of our assumptions also showed that all of four hypotheses were confirmed. In fact, there is a positive and significant relationship between psychological empowerment and teachers' self-efficacy. There is a negative relationship between psychological empowerment and job burnout among teachers as well as between self-efficacy and job burnout. The role of teachers' selfefficacy interfaces in the relationship between empowerment and job burnout was also confirmed.
    CONCLUSIONS & SUGGESTIONS
     The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between empowerment, self-efficacy and job burnout among elementary female teachers in Tabatakan district of Mashhad city during the academic year of 2016-2017. The results indicate that there is a significant relationship between them. In fact, it turned out that the teachers who are more capable, are more engaged and more motivated and less dissatisfied and discouraged. Therefore, they are less likely to become burnout than other teachers. Also, empowerment of teachers can make them active, responsible and aware of their abilities and competencies, and because they think that they are effective and effecient, they can feel better about themselves and have a higher self-efficacy and teachers with strong self-efficacy beliefs are less likely to be burned out. Given the confirmation of research hypothesizes, it is suggested that the design of teacher empowerment programs be such as to give them greater autonomy. Mid-career training clases for teachers with new training technologies are also recommended to improve teachers' self-efficacy. To reduce the stress and tension in teachers, it is recommended that based on the expertise and experience of teachers, put them at different organizational posts. Also, reducing the number of students in the classroom and expressing modern teaching methods can reduce teachers' burnout.
    Keywords: Self-Efficacy, Job Burnout, Psychological Empowerment, Teachers