فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:13 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/02/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Fatemeh Amini Fard*, Reza Jalilzadeh Yengejeh, Mansoureh Ghaeni Pages 1-6
    Background
    Due to the high content of nitrogen in the municipal wastewaters, this study evaluated the efficiency of Scenedesmus as an important microalgae in the removal of nitrate from wastewaters and its application as an appropriate culture medium. As algae have high resistance to temperature and pH changes, they can absorb low concentrations of nutrients and need simple low-cost technology. Through photosynthesis, microalgae effectively stabilize carbon dioxide at a low cost, and the oxygen produced by the photosynthesis process can reduce the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of wastewaters.
    Methods
    In this research, the chemical oxygen demand (COD), BOD, pH, total nitrogen (TN), and microalgae  density were measured in the samples within 14 days after sampling from the inlet and outlet of municipal wastewaters treatment plant.
    Results
     
    The results showed that nitrogen removal rate from the wastewaters at the laboratory conditions was 93% in the inlet and 85% in the outlet, which are higher in efficiency than those provided by other treatment processes.
    Conclusion
    The microalgae can be used for the removal of nitrate and the production of algae biomass in municipal wastewaters processes before entering the natural environment.
    Keywords: Microalgae, Nutrients, Nitrogen, municipal Wastewater
  • Leila Kamaei, Davood Moghadamnia* Pages 7-12
    Background
    In this study, the anti-diabetic effect of the extract of leaves and fruits of Avicennia marina (A. marina) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rats was investigated.
    Methods
    An experimental study was conducted on 45 adult male rats in 9 groups of 5 rats. The control group received normal food only. Other groups were made diabetic by injecting them with 60 mg/kg intraperitoneal STZ injection. Diabetic groups were: one Sham Group (STZ only), one Positive Diabetic Group (STZ + 0.5 ml normal saline) and 6 experimental groups, treated with STZ plus 3 incremental doses (30, 60 and 120 mg/kg) of either leaves or fruits extract of A. marina for three consecutive days, using gavage method. 24 hours after the last extract administration, blood samples were taken from the rat hearts., the serum glucose and insulin levels were measured by glucose oxidase and ELISA methods, respectively, one week after the STZ injections and following 8-12 hours of fasting.
    Results
    The extract of leaves and fruits of A. marina in all doses significantly decreased the serum glucose in diabetic rats compared to that in the Sham group. The extract of A. marina leaves at 30 mg/kg significantly increased the serum insulin level compared to that in Diabetic Sham Group. The extract of A. marina fruits at all doses significantly increased the serum insulin level in the Experimental Groups compared to the Sham Group (P <0.05).
    Conclusion
    The extract of leaves and fruits of A. marina significantly reduced the serum glucose in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
    Keywords: Avicennia marina, diabetes, glucose, insulin
  • Fatima Mohammad Madaki*, Adamu Yusuf Kabiru, Olofu Ogbadoyi Emmanuel, Abdullahi Pages 13-18
    Background
    Abrus precatorius (A. precatorius) is a herbal remedy commonly used in traditional medicine. We investigated the phytochemical, antioxidant, toxic properties, and safety of A. precatorius leaves in rats.
    Methods
    Phytochemical studies were conducted using standard procedures. The antioxidant properties were studied using the reducing power and 2, 2′- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assays. The effect of the extract on biochemical and haematological parameters were evaluated after the oral administration of the extract at daily doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg of the rats’ body weight for 28 days.
    Results
    Saponin was the most abundant (202.25±9.25 mg/100g) while alkaloids (9.69±0.34 mg/100g) were the least phytochemical content of A. precatorius. The extract had an LD50 value of >5000 mg/kg, demonstrating significant reducing power and DPPH scavenging activities (IC50 = 106.22 μg/mL).
    The extract significantly decreased the serum bilirubin and AST concentrations but increased the total proteins concentration compared with the controls (p<0.05). Urea, creatinine, ALP, ALT, chloride and albumin concentrations in the treated rats were not significantly different from those of the controls (p>0.05). The 600 mg/kg dose significantly increased the Hb, PCV, RBC and MCHC of the treated rats, compared to those of the controls (p<0.05). All doses of the extract tested significantly increased the platelet count but did not alter the counts of MCV, MCH, TWBC, RDW, lymphocyte and neutrophils (p<0.05).
    Conclusions
    This study demonstrated that the A. precatorious leaves possess antioxidant and erythropoietic properties. It was also found to be relatively safe with regards to the liver and kidney integrity at concentrations up to 600 mg/kg body weight of the rats.
    Keywords: Anti-oxidants, Haematology, Phytochemicals, Biochemical, Abrus precatorius
  • Masoumeh Mahmoodi Maymand*, Mansooreh Mazaheri, Mahboobeh Talebi Mehrdar Pages 19-23
    Mycotoxins are the secondary metabolites of molds and have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops, resulting in illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hepatocarcinogen found in the milk from animals that have consumed feeds contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Milk is a highly nutritious food and is a source of necessary macro- and micro-nutrients for the growth, development and maintenance of human health.
    Methods
    The presence of AFM1 was investigated in 70 samples of imported pasteurized and powdered milk products available to the Iranian consumers. The level of AFM1 was determined by HPLC method equipped with immunoaffinity cleanup.
    Results
     
    The results showed that 32% of the analyzed samples were positive for AFM1 at 0.05-3.31 μg/kg.  Also, 16% of analyzed samples were positive for AFM1at concentrations higher than the limit permitted by the Iranian standards.
    Conclusion
    The detection of AFM1 contamination in the analyzed samples indicates the importance of the health of animal feeds. Thus, monitoring the imported feed materials, especially those arriving at Iranian borders is crucial in the prevention of AFM1 and AFB1 contaminations spreading across the domestic market.
    Keywords: aflatoxin M1, powdered milk, pasteurized milk, HPLC, immunoaffinity column
  • Kimiya Nourian, Hassan Baghshani*, Davar Shahsavani Pages 25-29
    Background
    This study was conducted to investigate whether vitamin C can protect against plasma biochemical changes induced by lead poisoning in Cyprinus carpio.
    Methods
    Three groups of common carp (n=30/group) were used in this study. Group 1 served as control, Group 2 was exposed to lead acetate (5 mg/L) for 15 days, and Group 3 received vitamin C (500 mg/kg) during the same duration of lead exposure.
    Results
     
    The blood lead concentrations in Groups 2 and 3 showed a significant rise as compared to that in the control group (p<0.05). Also, the plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration increased considerably following in groups exposed to lead acetate, compared to that in controls. Vitamin C supplementation decreased the rise in plasma MDA insignificantly, compared that in Group 2. The plasma values of creatinine and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increased in Group 2 compared to that in controls. Also, vitamin C treatment significantly decreased plasma ALT and creatinine concentrations, compared to those in Group 2. Values of other plasma parameters including aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, gammaglutamyl transferase, albumin, glucose, total protein, cholesterol, urea, uric acid and triglyceride showed no significant alterations among the treatment groups.
    Conclusion
    The results suggest that vitamin C have some beneficial effects against lead toxicity in common carp. However, elucidation of the precise mechanism of the protective effects of vitamin C against lead toxicity warrants further investigations
    Keywords: Cyprinus Carpio, Lead Toxicity, Liver Enzymes, Plasma Malondialdehyde, Vitamin C
  • Israel Oghenevwodoko Okoro*, Helen Ejiro Kadiri Pages 31-35
    Background
    The present study was performed to explore whether the aqueous extract of Senecio biafrae (S. biafrae) roots provide any in vivo protective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats.
    Methods
    Rats (150-200 grams) were grouped into five groups (A-E) of six rats each and were treated orally for twelve days with 72 hourly administration of CCl4 (1 mL/kg) as follows: Group A received distilled water only (negative control), Group B was administered distilled water plus CCl4 (positive control), Group C was administered 400 mg/kg extract and CCl4, Group D received 200 mg/extract and CCl4, while Group E was administered standard drug (Silymarin 25mg/kg, PO).
    Results
     
    Pre-treatment with the extract of S. biafrae (200 or 400mg/kg) or Silymarin (25mg/kg) caused significant restoration in the biomarkers as evaluated by reducing the levels of malondialdehyde, transaminases and elevating the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities, which were altered by CCl4 toxicity. The extract at a dose of 400mg/kg demonstrated similar activities comparable to the standard drug (Silymarin).
    Conclusion
    The results of this study indicate that the root extract of S. biafrae possesses hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant properties which may be due to the presence of phytochemicals in it.
    Keywords: Anti-oxidant, Carbon tetrachloride, Hepatoprotective, Senecio biafrae, Silymarin
  • Banke Mary Okunlola*, Udeme Joshua Josiah Ijah, Jonathan Yisa, Olabisi Peter Abioye Pages 37-42
    Background
    Synthetic coagulants commonly used for water treatment are associated with undesirable properties, such as inefficacy and toxicity in addition to being expensive. Natural coagulants are considered safe and economical alternatives for developing countries where the plants are abundantly available.
    Methods
    The phytochemical composition and safety of water samples treated with Mangifera indica (M. indica) were evaluated in 13 groups of albino rats (N=36) for four weeks and compared with water samples treated with alum and calcium hypochlorite, using biochemical and hematological parameters. 
    Results
     
    Mangifera indica bark contained alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, tannins, terpenes, steroids and cardiac glycoside. Both the raw water samples (rivers, ponds & streams) and treated waters (alum, calcium hypochlorite and plant material) did not caused any significant (p>0.05) changes to the activities or levels of transaminases (AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase, total serum proteins, urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, platelet and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration compared with those in normal control rats. Water samples treated with M. indica caused significant increases (p<0.05) in packed cell volume, hemoglobin, and red blood cells of the animals while the untreated water samples significantly increased the white blood cell. However, alum treated water significantly increased (p<0.05) the concentrations of serum urea, sodium and potassium while calcium hypochlorite treated water significantly (p<0.05) increased the creatinine and potassium concentrations.
    Conclusion
    The use of M. indica bark in water purification confers hematopoietic properties to the water and reduces adverse effects on the biochemical parameters, thus could be considered as an effective and safe agent for water purification.
    Keywords: Mangifera indica, river, stream, pond, biochemical, haematology
  • Mojtaba Shahriari, Davood Moghadamnia* Pages 43-49
    Background
    The present study investigated the protective effect of C. myxa extract on the liver biochemical and histologic changes induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in adult male rats.
    Methods

    We used 48 adults male Wistar rats, divided into 6 groups of 8. Control group received water and normal food. Sham group 1 received 2 mg/kg of CdCl2 for 35 days intraperitoneally. In Addition, Sham Group 2 received 125 mg/kg extract of C. myxa fruit for 35 days by gavage method. The experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 received 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg of C. myxa extract for 21 days through gavage, followed by 2 mg/kg of CdCl2 given intraperitoneally for 14 days. After the experimentation period, blood samples were taken and the serum total protein and albumin concentrations measured. Also, liver tissue sections were prepared, stained and examined by light microscopy to evaluate the histologic changes.
    Results
     


    The mean body weight, serum total protein, albumin in sham group 1 showed a significant decrease in comparison with those in the controls and Sham Group 2. The mean body weight and serum total protein in Experimental Groups 2 and 3 showed a significant increase compared to those in Sham Group 1. The mean serum albumin in Experimental Group 3 showed a significant increase compared to that in Sham Group 1 (P <0.05).
    Conclusion


    The extract of C. myxa fruit demonstrated protective effects on changes in body weight, serum biochemical factors and liver histology induced by the adverse effect of CdCl2 in adult male rats.
    Keywords: Cordia myxa, Cadmium chloride, Albumin, Total protein, Liver tissue, Male adult rat