فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue:3, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/04/02
  • تعداد عناوین: 4
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  • Izzah Abd Hamid, Wan Asrina Wan Yahaya * Pages 76-85
    Black pepper is mostly planted in Sarawak covering an area of 16,093 ha. The crop is commonly cultivated on hilly topography with poor macronutrients, thus improving farm fertility is necessary. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the spatial distribution of N, P, and K at two pepper farms planted in hilly topography. A total of 56 and 52 soil samples (0-20 cm) were taken from SK (Kuching) and NL (Bintulu) farms for pH, N, P and K. The results were statistically analyzed using conceivable correlation and spatial distribution using ordinary Kriging interpolation method to scrutinise the macronutrients distribution in various topography. Finding revealed, SK has exhibited greater P (0.005 g kg-1), while NL possessed greater soil pH (4.95), N (1.33 g kg-1), and K (0.06 g kg-1). Results of coefficient of variation on parameter tested ranged 6.64% to 112.92%, classified them as least, moderate, and most variable. Geostatistical analysis showed SK was best modelled with spherical, exponential, and Gaussian while NL with linear and spherical. A strong spatial dependence was calculated on soil pH, N, and K in SK and P in NL, indicating they were controlled by intrinsic factors. While, the remaining factors in SK and NL were governed by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Spatial pattern analysis using ordinary Kriging revealed SK lessened N, P, and K contents in steeper area, whereas NL in middle farm. Conclusively, macronutrients availability were affected by topographic, farm management and fertilization application.
    Keywords: Black pepper, extrinsic, hilly area, intrinsic, macronutrients, ordinary Kriging
  • Murat Demirsoy, Ahmet Balkaya, Dilek Kandemir* Pages 86-95
    In this research, the effects that three different light sources: a high pressure sodium lamp (HPS), an incandescent lamp (IL), a light emitting diode (LED) and two different colors (red and blue), have on the pepper seedling quality were determined in detail. The effects of light sources and colors on growth and quantitative characteristics of pepper seedlings were analyzed including the following: height of seedling, diameter of seedling, dry weights for root, stem and leaves, leaf weight ratio, stem weight ratio, root weight ratio, leaf area, leaf thickness, leaf area ratio and specific leaf area. According to the results obtained, it was seen that the effect of light sources and their colors on the growth and quantitative characteristics of pepper seedlings were different depending on the growing periods of autumn and spring. Light source treatments increased some characteristics, such as stem diameter and stem weight ratio. Under blue LED light conditions, the seedlings root, stem and leaf dry weights were much better compared to seedlings treated with other light sources. It has been determined that blue light sources, in particular, are more effective on the leaf area ratio in the autumn period. Blue LED lamps increased the leaf area in both periods, while the lowest leaf area value was found under the blue color of an IL light source in both periods. This study showed that pepper seedling growth is light limited during the spring period, and artificial LED lighting can significantly increase plant growth.
    Keywords: Capsicum annuum L., greenhouse, light color, quantitative analysis, seedling quality
  • Anish Shrestha*, Samata Baral Pages 96-102
    This study was carried in Banke district trying to explain about what are the likely impacts of climate change on crop production, to what extent these influence crop productivity, how people are responding to them, and what the potential roles of the local government and other development partners are in adaptation efforts in vulnerable sectors in that area. Result showed that farmers perceived the climate change as change in rainfall pattern, rainfall duration, onset of monsoon, and changes in summer and winter hotness and coldness etc. Some farmers realized the change in climate and its impact on their usual farming practices. But, majority of farmers (57.88%) still doesn’t understand about climate change and how to deal with it. Main two problems farmers facing were delayed seed bed preparation and over aged seed transplantation due to delayed rainfall. Among them 79% of them has faced increased disease and pest infestation, 93.33% of them relies on pump for certain time or yearly irrigation, 72.2% of them said to faced decreasing production of rice which resulted in increased cost of production and lowered profit. With the changing climatic pattern there were changes in cropping pattern and cropping calendar along with crop varieties. Some peoples showed different adaption practices but mainly it was change in cropping calendar.
    Keywords: Agriculture, Awareness, Climatic pattern, Vulnerability
  • Muhammad Tahir Latif*, Falak Sher, Muzzammil Hussain, Muhammad Asghar Pages 103-107
    The field survey was conducted after harvesting of wheat crop 2017 with the objective to estimate economics of different harvesting techniques of wheat. District Gujranwala in rice-wheat cropping pattern of Punjab, Pakistan was selected as population of research study due to more farm mechanization. Twenty one male farmers from each tehsil making a total of 84 respondent farmers were interviewed by convenience sampling method. It was recorded that 55 percent farmers were using wheat thresher to separate grains from chaff after using either reaper (31%) or manual cutting (24%). While 65 percent farmers were employing combine harvester and 37 percent farmers were using wheat straw chopper for making chaff and saving the organic matter of soil by avoiding burning of stubbles. Net benefit for manual cutting then threshing with thresher, reaper cutting then threshing with thresher and combine harvester cutting then chopping with wheat straw chopper was Rs. 69621 ha-1, Rs. 71706 ha-1 and Rs. 76530 ha-1 respectively. As for as chaff recovery was concerned grain to chaff ratio was almost 1:1 for manual cutting and threshing method, 1:0.85 for reaper cutting and threshing method while 1:0.57 for combine harvester cutting and wheat straw chopping was calculated. The method of combine harvesting followed by wheat straw chopper should be preferred for saving precious time for sowing subsequent crops and to overcome the wastage due to rains. Wheat straw chopper is a profitable technology and the cost of this machine needs to be reduced to make it affordable and available to all farmers.
    Keywords: Adoption, Combine Harvester, Gujranwala, Threshing, Wheat Straw Chopper